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Your search found 29 Results

  1. 1

    Review of family planning aspects of family health with special reference to UNICEF/WHO assistance.


    Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 p

    Family planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
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  2. 2

    Jordan: what the children need.

    Bryant E

    In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 145-7.

    In Jordan, infant and maternal mortality rates are far lower than those of many other Arab countries, according to UNICEF. Jordan's literacy rate, 85%, is one of the region's highest, and the country has launched specialized services for the handicapped. At the Prince Hassan Palestinian refugee camp, 90% of the children are immunized, and the mothers are taught lessons in basic health and hygiene. Yet Jordan's successes may prove a liability. Donors are reluctant to contribute aid to a country that seems not to need it. UNICEF reports that, despite its successes, Jordan has a great deal more to accomplish. Basic health care is widely available, but it remains underutilized. Girls are especially likely to drop out of school. Only 35% of women use any birth control, and many Jordanians have six or more children. Queen Noor has founded the National Task Force for Children to coordinate the efforts of various children's agencies in the country and to address a range of issues, from drug abuse and homelessness to basic health care, family planning, and children's rights. Queen Noor explains that children's rights can be improved in terms of legal protections, "but the family is the unit of authority, and not the state."
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  3. 3

    Reproductive health policies and programs in eight countries: progress since Cairo.

    Hardee K; Agarwal K; Luke N; Wilson E; Pendzich M; Farrell M; Cross H

    International Family Planning Perspectives. 1999 Jan; 25 Suppl:S2-9.

    Many countries have adopted the Program of Action drafted at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo. Interviews were conducted in 1997 with stakeholders in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Jordan, Ghana, Senegal, Jamaica, and Peru to learn about countries' experiences revising reproductive health policies and implementing programs since the ICPD. Of the 8 countries, only Jordan and Peru failed to adopt the Cairo definition of reproductive health verbatim. However, all of the countries have begun to reform policies in a bid to reflect a new focus. Less has been accomplished in actually implementing integrated reproductive health programs. The following challenges face all of the countries as they continue to design reproductive health programs: improving knowledge and support among stakeholders, planning for integration and decentralized services, developing human resources, improving the quality of care, and maintaining a long-term perspective upon the implementation of the Cairo agenda. Countries must now be helped to set priorities for establishing integrated reproductive health interventions, to increase financing for services, and to develop strategies for delivering them.
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  4. 4

    Post-Cairo reproductive health policies and programs: a comparative study of eight countries.

    Hardee K; Agarwal K; Luke N; Wilson E; Pendzich M; Farrell M; Cross H

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 1998 Sep. vii, 69 p.

    This report presents case studies of reproductive health (RH) and family planning programs and policies in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Ghana, Jordan, Senegal, Jamaica, and Peru. Data were obtained from in-depth interviews among 20-44 individuals in each country who were key representatives of population and RH government ministries, parliaments, academia, nongovernmental organizations, women's groups, donor agencies, and health care staff. Findings focus on the following topics: RH context; the policy process; participation, support, and opposition; policy implementation; financial resources; and general implementation. Progress is gauged based on improving knowledge of stakeholders; planning for integrated and decentralized services; developing human resources; improving quality of care; addressing legal, social, and regulatory issues; clarifying donors' role; and maintaining long-term aims. All countries made considerable, though limited, progress according to the mandates of the 1994 Cairo Plan of Action. Population size ranges from 2.6 million in Jamaica to nearly 1 billion in India. The countries vary in level of urbanization, literacy, fertility, contraceptive prevalence, infant mortality, maternal mortality, and prenatal care and delivery. Although the social, cultural, and economic contexts vary, all countries have a subordinate role for women. All countries struggled with setting priorities, financing, and implementation. Bangladesh made the greatest progress. Jordan still emphasizes mostly family planning. India, Nepal, Jordan, Senegal, and Peru will need donor funding to advance a broad constellation of services.
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  5. 5

    Iraq receives UNFPA support, but need is still great.

    DISPATCHES: NEWS FROM UNFPA. 1997 Mar; (14):1-2.

