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London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 pFamily planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
POPULATION - FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1996 Jan-Jun; (2):8.A project funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and entitled "Improving Quality of Care in Family Planning and Reproductive Health Programmes," identified modest cost approaches to improving quality of care (QOC). After official clearances were received in April, a rapid assessment study began in May / June at the Shamirpet primary health center in Andhra Pradesh, India; in the Eheliyagoda and Kuruwita divisions in Ratnapura, Sri Lanka; and in the Duytien district in Namha province, Viet Nam. ICOMP collaborated with two government agencies, the Family Health Bureau (FHB) in Sri Lanka and the Center for Population Studies and Information (CPSI) in Viet Nam; the collaborating agency in India was the Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI). The study covered prenatal care, immunizations, reproductive health, and family planning. Assessment tools, developed and provided by ICOMP, included guidelines for interviews and group discussions involving contraceptive users and nonusers, men, various kinds of providers and managers, and checklists for observation of services and facilities. A five-day workshop was organized in Kuala Lumpur in July for the three country teams. Based on the results of the rapid assessment study, an action plan was developed by each team, and the baseline research tools were discussed and modified. The Indian team began interventions in October 1995; the Sri Lankan and Vietnamese teams concentrated on completing the action plans and planning for the various interventions during the last quarter.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 33 p. (UNFPA Report)The United Nations Population Fund recognizes the importance of paying attention to sociocultural factors in developing appropriate and effective population policies and strenthening the operational aspects of family planning programs. To that end, the Fund hosted a 2-day meeting of 22 experts in the field. The Expert Group Meeting on Research on Sociocultural Factors Affecting Family Planning Programmes in Developing Countries brought together an international and diverse group of social scientists and research specialists to discuss what is known in the field, what needs to be known, and what needs to be done to improve the effectiveness of family planning programs. Participants concurred on the universal relevance of sociocultural factors in population programs and that programs could be more effective if sociocultural considerations were more fully taken into account. Social and cultural setting influenced how the idea of population control could be broached with policy makers, how they affected resource deployment, and the working styles of involved institutions. Shortfalls in program performance therefore often reflect the failure to adequately consider local cultural and social settings. Greater program effectiveness could be had if such factors were recognized and program modifications made at the start of programs. A need was also expressed to broaden the scope and reach of population regulation efforts in all programs. This would involve extending program efforts beyond the target group of ever-married women who have reached their desired family size to reach adolescents and members of cultural minorities. Abstracts of major papers presented are included.
Research on the regulation of human fertility: needs of developing countries and priorities for the future, Vol. 2, Background documents.
Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1983. 2 986 p.Volume 2 of papers from an international symposium starts with chapter 7--available methods of fertility regulation; problems encountered in family planning programs of developing countries. Natural family planning is discussed here, as well as contraceptives and male and female sterilization. Chapter 8 covers research problems with regard to epidemiological, service, and psychosocial aspects of fertility regulation. Family planning is stressed in this chapter. Chapter 9 discusses future methods of fertility regulation: progress in selected areas. New contraceptive agents are discussed, such as luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and its analogues, gossypol for men, and immunological methods of fertility regulation. Chapter 10 also discusses future methods of fertility regulation, but from the point of view of research needs and priorities as viewed by program directors and advisers. Views and research priorities of the Population Council, and the Indian Council of Medical Research are given. Research needs and priorities in China are discussed, as is the role of the World Health Organization's Special Program of Reseach, Development and Reserch Training in Human Reproduction. Lastly, chapter 11 covers the role of governments, agencies and industry in reseach on fertility regulation. The role of the Agency for International Development, the US National Institutes of Health; and the World Bank, among others, are discussed.
Asia: an area assessment, statement made at the Second Asian Population Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 1 November 1972.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 13 p.This report offers a critical evaluation of population policies in Asia. Suggestions for future strategies to solve the problem of high fertility include: 1) studies involving in depth village level research in order to deepen understanding of the factors influencing family size; 2) greater attention to be paid to education on population problems and their implications, as well as the basic principles of human reproduction and family planning; 3) scrutinizing all relevant social legislation such as tax and welfare benefits and family allowances to determine their probable influence upon childbearing; and 4) integrating population policies with economic and social development. In order to carry out these activities, training personnel is of the utmost importance. Furthermore, research leading to the elaboration of systemic models of the development process should be intensified.
