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Policy brief on the case for investing in research to increase access to and use of contraception among adolescents.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2015 Mar. 4 p.This document outlines why governments and donors should invest now in research to help determine and implement the most effective and efficient ways to enable adolescents to access and use contraception. It summarizes the findings of a longer technical report.
Report of the Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development, Castries, Saint Lucia, 30 April - 1 May 1984.
[Unpublished] 1984. , 53,  p.The Population and Development Project of the Caribbean region aims to increase the awareness of regional leaders on population issues, explain the consequences of continued demographic trends upon socioeconomic development, present up-to-date medical protocols for family planning services to medical practitioners, and improve family planning service delivery in selected countries. Proceedings from a Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development and presented. Opening remarks of the conference were made by the Minister of Health of Saint Lucia, the Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community, and representatives from the UNFPA and CARICOM. Chairmen for conference sessions were elected, an agenda adopted, and procedural matters settled. An abstract of the regional population policy paper is discussed, followed by consideration of the benefits of population programs for family planning and health, and presentation of the medical steering committee's work. National population task force reports are included for Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Monsterrat, St. Christopher-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos, and the Bahamas. Jamaica's experience in formulating and implementing its population policy follows, preceding presentations on migration and adolescent fertility. Concluding sections cover resources for the awareness of population impacts on development, a suggested draft model of national population policy, information on the development law and policy program, a panel discussion of population policy implications, and proposals and recommendations for a plan of action to implement population policy. A list of participants is included among the annexes.
St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
PLANNED PARENTHOOD CHALLENGES. 1997; (1-2):28-30.The percentage of people living in poverty in Nicaragua's cities has increased significantly in recent years and reflects an increase in the number of households headed by women. Among the nongovernmental organizations created to help meet the needs of Nicaragua's population is Profamilia, the International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliate founded in 1971. Profamilia offers high quality sexual and reproductive health services at regional clinics operating in 9 out of 16 political subdivisions and manages a nationwide network of over 1000 community-based contraceptive distribution posts. Knowledge of modern contraception is almost universal in Nicaragua, and a 1992-93 health survey revealed that almost half of women of reproductive age were using contraception. Profamilia uses the mass media and other means to advertise its services, which are preferred by many over the free government services. In the communities, trained volunteer promoters distribute contraceptives and provide counseling. Because adolescent pregnancy and fertility rates are high, Profamilia has developed services, including educational workshops, that target youth. These workshops offer information on responsible sex behavior and ways to reduce the risk of pregnancy or infection. In addition, Profamilia offers training courses for teachers and educational sessions for parents, pregnant adolescents, and adolescent parents.
NEWSOURCE. 1997 Summer; 1.While teen pregnancy and birth rates have risen in other parts of the country, rates in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine have declined in the past 5 years and are well below the national averages. New Hampshire and Vermont have the lowest teen birth rates in the country, while Maine has the highest rate of oral contraceptive use among sexually active teens nationwide. Education and family planning services are essential components of what is needed to eliminate teen pregnancy. The President of Planned Parenthood of Northern New England (PPNNE) understands that teens need a place in which they feel comfortable and can get honest information and answers. To that end, PPNNE provides teens, often without an appointment, with birth control, screening for infection with sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy testing, counseling, and education. PPNNE works both with families and individual teens, making sure to serve even at risk and hard to reach populations. A teenage pregnancy prevention project with King Street Youth Center in Burlington, VT, works with at risk teens for 5 years, helping them to complete high school, find and keep part-time jobs, and learn about their capabilities and strengths. Teens who complete the program and graduate from high school are guaranteed acceptance into a local college or university.