    This news brief highlights the activities of the UNFPA in providing family planning services to Iraq. The project was begun in July 1996 in conjunction with the Iraq Family Planning Association. Services are provided in 62 clinics. There are plans to expand services to include provision of contraceptives and medical equipment to additional clinics. Improvements in contraceptive supplies include the provision of a 3-month supply of pills rather than 1-month supplies and qualified gynecological services for insertion of IUDs. Training programs in Baghdad involved 25 doctors and 25 nurses. The mission finds that need surpasses demand for reproductive health care. Even clinics without privacy for clients are crowded. There is a demand for injectables, which have been ordered but not received. The country's health needs remain acute. The UN Security Council, in response to the health deficits, passed Resolution Number 986 in 1995. This resolution provides for the sale of up to $2 billion of oil over a 6-month period in exchange for the purchase of essential food and medical supplies. The agreement allows for the provision of about $220 million worth of medicines over a 6-month period. Normal importation is an estimated $500 million per year worth of medicines. The Secretary-General was optimistic that the agreement would be extended. Food relief also fell short of what was needed. Resolution 986 allows for the annual import of only $1.6 billion worth of food compared to the FAO estimates of $2.853 billion. The program aims to provide services to 200,000 new clients and to train 100 nurses, 100 doctors, and 50 family planning advocates. Iraq continues to lack infrastructure and economic development that are essential to improvements in the quality of life.
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  6. 6

    IPPF delegation in the limelight. Winning over the media.

    PANORAMA. 1996 Nov-Dec; 3-4.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation delegation to the Second National Population Conference was very busy during its stay in Yemen during October 26-29, 1996. In particular, a press conference held by Dr. Attiya Inayatullah, head of the delegation, was one of the prominent activities which caught the interest of the local media. Dr. Inayatullah stressed the urgent need for a strengthened commitment to family planning and SRH in Yemen. She also noted that the country's 1994 estimated population of 14.6 million increasingly strains limited national resources, leading to the spread of poverty in Yemen. It is important to allocate appropriate resources for implementing the programs identified by the National Action Plan, programs which will hopefully benefit all segments of the population throughout the country. Reproductive rights for Moslem women, the role of advocacy and information/education/communication in promoting the family planning and SRH concept, vasectomy, and Islam and family planning are discussed.
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  7. 7

    AWR blazes trail into the future. Jordan hosts Regional Council's 27th session.

    PANORAMA. 1996 Sep; 1-2.

    In July 1986, the 27th session of the IPPF Arab World Regional (AWR) Council met in Amman, Jordan, to identify ways to implement specific programs of action within the framework of three-year plans, adopted from the European project on Expanded Family Planning Services. The various family planning associations (FPAs) are called on to implement the programs by strengthening their strategic management and resource mobilization capacity. H.R.H. Princess Basma of Jordan closed the first morning session. She stressed the fundamental role of the family in determining future society-level behavior patterns. She applauded IPPF's efforts in improving living conditions and in countering the risks from overpopulation and diminishing resources. All speakers agreed that the family planning concept needs to be expanded and efforts to implement Vision 2000 goals and ICPD recommendations need to be intensified. The AWR is working towards ensuring gender equity at the representation level. The IPPF president called on the council to focus on male participation and the need to clarify the stance of Islam vis-a-vis women and family planning. Other areas of concern were resource development, and positive interaction among supervisory bodies at FPAs, regional, and international levels. In the Arab region AWR has brought attention to such issues as the education of women and the girl child, improvement of women's legal status, women's contribution to the development process, and youth-related problems. AWR also addressed the important issue of monitoring and evaluation. During 1993-95, FPAs were introduced into strategic planning and project development skills. AWR has been able to make progress in areas of women's empowerment, youth issues, advocacy, and information, education, and communication activities. AWR has decided to allocate a substantial portion of an IPPF grant for projects addressing unmet needs and programs aimed at empowering youth and women and at encouraging male participation in fostering sexual and reproductive health consciousness. Economic downturns have cut government spending in health regionwide.
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  8. 8

    Exploring new paths to service delivery in Palestine.


