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  1. 1

    Country case study: Korea.

    Kim TI; Cho NH

    In: Jain SC, Kanagaratnam K, Paul JE, ed. Management development in population programs. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Dept. of Health Administration and Carolina Population Center, 1981. 113-51.

    This case study examines the management development aspect of the Korean national family planning program which was initially adopted in 1962. The nation's goal in the 1st 10 years of the program was to reduce the rate of population growth from 2.9-2.0%. Subsequent targets were established to reduce the growth rate to 1.5% by 1976 and 1.3% by 1981. Recent census figures indicate that these latter figures were not reached. The total fertility rate declined from 6.0 in 1960 to 2.7 in 1978, a 55% decline. The age specific fertility rate also declined except for women between 25-29 years of age. Program costs during the last 18 years totaled about $126.7 million; 80% of these funds came from the government and the rest from foreign assistance. 3811 full time employees were engaged in the program in 1979; 4.9% at the central level, 8.1% at the provincial level, and 87% at the urban and county level. 69% are considered family planning workers. Between 1962-79, 6.1 million cumulative acceptors have received contraceptive services. The IUD was the principal method of contraception until 1976 when female sterilization services were introduced. The contraceptive practice rate has increased from 9-49% between 1964-78. Organization of the program is structured on a national, provincial, and local basis. Assessment of the program indicates that there has been success but the following problems still remain in the, 1) rural oriented program structure, 2) high discontinuation rates of contraceptive usage and inadequate follow-up, 3) high turnover of field workers, 4) difficulties in using local civil administration services, 5) poor quality research, 6) weak management training, and 7) poor relationships among special projects. Other program management problems exist in planning, resource allocation, training, use of private clinics, coordination, interagency coordination, program supervision, recording systems, and overall program evaluation. Emphasis is placed on the operational and managerial capacity of the program managers to successfully implement family planning programs. Improvements in the current managerial system and the role of international agencies are discussed.
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  2. 2

    Management development in the Korean national family planning program.

    Kim TI; Cho NH

    Journal of Population and Health Studies. 1981 Dec; 1(1):135-78.

    This paper concentrates on the management development aspects of the Korean family planning program which began in 1962. Population growth rate in Korea went from 2.9% in 1962 to 2% in 1971, and total fertility rate declined 57% from 1960 to 1979. Program cost during 1962-80 totaled $147.7 million, of which 81.2% came from the national government. It has been calculated that between 1962-80 about 3.5 million births were averted. In December 1980 the program employed a total of 3811 full time employees in 4 different organizations; currently the coverage is about 1 family planning worker for every 4200 urban couples, and for every 1200 rural couples. Major methods of birth control used the IUD, the condom, the pill, female sterilization, male sterilization, and menstrual regulation. A total of 1.107 million acceptors received services between 1962-80. Responsibility for the national program rests with the Ministry of Health and with the Economic Planning Board. If it is reasonable to say that the program has been successful, there are still problems to be solved which include: 1) an inadequate approach to contraceptive services in rural areas, 2) a high discontinuation rate of contraceptive usage, 3) high turnover of fieldworkers, 4) poor coordination with other health programs, 5) poor quality of research, and 6) weak management training. Improvements in program management functions include program planning, better distribution of economic resources, better training and use of personnel, and better use of private clinics and mobile vans. Also necessary are interministerial and interagency coordination, improvements in the record reporting system, and better program evaluation. The current management system is making efforts to integrate family planning services with maternal and child health and expand the role of international agencies in training courses and research investment.
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  3. 3

    Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa and their Policy Implications.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Population Division

    In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa [UNECA]. Population dynamics: fertility and mortality in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1981 May. 1-31. (ST/ECA/SER.A/1; UNFPA PROJ. No. RAF/78/P17)

    The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa, held in Monrovia late in 1976, examined the various aspects of the interrelationships of fertility and mortality to development process and planning in Africa. Focus in this report of the Expert Group Meeting is on the following: background to fertility and mortality in Africa; usefulness and relevance of existing methodology for collecting and processing and for analyzing fertility and mortality data; fertility and mortality levels and patterns in Africa -- regional studies and country studies; fertility trends and differentials in Africa; mortality trends and differentials; biological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility and sterility; the significance of breast feeding for fertility and mortality; nutrition, disease and mortality in young children; evolution of causes of death and the use of related statistics in mortality studies in Africa; and fertility and mortality in national development. It was suggested that a strategy for development with equity must direct itself, among other things, to the issue of how to monitor progress in the elimination of underdevelopment, poverty, malnutrition, poor health, bad housing, poor education and employment through the use of indicators which measured changes in those variables at the national and local levels. In order to achieve development with equity, it was obvious that demographers and policymakers should ensure that there was regular monitoring of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity rates since such differentials essentially measured inequality in a society. The following were included among the recommendations made: recognizing that fertility and mortality data for a majority of African countries are now 20 years out of date, efforts should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fertility and mortality data by the use of both direct and indirect methods; and international and national organizations should support country efforts to improve the supply of data and analytical work on census and other existing data.
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  4. 4

    Korea profile: family planning policies and programs.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, 1979 Oct. 77 p.