M. A. thesis, Univ. of Chicago, Division of the Social Sciences, Dec. 1973. 90 p.In the summer of 1971 the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK), with the concurrence of the Korean government, launched a new phase in the Korean family planning program--"Stop at Two" movement. With this step the 10 year old family program became the 1st in the world to openly advocate and propogate through communications the 2-child family norm. Since then the movement has been vigorously pressed through all communications channels in spite of traditional norms and the need for major outside funding. The decision to actively bring the "Stop at Two" idea to the public was based largely on the implications for the future of the success of the 1st 10 years of the national family planning program. The Korean government has set an optimistic population growth rate target for the next 5 years--1.5 to be achieved by 1976. To reach these goals it is estimated that 45% of the eligible population will have to be regularly using some form of contraception. At 1 time or another the PPFK, supporting the national program, has used every conceivable method of communication to inform, motivate, and persuade the Korean population to adopt family planning. An attempt has been made to carefully analyze problem areas in the family planning program for which communication research is needed or would be relevant. An effort is made to show how the information obtained could be used to deal effectively through communication with the conditions presented by the problem. Communication research and evaluation techniques which would be most valuable to Korea are described. A research and evaluation design which spells out the components of a program of research intended to support the already published communication strategy of the Korean family planning over the next 3 years is included.
People. 1981; 8(4):4-5.The early 1960s effected a worldwide revolution in contraceptive practice. At that time, modern methods were introduced and national family planning programs established. Although there are some 275 million couples practicing family planning in the world today, there is still a large unmet demand. This is due to shortcomings in both currently available methods and present forms of service delivery. The most effective methods still carry some risk and cause some side effects, most simply annoying rather than life-threatening. Program communication efforts must seek to reassure potential clients regarding the safety of these methods. There is also a need for method improvement. There is no ideal method for all couples. What is needed is a variety of easily distributable methods which are safe, less discomforting and more convenient than current methods, and which combine long continuity and high acceptability. These methods should be suited to the diverse world conditions. WHO is sponsoring research in 5 main areas: 1) safety and efficacy of current methods; 2) improvements in these methods and development of new methods; 3) psychosocial aspects of family planning; 4) delivery systems; and 5) diagnosis and treatment of infertility.
Progress of work, 1979-1980, of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs in the field of population: report of the Secretary-General.
New York, UN, 1980 Nov 18. 20 p. (E/CN.9/349)A progress report of work performed during the 1979-1980 period by the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs in the field of population is presented. Covered in the report are activities of the Secretariat in the analysis of demographic trends and structure, demographic estimates and projections, fertility and family planning, population and development, population policy, monitoring and review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action. Also included are other continuing activities of the Secretariat. During the period covered by the report, efforts continued to carry out the program adopted by the Commission and the General Assembly. Mortality studies were reinstated along with urbanization studies, the scope of work in international migration was expanded, and new projections were prepared of total population, its sex-age structure, its urban-rural distribution, and the number of households and families. Additional work was carried out on analysis of World Fertility Survey data and of factors affecting acceptance of family planning programs. Also continued was the investigation of the relationships between social and economic factors and the components of demographic change. Under continuous study was the policy implications of the changing world population. Studies in population development and studies analyzing population policies were predominant in this 3rd round of monitoring of population trends and policies.
Improvement of planning and implementation of population projects funded by United Nations Fund for Population Activities.
[Unpublished] 1971 Sep 29. 46 p.UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) was formulated by the U.N. with the goal of providing assistance to developing countries in controlling their rapid population growth in order to achieve greater and quicker social and economic development. Inadequate development of the "ideal" contraceptive technology, lack of awareness of rapid population growth as a problem, and inadequate program planning and management were cited as the main barriers to efficient operation of population programs. It was agreed that UNFPA would concentrate its efforts in areas where the concept of family planning is still controversial. Major questions surround funding policies: 1) whether to fund fewer large projects or more smaller projects; 2) whether to provide direct or indirect assistance; and 3) whether to support research or action projects. Advantages of action through UNFPA and constraints on such action are cited and discussed. The organizational structure of UNFPA is summarized. General discussion is given to the major areas of UNFPA endeavor. Evaluation of the success of UNFPA-sponsored programs is a necessary part of the Fund's activities.