IPPF / WHR FORUM. 1993 May; 9(1):20-1.The Dominican Association for Family Welfare (PROFAMILIA), an affiliate of IPPF, was the first organization to provide family planning services in the Dominican Republic. In 1966, the time of PROFAMILIA's creation, the total fertility rate (TFR) was 7.5. Shortly after PROFAMILIA's inception, the TFR began its steady decline. The 1991 Demographic and Health Survey (ENDESA-91) shows that the TFR has fallen to 3.3. PROFAMILIA persuaded the Dominican Republic's government to provide full-scale family planning services. In 1968 the government set up the National Council on Population and the Family (CONAPOFA) within the Ministry of Public Health and Social Services to provide family planning services. It now provides family planning services through more than 500 health centers. The Dominican Family Planning Association, set up in 1986, provides family planning services in the Federal District and the easternmost provinces. These family planning organizations have reduced the unmet demand for family planning in the Dominican Republic to 17%, essentially the same levels as in developed countries. Even though mean family size is 3.3, ideal family size is 2, indicating a trend toward smaller families. The adolescent pregnancy rate is 13% in urban areas and 27% in rural areas. 13.3% of adolescents in a union use modern contraceptives, while only 3% of those not in a union do. 25.4% of women of childbearing age, 38.5% of women in a union, and 65.4% of 40-44 year old women depend on sterilization. Only women less than 29 years old significantly use oral contraceptives. The family planning programs need to expand family planning messages to adolescents, particularly those not in a union. PROFAMILIA still implements new approaches to expand services, such as health promotion via community-based services. CONAPOFA has since implemented such a program. ENDESA-91 demonstrates what can be accomplished when an effective government family planning program and a private organization work together.
Synthesis of the expert group meetings convened as part of the substantive preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):3-18.As part of the preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development to be sponsored by the UN in Cairo, 6 expert groups were convened to consider 1) population growth; 2) population policies and programs; 3) population, development, and the environment; 4) migration; 5) the status of women; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. Each group included 15 experts representing a full range of relevant scientific disciplines and geographic regions. Each meeting lasted 5 days and included a substantive background paper prepared by the Population Division as well as technical papers. Each meeting concluded with the drafting of between 18 and 37 recommendations (a total of 162). The meeting on population, the environment, and development focused on the implications of current trends in population and the environment for sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The meeting on population policies and programs observed that, since 1984, there has been a growing convergence of views about population growth among the nations of the world and that the stabilization of world population as soon as possible is now an internationally recognized goal. The group on population and women identified practical steps that agencies could take to empower women in order to achieve beneficial effects on health, population trends, and development. The meeting on FP, health, and family well-being reviewed policy-oriented issues emerging from the experience of FP programs. The meeting on population growth and development reviewed trends and prospects of population growth and age structure and their consequences for global sustainability. The population distribution and migration experts appraised current trends and their interrelationship with development. In nearly all of the group meetings, common issues emerged. Concern was universally voiced for sustainable development and sustained economic growth, relevance of past experience, human rights, the status of women, the family, accessibility and quality of services, the special needs of subpopulations, AIDS, the roles of governments and nongovernmental organizations, community participation, research and data collection, and international cooperation.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):1.On July 26, 1991, the Economic and Social Council resolved to convene an International Conference on Population and Development under the auspices of the UN. To prepare for the conference, 6 expert group meetings were held to address the following issues: 1) population growth, demographic changes, and the interaction between demographic variables and socioeconomic development; 2) population policies and programs, emphasizing the mobilization of resources for developing countries; 3) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment; 4) changes in the distribution of population; 5) the relationship between enhancing the status of women and population dynamics; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. A synthesis of these meetings is presented in the 34/35 issue of "Population Bulletin" (1993).