    From 1963 to 1987, the Palestinian Family Planning (FP) and Protection Association (FPA) set up 11 urban clinics and branches. As the result of a needs survey in 1985, the FPA was planning to provide more services in rural areas. The political situation and the 1987 start of the Intifada, however, made delivery of even existing services more difficult and helped create a pronatalist atmosphere which was fueled by religious opposition to FP. In order to continue its work, the FPA took advantage of interagency cooperation with the nongovernmental organizations which had existing health clinics and which agreed to provide contraceptives in exchange for a percentage of the sales revenue. The role of the FPA was to provide the supplies and to train staff in service provision. The FPA also used this cooperative system to funnel FP information, education, and communication to women's groups. Through these efforts the FPA reached 60% more new clients in 1992 than it had in 1991. This successful cooperative method had its roots in the efforts the FPA had made since the 1970s to provide FP services in the maternal and child care clinics for refugees set up by the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA). In 1993, the FPA received funding to open its own clinic in Gaza (where 75% of the people are refugees). The FPA is also actively seeking the involvement of religious leaders in discussions about the incorporation of FP in refugee health programs. Meanwhile, in 1990, the UNRWA began to offer FP as part of its maternal health program and to refer clients to the FPA where they were served free of charge. When the UNRWA began to provide FP services directly, the FPA provided the training for the UNRWA personnel. By remaining flexible, the FPA has been able to use appropriate channels to deliver its own expertise to women in need. Creative new approaches will continue to be called for to reach the thousands of women who remain in need of FP services.
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  9. 9

    Family planning, the Lebanese experience. A study on the Lebanese Family Planning Association.

    Iliyya S

    [Unpublished] 1984 Jul. [4], 193 p.

    As of 1984, Lebanon had not yet formulated a clear and specific population policy because laws existed against contraception and political differences among the various ethnic groups also existed which culminated in a civil war. Nevertheless the government condoned the creation of the Lebanese Family Planning Association (LFPA) in August 1969 and its activities. The government also helped spread family planning through its own institutions such as the Ministry of Health and the Office of Social Development. Further some of LFPA's staff members have been part of the government itself. LFPA conducted a survey in June 1975 in Zahrani in rural south Lebanon and it showed that the people wished to limit their fertility, but could not since birth control was not available. Therefore LFPA established the 1st Community Based Family Planning Services Program in Zahrani which later spread to other villages. Wasitas (field workers) served as the major means of providing birth control and information to the women. They emphasized child spacing. The wasitas also served as a major adaptive and indigenous agent of social change and development. Initially they underwent intensive training lasting at least 1 week, but in 1979, LFPA hosted annual 1 month training sessions. The wasitas use of traditional communication methods resulted in not only an increase of contraceptive use, but also in meeting the elemental needs of the women for psychological comfort and self reliance. In some instances, however, some wasitas resorted to deception in encouraging the most uneducated women to use birth control because of strong incentives, e.g., the wasita received 50% of the money earned for the sale of each contraceptive. LFPA needed to reassess those measures which lead to possible encroachment of the dignity and freedom of choice of the women villagers.
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  10. 10

    The family planning programme in Jordan.

    Abu Atta AA

    In: Country studies on strategic management in population programmes, edited by Ellen Sattar. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes, 1989 May. 47-53. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Series Vol. 8)

    Jordan is a country of 3 million people, with an annual growth rate of 3.5%. 52% of the population is under 15, and the average family consists of 6.7 persons. 65% of the population is urban. Life expectancy is 64 years, and the birth rate is 48/1000 population. The National Population Commission is mandated to advise the government on population matters. Family planning has been integrated with maternal-child health services since 1979, and the government tacitly supports the work of nongovernmental agencies, including the Jordan Family Planning and Protection Association, which was established in 1964 and is funded by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The Jordan Family Planning and Protection Association carries out contraceptive services through its 8 clinics. In 1984 it implemented an information, education, and communication program with the Johns Hopkins University. The Association, in cooperation with the Margaret Sanger Center of New York, is establishing 3 new clinics in underserved areas. The Association's activities are planned and supervised by an ad hoc coordinating committee, but the staff is mainly voluntary. In 1987 a study was done to discover the attitudes of rural women toward family planning. Most women are opposed to early marriage and think that the ideal family should have between 3 and 5 children. Most of the women preferred the IUD as a contraceptive method and considered their physician as the best available source of information. The women approve of the family planning clinics, but feel that service should be free, and a doctor, preferrably female, should be available.
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  11. 11

    Male involvement in planned parenthood: global review and strategies for programme development.