New York, UN, 1972. 82 p. (E/CN.9/263)This report of the 16th Session of the UN Population Commission is helpful in many respects, but primarily it gives information on further meetings seminars, and gatherings of organizations interested in population dynamics and the future of population trends. Progress of the UN work in the field of population is summarized. Major decisions of the commission are outlined, including their endorsement of 15 research and development programs, worldwide, an emphasis on improvement of technical information services, and a committment to improved demographic statistics. Activities slated for the 2nd decade of UN population strategy are enumerated, and 5-year and 2-year programs of work are outlined. These programs include continued fertility and family planning studies, increased mortality studies, studies of migration and urbanization, demographic aspects of economic and social development, and improvement of demograhic statistics. It was decided that the global population strategy for the UN Population Commission must not be restricted to developing countries, but that the UN must continue to work in the population field in all countries of the world.
London, IPPF, . 46 p.Mexican social, economic, and population indicators are discussed and tabulated. In 1972, the government, realizing the magnitude of the nation's population problem, reversed its previous antinatalist policy. The President acknowledged the individual's right to have family planning services available and the government's duty to provide family planning information. The Ministry of Health instituted a program to provide family planning services for that part of the population needing public services. A National Population Council was established to coordinate various public and private services active in the population field. Market research is being undertaken into the feasibility of government sponsored commercial distribution of contraceptives. Sterilization will be an integral part of the governmental family planning services. Acceptor targets and accomplishments and the budget for these governmentally-provided services are presented. A detailed discussion of the history and activities of the IPPF affiliate in Mexico is also presented. Despite the initially unfavorable atmosphere in the mid-1960s, FEPAC (Foundation for the Study of Population) was able to establish a network of family planning clinics. In addition to clinic programs, FEPAC carries out research, training, and education/information activities.
[Unpublished] 1979. Paper prepared for the Technical Workshop on the Four Country Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Projects, New York, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 1979. (Workshop Paper No. 2) 10 p.An integrated health care system which combined the maternal/child health with other services was undertaken in the Yozgat Province of Turkey from 1972-77. The objective was to train midwives in MCH/FP and orient their activities to socialization. The first 2 years of the program was financed by UNFPA. 52 health stations were completed and 18 more are under construction. The personnel shortage stands at 33 physicians, 21 health technicians, 30 nurses, and 67 midwives. Yozgat Province is 75% rural and has about a 50% shortage of roads. The project was evaluated initially in 1975 and entailed preproject information studies, baseline health practices and contraceptive use survey, dual record system, and service statistics reporting. The number of midwives, who are crucial to the program, have increased from an average 115 in 1975 to 160 in 1979. Supervisory nurses are the link between the field and the project managers. Their number has decreased from 17 to 6. Until 1977 family planning service delivery depended on a handful of physicians who distributed condoms and pills. The Ministry of Health trained women physicians in IUD insertions. The crude death rate in 1976 was 13.2/1000; the crude birth rate was 42.7/1000. The crude death rate in 1977 was 14.8/1000; birth rate, 39.9/1000. Common child diseases were measles, enteritis, bronchopneumonia, otitis, and parasitis.
In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 63-74.The effort is made to highlight some of the salient activities in the social sciences in the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) along with ideas that have been developed and operational constraints. In reviewing social sciences in IPPF over the last 4-year period, 2 observations are necessary: 1) the social science policies were sound and continue to be valid and have made some impact on IPPF overall policies; and 2) successive social science work programs to implement these policies were only partially successful. Discussion focuses on the following: 1) maximizing the use of local social science resources -- the example of the Barranquitas Workshop; 2) "family power-social change" -- an example of participatory action research; and 3) a look at the future (the place of social sciences within IPPF, types of social scientists and training required, and qualitative and participatory research methods). Regarding the future, a 1st step is to clarify the place of the social science function within the system. The 2nd step should be adjustments in the selection and training of personnel and volunteers. The 3rd step must be the selection, adoption, and development of adequate methods for gathering and using social science knowledge. The objective of any research within IPPF should be to improve the programs of Family Planning Associations for the benefit of the acceptors. Ideally, each program should have a research component to evaluate program progress and to assess the changes occurring in the environment in which the program operates. A higher proportion of social scientists is needed within all parts of the IPPF system -- particularly those whose training is closest to the practical problems of family planning programs.