New York, New York, IPPF, WHR, . 40,  p.The 1986 Annual Report of the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) documents the success of individual affiliates in providing well-managed family planning activities, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of services, and expanding program outreach through collaboration with other organizations. In 1986, new family planning associations were established in Haiti, Belize, and Venezuela. Innovative programs targeted at men were established in Colombia, Guatemala, and the Caribbean. In both Guatemala and Colombia, the number of vasectomy acceptors increased dramatically in 1986 as a result of male clinics that can dispel doubts and misconceptions associated with male sterilization and have convinced men who had heard of vasectomy and did not desire any more children to undergo the procedure. In the Caribbean, posters, pamphlets, and audiovisual materials bearing the message that fathers also plan their families have received a positive response from men. In Chile, the Dominican Republic, and the English- speaking Caribbean, a special effort has been directed toward the problem of adolescent pregnancy. Sex education courses in the schools, community distribution of educational materials, recruitment of adolescent peer counselors, and efforts to encourage teenagers to attend family planning clinics have formed part of this effort. Also in 1986, government support for family planning increased in the region. Argentina rescinded a 1974 law prohibiting family planning, Peru highlighted the centrality of family planning programs to achieving national development goals, and Brazil's social security system began to provide family planning services. The primary challenge for 1987 is to reach the 30 million couples in Latin America and the Caribbean who still lack access to family planning services.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jun. 10,  p.105 developing country projects dealing primarily or exclusively with adolescent fertility were analyzed in an attempt to determine the nature and level of adolescent fertility programming in the developing world. There were 37 projects in Asia, 21 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 8 in North Africa and the Middle East, 22 in the Caribbean, and 17 in Latin America. About 27% of the programs were exclusively urban, 16% exclusively rural, and the remainder operated in both rural and urban settings. Various types of organizations sponsored projects, but the majority were sponsored by International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates and other private organizations. There were marked regional differences in sponsorship. Only 11 of the 105 programs were conducted by government agencies, but 14 programs received some support from national governments and local governments also sometimes contributed support. Family life education for both in and out of school youth was the predominant project activity in 66 of the 105 projects. 20 projects focused on training of professionals in family life education such as educators, counselors, and health personnel. Curricula primarily concentrated on sex education, responsible parenthood, the importance of delayed 1st birth and child spacing, and general population concerns. 25 projects conduct youth training sessions and teach teams to serve as peer counselors and cators, motivating their peers toward acceptance of family planning and the small family and providing accurate information on sexuality. About 21 projects have a specific counseling component, with most counseling services teaching family planning, distributing condoms, or referring clients to clinics. Only 16 projects had as a stated objective provision for adolescents of diagnostic or clinical health services related to contraceptive use, family planning, or venereal disease. 18 projects offered training in vocational or income-generating skills integrated with family planning, sex education, and family life education. Over 20 projects described educational materials preparation and production as an activity. Innovative approaches observed in the 105 projects included adoption of the multiservice center concept, integration of family planning education with self-help initiatives to improve young women's socioeconomic status, participation of adolescents in program decision making, and innovative promotional activities. Factors contributing to program success identified by project staff include conducting a needs assessment survey, securing parental and community support, solid funding, a flexible program design, skilled personnel, availability of adequate materials, good cooperation with other community agencies, active participation of young people in planning and running the program, good publicity, and use of innovative teaching methods. Projects are increasingly tending toward less formal kinds of communication in family life education.
New York, New York, PPFA, 1985 Feb. 8 p.This booklet highlights a selection of some current Planned Parenthood education programs. 3 programs in the area of child sexual abuse include the Sexual Abuse Prevention Project (SAPP), the "Bubbylonian Encounter" -- a sexual abuse prevention program, and OK Bears, an education program for parents and other adults. SAPP is designed to get more people involved and informed about sexual abuse, to educate both parents and children in prevention techniques, and to prepare both parents and educators for possible disclosures that may result from the program's presentations. In less than 1 year, "Bubbylonian Encounter", a program for elementary school children, has received so much community support that it has expanded to school districts in other counties. "OK/Not OK Touches" educates parents and other adults about sexual abuse of children so they can separate the myths from the facts and communicate with children about this sensitive subject. In the area of teen theater, "An Ounce of Prevention" is a comprehensive videotape project on child sexual abuse. Also in this area are The Great Body Show -- a rural family planning program designed to reduce teen pregnancy through increased education; TACT (Teenage