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  1. 1
    024731

    Adolescent fertility: report of an international consultation, Bellagio 1983.

    McKay J

    London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.

    The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
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  2. 2
    027345

    Shared sexual responsibility: a strategy for male involvement in United States Family Planning clinics.

    Andrews D

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 167-76.

    Reviewed here are the efforts of the Planned Parenthood affiliates in the United States, showing that their focus is on female contraception. The author argues that if family planning is to be seen as a basic human right, then far more attention needs to be given to shared sexual responsibility. Although major strides have been made through federal grants and education programs, the history of meaningful male involvement has been a feeble one. It is argues that the alarming rate of teenage pregnancies, the falling statistics in vasectomy services across the country and the overall image of family planning programs, are indicative of the need for a new strategy. The little research data that is available shows that the earlier young men and boys are reached with accurate sexuality information, the more successful family planning and education services will be. The most successful sex education programs seem to be those which see sexuality education as a life-long process. More recently, research has concluded that programs working with parents and children are by far the most successful in ensuring ongoing dialogue and most meaningful behavior change. An important strategy for reaching males, partucularly with condoms, is to build on current strength in reaching female populations. Active promotion of vasectomy services, increased availability of comdom products suitably packaged and promoted, and attention-getting public service announcements, have combined to help change the image of a family planning program too often thought of as exclusively female. A representative sample of educational materials for men is included in the appendix.
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  3. 3
    004912

    Male involvement in family planning: some approaches for FPAs.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Programme Development Department

    London, IPPF, 1981 Aug. 13 p.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) 1982-1984 Plan identifies the importance of male involvement in family planning and the problem of male opposition to family planning in many countries. The Plan calls for efforts to encourage men to accept joint responsibility for family planning and the practice of contraception. In most countries family planning programs are orientated towards women, but many family planning associations have some activities directed at men. A number of associations have developed experimental projects aimed at increasing male involvement, and these can be grouped as projects aimed at motivating male leaders, reaching men in the organized sector, promoting male family planning methods, and reaching adolescents. Each of these is reviewed. In identifying ways of increasing male involvement in family planning there are several aspects that Family Planning Associations (FPAs) might want to consider. These concern the current situation and local environment, the views of men, and the resources of the Association. Associations might want to consider the following suggestions for FPA program directions. These are arranged under the following categories: improving overall programming to include men; increasing availability of existing male methods; education program to promote male involvement; and increasing female support for male involvement in family planning. In countries where the concept of family planning is generally accepted, an "across the board" improvement in programs to increase their acceptability to men might result in increased male support for family planning. Although more governments and FPAs have made vasectomy available over the past decade, additional efforts could be made. The 4 principal objectives for education initiatives aimed at "male involvement" are identified. It is important that women educate and help their partners to participate in family planning. Family planning workers could do much to encourage women to involve their partners.
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  4. 4
    776642

    View from Asia.

    Stella RM

    In: Bogue DJ, Oettinger K, Thompson M, Morse P. Adolescent fertility. (Proceedings of the First Inter-Hemispheric Conference on Adolescent Fertility, Airlie, Virginia, August 31-September 4, 1976). Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago, Community and Family Study Center, 1977. 50-4.

    In Asia more programs on responsible parenthood, education, information and contraceptive services should be available to teenagers in view of changing sexual behavior and social norms. Adolescents have an important role to play in their communities' development. The adolescent should be encouraged to participate in the formulation of the programs, community development, or community services. Parenting, family life, or sex education can be channelled into many different areas for young people, including vocational training schemes, youth clubs and groups, service corps, leadership training, workers' unions, and other educational settings. The IPPF experience is that participation works far better than campaign gimmicks or lectures planned by adults. More study is needed.
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  5. 5
    746473

    The condom: increasing utilization in the United States.

    Redford MH; Duncan GW; Prager DJ

    San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.

    Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
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