In: World Population Growth and Response, 1965-1975: a Decade of Global Action, Wash., D.C. Population Reference Bureau, April 1976, pp. 197-263Add to my documents.
Research training in the biomedical aspects of human reproduction and family planning in developing countries.
Contraception. 1976 Apr; 13(4):469-77.Family planning represents a major concern for many countries. Programmes are, however, encountering major obstacles, some of which can only be resolved through research, and frequently through research at the local level. Shortage of trained manpower has held back such research in developing countries. The paper describes trends over the past two decades in training for research in human reproduction and family planning. It addresses itself primarily to the needs of developing countries for such research training and the extent to which these needs have been met. (author's)
In: Survey of World Needs in Family Planning. London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Office of Evaluation and Statistics, 1974, pp. 73-79Add to my documents.
CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.
Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 pThis report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
In: Watson, W.B., ed. Family planning in the developing world: a review of programs. New York, Population Council, 1977. p. 54-55The government of Honduras included a population policy in its National Development Plan for the period 1974-1979. This policy will be implemented by providing information regarding responsible parenthood, by using natural and technical resources to produce a well-nourished and creative population, and by applying the principles of voluntary participation in family planning programs. The 2 family planning programs in Honduras are the government maternal and child health program and the Family Planning Association of Honduras program. The government program, initiated in 1968, operates 34 clinics which offer family planning along with prenatal and postnatal care, child care, and nutrition education services. The Family Planning Association, established in 1961, operates 2 clinics and served 42,000 people during 1975. 9000 of this group were 1st acceptors. Oral contraceptives were chosen by 80% of the new acceptors; 13% chose IUDs and 5% chose injectables. The Association's information and education activities included conferences, talks, courses, seminars, and home visits. Additionally, the Association is operating a demonstration community-based distribution program with financial assistance from the International Planned Parenthood Federation. 40 workers in each of 2 cities provide contraceptives in their own neighborhoods.
In: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Development Centre. Population: international assistance and research. Proceedings of the 1st Population Conference of the Development Centre, Paris, December 3-5, 1968. Paris, France, OECD, 1969. p. 129-138The basic aim of the IPPF (founded in 1952) is to gain acceptance of the ideal of responsible parenthood throughout the world and to promote its practice by stimulating the formation of family planning associations, by assisting the training of medical and other personnel in the techniques of family planning and motivation, and by organizing international gatherings at various levels in order to increase knowledge and effectiveness. The IPPF seeks to stimulate scientific research and evaluation. For administrative reasons, the Federation is presently divided into 5 regions. The structure of the Federation is designed to meet the requirements of a loose union of autonomous indigenous members initially coordinated at the regional level. The ability of the IPPF to continue to meet ever-increasing requests for assistance depends on an increasing measure of public and private financial support and on the possibility of establishing responsible and effective voluntary organizations in countries where this type of organization has no long tradition. The IPPF can now claim that almost every country that has accepted a governmental responsibility for providing family planning has had the way prepared by a national voluntary family planning association and that it has made a significant contribution to the growing awareness, at national and international levels, of the population predicament.
In: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Development Centre. Population: international assistance and research. Proceedings of the 1st Population Conference of the Development Centre, Paris, December 3-5, 1968. Paris, France, OECD, 1969. p. 39-47Resolutions made in the period 1965-1968 by components of the UN (Population Commission, Committee for Economic and Social Affairs, General Assembly, WHO, Food and Agriculture Organization, UN Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, International Labor Organization, and UNICEF) have created mandates to provide technical assistance in all population fields including family planning (FP). The mandates are being translated into action-oriented programs. For a nation requesting assistance, there is support in the UN for almost every aspect of a comprehensive national population program, including FP. Going beyond its usual role of providing information and policy advice, the UN will give more operational help such as training FP personnel and evaluation of FP programs and possibly providing supplies and equipment. Also, importantly, it will provide better and more detailed population projections. The UNFPA has been extended; resources will have to be increased by $5 million annually in the period 1969-1971 in order to support the huge training effort, and governments concerned with population are invited to contribute to the fund and to supply resources to the programs.