Communication Theater) -- an approach to education using drama to heighten awareness of problems of teens: Youth Expression Theater, which uses drama to heighten awareness of the real problems and pressures faced by teens in the social and sexual areas of their lives; THE SOURCE -- a 15-member volunteer teen outreach council which wrote their own play, "Speak Up-Speak Out;" and the Washington Area Improvisational Teen Theater, which has as its purpose to increase awareness and provide the information teenagers need in order to make responsible decisions regarding their sexuality. Parent/child education programs include APPLES, a set of 4 prevention and education-oriented programs for adolescent parents and their children; Parents and Children Together (P.A.C.T.), an early teenage pregnancy prevention program aimed at providing family life education to parents and children of all ages; and the Parent Education Program of New York City, which offers a variety of resources to help parents become better sexuality educators for their children. Two male involvement programs and Boys and Babies, a program which enhances and builds on the innate potential of all humans to care and nurture, and The Male Services Program, which is based on the premise that young men can make better, more responsible decisions about their sexual behavior with education and guidance.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
Shared sexual responsibility: a strategy for male involvement in United States Family Planning clinics.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, . 167-76.Reviewed here are the efforts of the Planned Parenthood affiliates in the United States, showing that their focus is on female contraception. The author argues that if family planning is to be seen as a basic human right, then far more attention needs to be given to shared sexual responsibility. Although major strides have been made through federal grants and education programs, the history of meaningful male involvement has been a feeble one. It is argues that the alarming rate of teenage pregnancies, the falling statistics in vasectomy services across the country and the overall image of family planning programs, are indicative of the need for a new strategy. The little research data that is available shows that the earlier young men and boys are reached with accurate sexuality information, the more successful family planning and education services will be. The most successful sex education programs seem to be those which see sexuality education as a life-long process. More recently, research has concluded that programs working with parents and children are by far the most successful in ensuring ongoing dialogue and most meaningful behavior change. An important strategy for reaching males, partucularly with condoms, is to build on current strength in reaching female populations. Active promotion of vasectomy services, increased availability of comdom products suitably packaged and promoted, and attention-getting public service announcements, have combined to help change the image of a family planning program too often thought of as exclusively female. A representative sample of educational materials for men is included in the appendix.
Ippf Medical Bulletin. 1984 Apr; 18(2):1-4.The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), recognizing its responsibility to assist young people in fulfilling their roles as parents, citizens, and leaders, seeks to improve the quality of life of young people by advocating and promoting, especially to governments and other organizations, measures that will respond to their total human needs, including the provision of education and employment opportunities. IPPF, as a family planning organization, can contribute directly to the preparation of young people for responsible parenthood and to meeting their fertility related needs. Family planning associations (FPAs) are encouraged to initiate, strengthen, or support programs which respond to the needs of young people. Priority should be given to meeting the needs of the most disadvantaged groups, with emphasis on out of school and rural youth, slum dwellers, youth in urban industrialized areas, and abandoned adolescents and children, with special attention to the early group adolescent age group. The involvement of young people as active partners in IPPF's work is essential for its efforts to promote and sustain commitment to family planning at policymaking and community levels in the years ahead and to prepare the next generation of leaders within the Federation. Population, family life, and sex education, including family planning and reproductive health management, provide in both formal and nonformal settings, are the cornerstone of youth programs. FPAs should look for ways to remove legal, administrative, and other barriers to the availability of adequate education and services. As pregnancy poses special hazards for adolescents, particularly those under age 16, services should cater to the special circumstances in which adolescent childbearing is taking place. No single contraceptive method can be regarded satisfactory for adolescents as a group, but each method may have a place in adolescent services. Several factors, such as age, parity, and other personal amd medical considerations, need to be carefully assessed in helping the individual adolescent to make a choice. IPPF affirms that meeting the needs of young people is a major objective for the Federation and that priority should be given to meeting the needs of the most disadvantaged young people. Parents have primary responsibility in the preparation of the young for responsible parenthood, and their participation in meeting the fertility related needs of young people as part of an improved quality of family life should be encouraged and supported. Education and counseling should respond to the needs of young people who engage in sex relations and those who do not. Research should be encouraged, particularly at the national and local level, in biomedical, social science, service delivery, and legal and policy areas.
Working Group on Adolescent Fertility Management, Manila, Philippines, October 13-17, 1980. Final report.
