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Washington, D.C., Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, Commercial Market Strategies, 2004 May. , 25 p. (Working Paper; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-98-00039-00)Although health-related CSR programs are fairly common, reproductive health (RH) and family planning (FP) initiatives are underrepresented in the global portfolio of CSR programs. These programs might include maternal and child health, STI/HIV/AIDS prevention and education, and provision of contraceptives. To help facilitate the inclusion of RH initiatives in CSR programs, this paper addresses the following questions: What are the motivations behind CSR programs, and what are current CSR trends? What characterizes different CSR models, and how does each model lend itself to the inclusion of family planning and reproductive health services? What opportunities exist for partnerships focused on reproductive health? To answer these questions, CMS conducted in-depth interviews with more than 50 business leaders whose companies are noted for their CSR programs. CMS’s research was designed to unearth the depth and detail of CSR processes from the corporate perspective, seeking to understand why corporations become involved in CSR, as well as how they do it, so that this knowledge could be applied to potential RH initiatives. CMS’s research clearly shows that corporate culture and values drive CSR initiatives. There are usually both internal and external motivations for these programs. Most companies do not view their social and financial responsibilities as mutually exclusive; instead, they link CSR to their core business strategies. CMS also found that a company’s stakeholders play an influential role in selecting and designing its CSR program. Companies are increasingly interested in forming partnerships with the public sector or NGOs, in order to bring technical expertise or other resources to CSR programs. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989. 55 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 102)After a brief explanation of the impact of breastfeeding on fertility worldwide, inaccurate assumptions about the decline of breastfeeding are explored to point out the need for renewed promotion of breastfeeding by World Bank projects. Breastfeeding, by inhibiting fertility through lactational anovulation, is one of the most important determinants of fertility, especially for 83% of couples in developing countries who do not use modern contraception. Many believe that breastfeeding does not need promoting in areas where it is the norm, yet this belief does not take into account the need for supporting breastfeeding women, teaching them to breastfeed exclusively and frequently for the 1st 4 months. The belief that declines in breastfeeding are inevitable is belied by recent evidence in developed countries. The reliability of breastfeeding as a contraceptive for individual women varies: poor, undernourished women who breastfeed extensively may be protected up to 21.7 months (Bangladesh). Advantages of breastfeeding include significant savings of money, foreign exchange, scarce contraceptive supplies, medical treatment of diarrhea and malnutrition in infants, and possibly mothers' time. In contrast, other caregivers can prepare milk substitutes, but breastfeeding can be encouraged in the work setting, or milk expressed for later use. A review of 68 World Bank Projects revealed that 37% of all Population, Health and Nutrition projects, enumerated in an appendix, contained explicit actions to promote breastfeeding. 10 recommendations for promoting breastfeeding end the report.
New York, N.Y., Family Planning International Assistance, International Division of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1981. 171 p.Add to my documents.
New York, N.Y., Family Planning International Assistance, International Division of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1980. 157 p.Add to my documents.
International consultation of NGOs on population issues in preparation of the 1984 United Nations International Conference on Population: report of the consultation.
[Unpublished] . 83 p.196 individuals from 44 countries, representing national and international non-governmental organizations, bilateral agencies and intergovernmental organizations attended the consultation. The purposes of the consultation were: 1) to provide an overview of the contributions of non-governmental organizations to the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action through a wide range of population and population related programs carried out since the Plan was adopted in 1974; 2) to explore what non-governmental organizations believe needs to be done in the world population field during the balance of the century; 3) to prepare for participation in the January 1984 Conference Preparatory Committee meeting and in the Conference itself to be held in August 1984; and 4) to provide suggestions for activities of national affiliates relative to the 1984 Conference. This report provides a synopsis of the plenary sessions and their recommendations. Addresses by numerous individuals covered the following topics: the creative role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the population field; vital contributions of NGO's to the implementation of the world population plan of action; the family; population distribution and migration; population, resources, environment and international economic crisis; mortality and health; and NGO prospects for the implementation of the world population plan of action.