New Delhi, India, Family Planning Foundation, July 1974. 147 pIn order to suggest the development of a family planning component in the U.N. International Childrens Emergency Fund's (UNICEF's) ongoing and future programs, an across the board survey of UNICEF-assisted programs in India, both those of the past and those proposed for the 5th Plan period, was undertaken. In the report the findings of the study are outlined. In the introduction the objectives of the study are dealt with along with the government of India's policy and priorities and UNICEF's mandate in the area of family planning activites. The 1st and 2nd chapters focus on the government of India's policy and programs in family planning and UNICEF's mandate to assit such activites. Recommendations are discussed in the 3rd chapter, and the 4th chapter presents the conclusions of the study. 19 suggestions are made in the immediate action category, 7 suggestions and 2 projects are proposed in the development of new components category, and 7 projects are proposed in the proposals for new projects category. The suggestions related to the following types of activities: training; research, evaluation, and monitoring; population and family life education; project support communication; and extension services. Investigations during the course of this study suggest that the family planning programs in India are at a standstill. Innovations and new approaches are needed to reorient the program. 1 such new approach is the integration, as incorporated in the 5th Plan, of family planning and health and welfare services. At this stage it is important to devise practical mechanisms for effective integration of development efforts to ensure efficient delivery of services and a climate conducive to enhancing demand for these services and to acceptance of family planning techinques. It does appear the UNICEF could have a major role in assisting the development and evaluation of innovations that might be expanded into major programs in the 6th Plan period.
January 15 and 16, 1975. 17 p.The Conference was held to advance the Institute's project on "Cultural Values and Population Policy" by bringing together an interdisciplinary group of North Americans to discuss the complexities and implications of the cultural value aspects and dimensions of international population assistance. The proceedings were divided into 5 sections; 1) an introduction to the Population Project, 2) the role of international population assistance, 3) values underlying donor agency activities, 4) value questions to be addressed in the Project's country studies, and 5) issues of most concern. The summary reports separately on the discussions in each section. A list of participants is included.
Lahore, Pakistan Family Planning Assoication, 1973. 48. p.After the 1971 war and subsequent breakaway of East Pakistan, the Family Planning Association of Pakistan faced considerable problems but managed to function and even extend its scope in 1972. This annual report is made up of a review of 1) the Population Planning Council and the International Planned Parenthood Federation activities in Pakistan; 2) conferences, meetings, seminars, workshops, and training programs; 3) medical and clinical activities; 4) information and education; 5) field work; 6) special projects carried out by the research section; and 7) extension and integration of family planning services in other social welfare agencies. Financial reports and audited balance sheets are presented at the back.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation. Indian Ocean Region. ( IPPF/IOR). Population, development and the environment. Report of the proceedings, Bombay, December 9-15, 1972. Bombay, IPPF/IOR, (1973). p. 59-67The World Health Organization believes it has the expertise to make a significant contribution to the development of family planning activities. Family planning services are seen as best provided in the framework of basically adequate health services and as an integral part of health services everywhere. The family planning related activities in which the World Health Organization has been involved increasingly over the past years are in the areas of research, training and service. In the research area, the organization is sponsoring an Expanded Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction for which about $5,000,000 have been made available to date by various sourc es. In the area of education and training, a worldwide effort to review and strengthen the curricula of all health professions, including auxiliaries, in family planning and population matters is being promoted. Finally, in the service area, the World Health Organization has been actively working for the past 25 years to develop Maternal and Child Health and other health services throughout many countries of the world. Additionally, the organization has recognized the importance of documentation and reference services for the development of education educajtion and training, and service in the family planning field by supporting the creation of Documentation Centers on human reproduction, family planning, and population dynamics. The World Health Organization has also sent advisory expert teams to evaluate family planning programs and to advise on their development in various countries of the world.