    Meredith P

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1989. 68 p.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) surveyed male involvement projects in 7 Family Planning Associations (FPAs) as a preliminary step for program development. Male involvement was defined as organizational activities aimed at men, with the objective of improving family planning practice of either sex. The 1987-1988 survey, which consisted of interviews of FPA staffers in Ghana and Nigeria, Cyprus, Thailand, 4 Caribbean islands, Mexico, Egypt and Nepal, sought to identify FPA activities directed at men; to examine their relative effectiveness, especially against other priorities of the FPAs; and to develop criteria for future male projects. The study concluded that male involvement activities make up a greater part of FPA programs than generally believed: programs included male-targeted community-based contraceptive distribution (CBD), community centers, education in the workplace, contraceptive social marketing (CSM), youth centers, vasectomy clinics, family life education, distribution of educational materials and promotional events. Male groups proved relatively easy to reach for educational work but the effectiveness of the education was uneven and evaluation largely nonexistent. The debate between encouraging CSM programs by independent marketing organizations or continuing more expensive smaller-scale CBD will need to be resolved. The study recommended greater attention to curriculum design; information, education and communication projects; adolescent counselling and contraceptive services; CSM to promote condom use; education and service delivery to the workplace; and in each of these areas, effective and continuous evaluation. An annex provides detailed country reports with the data for the survey.
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  12. 12

    Democratic Yemen: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1985. ix, 79 p. (Report No. 76)

    The population of Democratic Yemen, approximately 2.1 million, is primarily Arab, with small Indian, Pakistani, and Somali minorities. Development planning is an integral part of Democratic Yemen's political structure. However, the country has an extreme shortage of data to provide the basis for formulating development plans. High levels of morbidity and mortality have been identified by the Government as priority problems. Improvements in health services, particularly in rural areas, and expansion of maternal and child health services are being emphasized. The Needs Assessment Mission has made recommendations on external assistance for 1) improving the collection and analysis of demographic data, demographic research, and population policy, 2) improving the quantity and quality of maternal and child health and family planning, 3) providing a program of population information, education, and communication, and 4) integrating women into development activities.
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  13. 13

    Jordan: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1985. viii, 56 p. (Report No. 83)

    The 3rd Needs Assessment Mission from the UN Fund for Population Activities visited JOrdan in 1985. While Jordan has a high per capita gross national product of Us $1640, its demographic characteristics are those of a less developed country. It has a high crude birth rate of 44.9 (1980-1985), a high annual growth rate of 3.66 (1980-1985), and a young population, 49.4% of whom are under the age of 15. The government has not adopted an official population policy. The government is particularly concerned about the large numbers of skilled and professional workers leaving Jordan to work abroad, and the large inflow of semi-skilled and manual workers. The MIssion recommends that the National Population Commission, which could provide the framework for an integrated approach to population and development, should undertake the formulation of comprehensive population policies, ensuring that population issues are integrated into national development planning. The MIssion recommends that a Human Resources Section be established within the Ministry of Planning by expanding the present manpower section. The MIssion recommends upgrading demographic data collection through cooperation between the Department of Statistics and the Civil Status Department by making full use of equipment and facilities, comparing data sets, using census and population register data fully, and using census data as a standard for evaluating other data sets. The Mission recommends that the government's expansion of health services within a primary health care framework should be supported and assistance provided in the establishment of a primary health care training and demonstration center. The Mission recommends that greater efforts should be made to include population education in the school curriculum. There is a need for data and information on women.
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  14. 14

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA-sponsored country programme in Democratic Yemen, 1979-1984 and role of women in it.