Manila, Philippines, WHO Regional Office of the Western Pacific, 1980 Dec. 42 p.The objectives of the Working Group on Adolescent Fertility Management, meeting in Manila during October 1980 under the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for the Western Pacific, were the following: to review the current situation in the Region with regard to adolescent pregnancies, use of contraception on the part of adolescents, and the services available; 2) to identify the biological, social and psychological aspects of adolescent fertility management; and 3) to recommend appropriate approaches and programs in relation to the problems created by adolescent pregnancies. For working purposes, it was decided that adolescence covered the age period 10-19 years. The country-specific information provided by participants representing 11 countries regarding the size and the nature of the problems related to adolescent sexuality and fertility are summarized. In discussing the possible preventive approaches and programmatic solutions to the problems related to adolescent sexuality and fertility, the Working Group identified the following gaps and problems: 1) a significant lack of relevant and country-specific data regarding the adolescent population and their current sexual and reproductive behavior; 2) a lack of awareness by responsible government bodies of the increasing problem and of commitment to seek appropriate solutions; 3) a lack of knowledge about health and health-related issues of the adolescent development period; and 4) a lack of appropriate and acceptable services regarding fertility management for adolescents. Education and information constitute a major need in the area of adolescent sexuality and fertility.
London, IPPF, l977. 73 p.This document contains case studies of ll programs in sex, population, and family life education for youth, which were initiated by family planning associations in several developing countries. The current emphasis on developing educational programs oriented toward young people stems from the recognition that it is the young who will bear most of the negative consequences, which are associated with rapid population increases, such as uemployment and resource shortages. Youth programs in El Salvador, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand provide training for young people who in turn go out into the community as paid or volunteer family planning and population educators. Programs in other countries stress counseling for school dropouts, provide youth information centers, or conduct education programs for various groups of young workers or students. Based on the experiences gained from these programs, a number of suggestions are made for developing effective youth education programs. Suggested guidelines are: 1) youths, themselves, should be encouraged to participate in the planning, implementation, operation, and evaluation of these programs; 2) the programs should be developed in accordance with the needs expressed by the target population; 3) the cost effectiveness of the programs should be improved by utilizing volunteer workers and through the use of mass media; 4) staff members should be adequately paid and all the expenses incurred by volunteers should be paid for by the program in order to reduce the drop out rate; and 5) evaluation procedures must be built into all phases of program development and operation.
In: Tokyo International Symposium, April 1977: Action Now Toward More Responsible Parenthood Worldwide. Tokyo, Japan Science Society, 1977, pp. 479-490Add to my documents.
New York, New York, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Dept. of Education, 1982 Sep. 4 p.This reference sheet examines sexuality education and what it contributes to the total program of a Planned Parenthood affilitate in order to provide a counterbalance to the assumption that there is no problem with diminishing or abandoning education. Clearly, education does contribute to the overall patient recruitment effort. A sexuality education program ideally covers patient, professional, and public education activities. The effect of the Planned Parenthood educational programs on young men and women can provide a direct stimulus, or can promote clinic attendance through the recommendation of "a friend" who has read a Planned Parenthood pamphlet, seen an educator giving a workshop, or educator discuss the confidentiality of services on a radio talk show. Based on the responses of the Education Department received from the 20 largest affiliates during the parental notification commitment period, it is estimated that over 300,000 parents are being reached per year across the country. These programs have significant impact on both teenage pregnancy and patient recruitment. Efforts with adolescent males also contribute to patient recruitment. Research consistently shows that the male partner's attitudes about family planning are key influences on the female's decision to come to a clinic. Education's impact on reducing teenage pregnancy can result from its role in stimulating patient recruitment. In addition, one must ask how many individuals there are who have benefitted from an education presentation or educational material, yet who never come to the clinic in a time and fashion that would allow Planned Parenthood to document its role in that decision. Research on the impact of sexuality education is now growing in both frequency and sophistication. The recent study with the Johns Hopkins University national sample of teenage women validates the trends seen in over 60 previous research studies: sexuality education does not stimulate sexual behavior and if contraceptive information is included, it is associated with fewer pregnancies due to more effective contraceptive use. Planned Parenthood's sexuality education programs have had a significant impact on improving the climate for family planning service delivery. Throughout the Federation, it may be that education is responsible for attracting millions of dollars of unrestricted giving, and this should be kept in mind as the difficult budget decisions are made.