    During the 2nd half of the 1950s the necessity for family planning became an issue in Korea. The 1st and little-observed start was made in 1957 when family planning was introduced into the training program of the official Home Demonstration Program. Field workers were encouraged to convey their knowledge to village women. The contribution of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) to the development of Korea's national family planning program appears to have been unique in the history of the world family planning movement. No other private and voluntary family planning association is recorded as having, over a 20-year period, worked so intimately within the national programs. In discussing family planning policies and programs in Korea, focus is on the following: national history and population growth, population growth rates 1925-1979, fertility trends to 1975, primary conclusions of the National Fertility Survey, government policy and programs for the 1960-1975 period, the first 10 years of program, salient developments in the first 10 years, the 1970s, the new approach, the 4th plan (1977-1981), and the PPFK and its role. The 4th plan recognized that 1/2 of the protected couples were already obtaining contraception from the private sector and this was encouraged as the primary trend in the cities and among those in better economic situations. The major government effort was concentrated in the rural and impoverished urban and peri-urban areas with the goal of integrating family planning services and education with other development and health programs.
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  5. 5

    The population program in Colombia. Statement, April 25, 1978.


    In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: status and trends of family planning/population programs in developing countries. Vol. 2. Hearings, April 25-27, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 331-354

    USAID became involved in developing a population program in Colombia in 1967 by helping Colombian institutions to plan their strategy, establish informal communication among themselves, and seek international financial and technical support. USAID provided a large part of the necessary resources itself, either directly or through USAID-funded organizations. The program that evolved combined private and public efforts in the areas of training, information and education, service delivery, and research/evaluation with a shifting emphasis as was appropriate to meet changing needs. Overall, some 51 million dollars were invested during a 10-year period with approximately 15 million cycles of oral contraceptives and 116 million condoms delivered to about 1,900,000 new acceptors. Thus the 1967 birth rate of 42/1000 dropped below 32/1000 by 1975, leading to a projected Colombian population of 35 million rather than 50 million in the year 2000. It has been estimated that 40-60% of this reduction is attributable to the organized family planning program. The Colombian experience indicates that religious belief will not hinder family planning activities, that strong motivation is not necessarily a precursor to establishing a desire for a small family, that a formal population policy (although desirable) does little to strengthen a program, that availability of services and supplies is more important to success than socioeconomic factors, and that integration with maternal and child health activities is not essential. On the other hand, a well-balanced program which provides services in an appropriate fashion will be accepted wholeheartedly by poor, rural people as well as rich, urban dwellers. Colombia's population problems are not solved, indeed assistance will be needed until birth rates reach 20/1000, but user demand has been well established and a brighter future has been obtained.
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  6. 6

    Family planning helps in Sri Lanka.


    Draper World Population Fund Report. 1977 Summer; 4:23-25.

    Sri Lanka has undergone a classic demographic transition over the last 30 years. In 1971, the country was 1 of the most densely populated agricultural countries in the world. By 1975, Sri Lanka's birthrate had declined to 27.2, the lowest rate in South Asia. This decline in fertility is attributed to increased contraceptive use, due to a greater awareness of modern family planning methods and easier access to contraceptive facilities. A brief history of the family planning movement in the country is presented. The Sri Lanka family planning program today illustrates a cooperative venture between private organizations and government programming. High levels of celibacy and late marriage in Sri Lanka, caused by demographic, economic, and educational factors, have also resulted in a declining percentage of married women in the under-30 age group.
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  7. 7

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

    Furnia AH

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1976. (Syncrisis, The Dynamics of Health No. 18) 149 p

    There is no sector of Pakistani life which more graphically reflects the great sacrifice it took to make Pakistan a viable state than the health sector. Malaria, tuberculosis, and cholera continue to constitute threats to health. Gastrointestinal, infectious, and other parasitic diseases continue to contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. These diseases are exacerbated by extremely primitive water supplies and waste disposal, bad housing, nutritional problems, and an increasingly heavy population growth. Public health resources to cope with these conditions have not previously been available. Pakistan's poor helth environment appears to result from widespread infectious and communicable diseases, poverty, and sociocultural attitudes which inhibit improving the environment, and ineffective policies administered by limited numbers of inadequately trained health workers, affecting both the urban poor and the rural population. In the latest 5-year plan, the 5th, 1975-1980, there is increasing attention to health. Regarding family planning, it has been suggested that the government has finally begun to recognize that urgent and dramatic steps are necessary to reduce Pakistan's population growth rate. The government has adopted a policy of using conventional contraceptives as the most acceptable method of contraception in Pakistan. A program of distributing the oral contraceptive without medical or paramedical constraints had been instituted, and the government has undertaken to subsidize the distribution of th oral contraceptive and the condom through some 50,000 outlets at 2.5 cents per monthly supply.
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  8. 8

    Orientation book, 5th edition.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    [Unpublished] 1973 Jul. 20 p.

    The booklet provides an introduction to Indonesia's national family planning program, and summarizes USAID's assistance to this program. Data are included on the following topics: 1) demographic and economic synopsis; 2) population projections, 3) distribution of land and people, 4) age-specific fertility, 5) family planning program economic benefits, 6) legislative history of family planning, 7) Indonesian family planning structure, 8) major Government and donor program activities, 9) IDA/UNFPA joint project, 10) program results 1971-1973, 11) new acceptor s' characteristics, 12) program impact, 13) program financial resources, 14) USAID population program assistance 1968-1973 -- its primary components and a program description.(AUTHOR'S, MODIFIED)
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  9. 9

    Fifth annual report, 1970.

    Singapore. Population and Family Planning Board

    Singapore, 1972 (xi). 60 p

    This report presents a detailed analysis of the demographic situation in Singapore, tracing trends in birthrates, fertility rates, and population growth. Family planning services available during 1970 are thoroughly explored, including their funding, birth control methods, and organization and administration. Detailed analyses are given of acceptors of birth control methods by method accepted as well as by acceptor characteristics such as age, parity, education, and race. The Family Planning and Population Board recruited 162,485 acceptors between 1966 and 1970. During that period there was a dramatic decline in the crude birthrate, which was 28.6/1000 in 1966 and 22.1/1000 in 1970. Fertility continued to decline in all age groups and in all ethnic groups during 1970.
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