    El-Sherbiny A; El-Khodary M; Molyneux M; Zouain G; Frieiro L

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Apr. xiii, 101 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)-sponsored Country Program was the 1st comprehensive effort in the field of population in Democratic Yemen, following earlier sub-sectoral interventions which benefitted from UNFPA assistance. This evaluation covers 1) the country program as such, focusing on the results achieved in terms of building national capacity for formulating and implementing population policies and programs; 2) the 7 component projects, one in data collection and analysis, a maternal child health/family planning project, and 5 in population education for different audiences; and 3) the women's dimension of the program. At the end of the 4th year of implementation, little had been done by the Country Program in terms of institution building and population policy. The program's achievements were hindered by factors such as an extreme shortage of national qualified staff, training facilities, poor program design, insufficient technical leadership and support, as well as unrealistic objectives. The 7 component projects were plagued with similar problems and made only modest acheivements. The Evaluation Mission expressed the view that long term international expertise to serve all projects would have been advisable as well as long term training abroad for a few people who could become leaders/advisors/administrators. In evaluating the role of women, the Mission found that women had participated in the implementation of all the projects evaluated but were mainly to be found in junior positions. The program as a whole contained a substantial portion of women among its direct beneficiaries comprising those who had been trained, employed and targeted as recipients of the services of the projects, although this varied considerably between projects. In general, the Mission was of the view that in the future a country program document should be prepared specifying the long term and immediate objectives for the population program as a whole.
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  15. 15

    Population in the Arab world: problems and prospects.

    Omran AR

    New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities; London, England, Croom Helm, 1980. 215 p.

    The Arab population, consisting of 20 states and the people of Palestine, was almost 153 million in 1978 and is expected to reach 300 million by the year 2000. Most Arab countries have a high population growth rate of 3%, a young population structure with about 50% under age 15, a high rate of marriage, early age of marriage, large family size norm, and an agrarian rural community life, along with a high rate of urban expansion. Health patterns are also similar with epidemic diseases leading as causes of mortality and morbidity. But there is uneven distribution of wealth in the region with per capita annual income ranging from US$100 in Somalia to US$12,050 in Kuwait; health care is also more elaborate in the wealthier countries. Fertility rates are high in most countries, with crude birthrates about 45/1000 compared with 32/1000 in the world as a whole and 17/1000 in most developed countries. In many Arab countries up to 30-50% of total investment is involved in population-related activities compared to 15% in European countries. There is also increasing pressure in the educational and health systems with the same amount of professionals dealing with an increasing amount of people. Unplanned and excessive fertility also contributes to health problems for mothers and children with higher morbidity, mortality, and nutrition problems. Physical isolation of communities contributes to difficulties in spreading health care availability. Urban population is growing rapidly, 6%/year in most Arab cities, and at a rate of 10-15% in the cities of Kuwait and Qatar; this rate is not accompanied by sufficient urban planning policies or modernization. A unique population problem in this area is that of the over 2 million Palestinians living in and outside the Middle East who put demographic pressures on the Arab countries. 2 major constraints inhibit efforts to solve the Arab population problem: 1) the difficulty of actually reallocating the people to achieve more even distribution, and 2) cultural and political sensitivities. Since in the Arab countries fertility does not correlate well with social and economic indicators, it is possible that development alone will not reduce the fertility of the Arab countries unless rigorous and effective family planning policies are put into action.
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  16. 16

    Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.

    This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
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  17. 17

    Final country report: Jordan.

    Carrino CA

    Washington, D.C., Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 1983 May. 62 p. (Contract: AID/DSPE-C-0076)