London, England, IPPF, 1983. 19 p.This paper reviews the policies of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), assesses the lessons learned, raises key issues influencing policy formulation and program development, and identifies the options available at all levels of IPPF to meet the fertility related needs of young people, be they boys or girls. (IPPF considers young people to range from ages 10 to 25). Young people are an increasing percentage of the world's population and are perplexed by profoundly changing social enviornments and by how to deal with pregnancy. IPPF programs include fertility related services such as counseling and contraceptive services, and education in family planning. The paper stresses that sex education needs to start before young people become sexually active. It is essential that youth participate in the family planning movement; 1 major problem is that parents and many other adults feel that provision of family planning services for adolescents encourages promiscuity. The report documents IPPF collaboration with kindred international nongovernmental organizations. It recommends that family planning associations mobilize community resouces by lobbying policy and decision makers to get them to respect the rights of youth for family planning services. Future directions for the IPPF include youth related activities, influence on government policies and programs, pilot projects, and research data collection.
London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1982. 67 p.Add to my documents.
In: Current problems in obstetrics and gynecology, Vol. 5, No. 6, edited by John M. Leventhal. Chicago, Illinois, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1982. 4-41.This article addresses the medical aspects of population growth, with specific focus on a demographic overview, population policies, family planning programs, and population issues in the US. The dimensions of the population problem and their implications for social and economic development are reviewed. The world's response to these issues is discussed, followed by an assessment of what has been accomplished, particularly as it relates to the record of national family planning programs in developing countries. The impact of population growth on such issues as education, available farm land, deforestation, and urban growth are discussed. Urban populations are growing at an unprecedented rate, posing urgent problems for action. From a public health perspective, data are reviewed which demonstrate that having children at short intervals (2 years) or at unfavorable maternal ages (18 or 35) and/or parity (4) has a negative impact on maternal, infant and childhood morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Increasing the age of marriage, delaying the 1st birth, changing and improving the status of women, increasing educational levels and improving living conditions in general also are important in reducing population growth. Probably the most important, but most controversial intervention, has been the development of national family planning programs aimed at increasing the public's access to modern contraceptive and sterilization methods. India was the 1st country to declare a formal population policy (in the 1950s) with the goal of reducing population growth. Currently, close to 35 countries have formal policies. The planned parenthood movement, with central support from the London office of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), has played a most important role in making family planning services available. 2 population issues in the US today are reviewed briefly in the final section: teenage pregnancy and the changing age structure.
[Unpublished] 1983 Oct.  p.This document summarizes a collection of youth projects and activities undertaken by International Planned Parenthood Federation member Family Planning Associations throughout the world. Some of these projects are undertaken in collaboration with other organizations. The source of information for these projects are the annual reports of of Family Planning Associations for 1982.
New York, New York, IPPF, .  p.This Annual Report 1983 of the Western Hemisphere Region International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) presents a selection of activities of all 43 associations. The annual meeting of the Western Hemisphere Regional Council offered a striking contrast to the 1st meeting in 1953. In 1983, the total regional enterprise contained some 3500 paid employees and even larger number of active volunteers. It involved large numbers of cooperating physicians, the direct participation of universities, hospitals, and other community institutions, and had the support of thousands of community distributors. These were people operating a total of 2044 clinics and 11,894 community distribution posts. Their messages went out through press, raido, and television and reached 3/4 of the Hemisphere's population. The comparison of the 2 meetings 30 years apart testifies to the successes realized by the associations in the Western Hemisphere. Their accomplishments serve to reveal the full measure of the task they set for themselves. This was to demonstrate that family planning is the strongest single correlate of family health. It was to establish family planning as a human right and to show that the practice of family planning helps to develop attitudes of mind in which people reassert control over their lives. Yet the full task calls for constantly new approaches in which success has not yet been won. This report comments on a number of these, of which the following are a partial list: the integration of family planning with other development strategies, including broad-scale community development; the addition to family planning of other elements of primary health care; the incorporation into family planning programs of a direct attack on infant mortality through vaccinations, oral rehydration therapy, and the promotion of breastfeeding; a renewed emphasis on the advancement of women; and the elaboration of fresh approaches to national leadership. Success is always partial, yet it can lead to the mistaken idea that the ultimate answers have been found. The family planning associations in Latin America and the Caribbean have had to pay a price for their achievements -- in complacencies on the part of international donors and official sectors that have come to see the Region's population problems as essentially "solved." On the other hand, the regional network is firmly established and subject to a constant review that seeks to improve service delivery. The trend toward program integration directs the associations toward new and challenging activities.