    1 of a series of Population and Development Policy Final Country Reports, this report on Jordan provides an account of the rationale, procedures, and outcomes for PDP activities. After reviewing country background (population characteristics and trends, development trends and characteristics, population policies, family planning service and information, research capabilities, and opportunities and needs for population policies, family planning service and information, research capabilities, and opportunities and needs for population assistance) and the PDP Program of Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, research findings and dissemination activities are reported and follow-up activities are recommended. Jordan's population size is small--an estimated 3 million in 1980, but various other characteristics made it a priority for PDP assistance. In 1979 the annual rate of growth was estimated to be anywhere between 3.5-4.8%. Fertility surveys indicate that over half of married women in Jordan surviving through their childbearing years have at least 7 children. Battelle PDP's Core Project in Jordan was designed to encourage the formulation of population policy. The project, titled Major Issues in Jordanian Development, was coordinated by the Queen Alia Welfare Fund. The project ran from July 1981 to April 1983 and encompassed 2 major types of activities: 6 2-person teams of researchers and government program managers collected and analyzed existing information on population and development issues, and 4 of the 6 research review papers prepared under the project directly addressed development issues of interest to the government i.e., education and training of women, social defense, income distribution, and demand for health services; and dissemination of the findings of the research review and analysis projects to national decision makers and opinion leaders in Jordan. The 6 research reviews were undertaken by pairs of authors, most of which included 1 government representative and 1 private or university researcher. Close monitoring and extensive technical assistance was provided to this project through several field visits and frequent correspondence. Brief descriptions are included of the 6 major issue papers. The paper on demographic trends in national planning reviews the literature on determinants of fertility and the effects of population growth and provides a historical analysis of the role of population variables in Jordan's past development plans. In the paper devoted to the education and training of women, women's schooling was found to be the most robust determinant of married women's fertility in the 1972 and 1976 Jordanian Fertility Surveys. The paper dealing with poverty and its implications for development reviews the extant data on per capita and poverty line data. The team that analyzed the demand for medical services proposed a regional plan for community-based health services. The topics of the final 2 papers were consequences of rapid population growth on development and social defense.
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  18. 18

    Community family planning services in IPPF.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, 1981 Dec. 24 p.

    This paper discusses Community-Based Distribution (CBD) programs as a strategy for delivering family planning services at the community level whether through health and other extension workers or lay distributors. Commercial marketing is not discussed. IPPF member family planning associations (FPAs) have been pioneers in establishing CBD programs. In 1979, approximately 40 FPAs were involved in CBD, representing about 80 projects and accounting for 34% of all new acceptors. About half of the projects and half of the new acceptors were in the Western Hemisphere region, where 95% chose oral contraceptives (OCs). OCs were selected by 68% of all new nonclinical clients. The cost per new acceptor in 1979 in CBD programs (with one exception) ranged from 78Z in Thailand to $16.50 in Mexico. Program issues involving the availability of CBD services include: 1) a comprehensive approach to service delivery including adequate and appropriate back up; 2) community participation in the design and delivery of CBD programs; 3) expanding coverage to reach less accessible and disadvantaged populations; and 4) monitoring and evaluating the impact of CBD programs through data collection and constant communication with program participants. The credibility of the distributor in the community is a key factor in ensuring the program's success. The report recommends that OCs of 50 mcg or less be used. Screening of potential acceptors by checklist is adequate; pelvic examination is not needed. CBD projects in Brazil, Colombia, India, Lebanon, South Korea, Thailand, China, Egypt, and the Philippines are described as are projects for 1979. The November 1981 IPPF policy statement supporting community-based family planning services is included.
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  19. 19

    IPPF-IOR fact booklet 1975: facts and figures on population and family planning programmes; India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, Colombo, Sri Lanka, IPPF-IOR.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Indian Ocean Region

    Colombo, Sri Lanka, IPPF-IOR, 1975. 56 p.

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  20. 20

    The Iran family planning programme.


    In: Population Strategy in Asia: (Report of the) Second Asian Population Conference, Tokyo, Nov. 1972. Bangkok, Thailand, UNECAFE, [1975]. 308-15.

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  21. 21

    World Health Organization Programme relating to World Population Plan of Action.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Prepared for World Population Society Meeting, Washington, D.C., December 6, 1976. 28 p

    WHO, in response to resolutions adopted at the World Population Conference, will give highest priority to developing new and alternative approaches to the promotion of the health of the underserved and vulnerable groups, especially in rural areas of developing countries. 4 annexes reflect WHO's policy, program areas, and activities. Annex 1 outlines the WHO Sixth General Programme of Work, which covers 5 major areas: 1) development of comprehensive health services, 2) disease prevention and control, 3) promotion of environmental health, 4) health manpower development, and 5) promotion and development of biomedical and health services research. Annex 2 lists quotations from relevant paragraphs of the World Population Plan of Action concerning health-related aspects of population. Annex 3 contains a list of WHO-supported activities in population 1976-1977 and 1978-1979 by field of activity and description of activity. Annex 4 details collaborative activites of WHO with member states and lists WHO collaborative efforts with country projects funded by UNFPA.
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  22. 22

    Factors affecting family planning activities.

    Howell C

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Preventive medicine and family planning. Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Europe and Near East Region of the IPPF, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 5-8, 1966. London, England, IPPF, 1967. p. 275-279

    More than 40 International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates from countries around the world responded to a questionnaire polling the status of family planning, opposition to the movement, and areas of their work in their countries. Far Eastern responses showed that area to be an overpopulated region where many of the world's most effective family planning programs, some under government sponsorship, are under way. In Latin America, governments are beginning to understand the implications of rapid population growth and assess traditional oppositions to family planning. Puritanism and Roman Catholic dogmatism remain the major opponents of the family planning movement in Europe. Family planning associations in that area are concentrating on sex education and trying to engage the attention of governments. Illiteracy as an obstacle to publicity of the population problem and the family planning solution is the main problem in Africa and the Near East. Some religious and legal restrictions remain in these areas. Lack of male interest and fear of population control are concerns in Africa. Despite the obstacles, all associations are recruiting increasing numbers and proceeding with family planning training and enlistment of government support.
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  23. 23

    The role of UNESCO in family planning and population programmes.

    Finkelstein TL

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation. Indian Ocean Region. ( IPPF/IOR). Population, development and the environment. Report of the pr oceedings, Bombay, December 9-15, 1972. Bombay, IPPF/IOR, (1973). P. 52-55

    The primary work of UNESCO in the population field is in broad educational work as represented within units such as Curriculum and Teacher Training, Out-of-school Education, Social Sciences, Mass Communications, and Environment, and Culture. In 1967, a 10 year plan in which population programs were integrated with welfare and development programs was proposed for UNESCO by the Director-General. Advisory missions have been sent to India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, and study and training courses implemented in many Asian nations. Among countries requesting UNESCO's assistance in population matters are Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
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  24. 24

    Family planning and communication in social development.


    In: United Nations. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Report and selected papers: the regional seminar on population aspects of social development, Bangkok, Thailand, January 11-20, 1972. Bangkok, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, (1973) (Asian Population Studies Series No. 11) (E/CN. 11/1049). p. 102-104

    UNESCO efforts to support communication programs related to family planning and population activities are based upon the belief that communication is essential to development. The organization's objectives are 1) to improve the availability and management of communications channels, media and techniques in all areas relevant to human development, including family planning and 2) to encourage the capacity of member countries in this area. Communications policy, especially with regard to family planning, has to regard the communications process as a continuum in which media, messages, and audiences become interdepentent. Family planning communications must offer more than information and publicity. It must be based on a continuing study of audiences and their responses along with sources, channels passages and techniques. As family planning programs are attempting to bring about behavior change, UNESCO's concern is with the feedback mechanisms that would make the media a real instrument of change in personal and community behavior, attitudes and thinking. UNESCO recognizes that initially with a problem as difficult as population growth, communications programs at 1st have to directly emphasize this 1 area. Subsequently, there needs to be an integration with communications programs for economic and social development, for over an extended period of time, family planning messages would either have to compete against other messages or become part of them.
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  25. 25

    Family Planning in the Middle East and North Africa.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    Beirut, Lebanon, United Publishers, March 1973

    A brief history of family planning in the Middle East and North Africa points out that the first written references to family planning date back nearly 4000 years. The first modern efforts in the region began in the 1930s in Egypt. Currently there are 2 distinct reasons for starting family planning programs; 1) for family welfare and benefit to maternal and child health and 2) the provision of family planning services as part of an over-all policy to reduce the birth rate. Egypt, Iran, Morocco and Tunisia adapted family planning programs to reduce the birth rate. Family planning activities in the other countries of the region are based on the health and family welfare approaches. An annotated list of Regional Training Member Associations is included.
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