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  1. 1

    Population issues: briefing kit 1992.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1992 Jul. [2], 21 p.

    The UN Family Planning (FP) Association briefing kit examines 10 key issues in the field of population and development: changes in population growth; balancing population growth in developing countries; population program needs for 2000; the right to FP; growing support for population policy; valuing women equally; balancing people with environmental resources; migration and urbanization; information, education, and communication (IEC); and overcoming the barriers to reliable statistics. These issues demand prompt and urgent action. World population is expected to reach 6 billion by 1998, or 250,000 births/day. 95% of population growth is in developing countries. There have been decreases in family size from 6.1 to 3.9 today, and population growth has declined, but the absolute numbers continue to increase. Over 50% of the world's population in 2000 will be under 25 years. Population growth is not expected to stop until 2200 at 11.6 billion. By 2020-25, the developed world's population will be under 20% and will account for 3% of the annual population increase. Africa's population growth is the fastest at 3.0%/year, including 3.2% in eastern and western Africa, while Europe's is .24%/year. The demographic trends are indicated by region. FP program funding needs to be doubled by 2000 to US $9 billion in order to achieve the medium or most likely projection. $4.5 billion would have to be contributed by developing countries to achieve coverage for 59% of women of reproductive age. Of the US $971 million contributed in 1990, the US contributed $281 million, followed by $64 million from Japan. Other large contributors were Norway, Germany, Canada, Sweden, the UK, and the Netherlands, including the World Bank. In 1990, 141 countries received international population assistance of US $602 million, of which Asia and the Pacific received 35%, sub-Saharan Africa 25%, Latin America 15%, the Middle East and North Africa 9%, Europe 1%, and interregional 15%. FP must be an attitude toward life. Having a national population policy and implementation of an integrated program with development is the objective for all countries. The best investment is in women through increasing educational levels and status and reducing maternal mortality. Policies must also balance resource use between urban and rural areas; urban strategies must include improvement in rural conditions.
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  2. 2

    Food production and the birth rate are in a new race.

    Lewis P

    NEW YORK TIMES. 1992 May 10; 4.

    English demographer Thomas Malthus argued that poverty and famine would control population. Accordingly, demographers expected famine to ravage populations of developing countries in the 1950s. Instead, revolutionary increases in the capacity to produce food were achieved, thereby allowing cultivated lands to support a doubling of the population to 5 billion by 1990. This green revolution largely eradicated endemic famine in Asia and Africa. Crop yields are now, however, increasing more slowly or declining in many areas of the developing world. Lack of water, deteriorating soil, and urban encroachment have forced farmers to scale back cultivation. Pessimists hold that we are nearing the maximum carrying capacity of the Earth and that the world cannot support another doubling of population. In contrast, others note that only few areas in the world are producing close to their theoretical capacities. Either way, large families may not be able to afford food when and if the second green revolution takes place. Developing country governments must try to both increase agricultural productivity within environmentally sustainable limits and help the rural poor to increase their incomes. Recognizing the need to reduce family size and population growth, the UN is launching a decade-long crash family planning program. If this effort fails, current 5.4 billion population may reach 10 billion by 2050 and level out at 11.5 billion after 2150. 97% of this growth is expected in developing countries.
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  3. 3

    Population: more than a numbers game.

    Walker A

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1991 Nov 9; 303(6811):1194-7.

    World population reached 5 billion on July 11, 1987. Current UNFPA projections predict world population stabilization at 10 billion by 2050. However, the current population is already exerting a tremendous amount of pressure on the carrying capacity of the planet. Ozone depletion, global warming, and acid rain are all the result of human activity at a level of half the current projection. World food production stabilized in 1988 and fell 5% in both 1987 and 1988. In both those years, world population grew 3.6% annually. Every year 14 million tons of grain production are lost to soil erosion, irrigation damage, poor land management, air pollution, flooding, acid rain, and increased ultraviolet radiation. Controlling population growth is not an easy task because of the complexities involved. Increasing female literacy and reducing infant mortality rates are very powerful means of controlling growth. China has served as the best example by reducing its growth rate from 4.75 in the early 70s to 2.36 in just 10 years. They accomplished this in a homogeneous society by making population control a civic duty. They provided rewards for small families and penalties for large ones. Family planning need is still very high, although it ranges from 12% in the Ivory Coast to 77% in the Republic of Korea. The UNFPA goal is to make family planning available to 59% os the world is couples by 2000. To do this, an additional US$9 billion needs to be spent which is a tiny fraction of total development aid to the 3rd world. In 1990 .9% of the total amount of development aid went to population and family planning programs.
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  4. 4

    1987 report by the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund. State of world population 1988. UNFPA in 1987.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. 189 p.

    Of major significance to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in 1987 was the fact that the world's population passed the 5 billion mark in that year. Although population growth rates are now slowing, the momentum of population growth ensures that at least another 3 billion people will be added to the world between 1985-2025. This increasing population pressure dictates a need for development policies that sustain and expand the earth's resource base rather than deplete it. Successful adaptation will require political commitment and significant investments of national resources, both human and financial. It is especially important to extend the reach of family planning programs so that women can delay the 1st birth and extend the intervals between subsequent births. Nearly all developing countries now have family planning programs, but the degree of political and economic support, and their effective reach, vary widely. In 1987, UNFPA assistance in this area totalled US$73.3 million, or 55% of total program allocations. During this year, UNFPA supported nearly 500 country and intercountry family planning projects, with particular attention to improving maternal-child health/family planning services in sub-Saharan Africa. As more governments in Africa became involved in Family planning programs, there was a concomitant need for all types of training programs. Other special program interests during 1987 included women and development, youth, aging, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This Annual Report includes detailed accounts of UNFPA program activities in 1987 in sub-Saharan Africa, Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Also included are reports on policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluation, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of supplies and equipment, multibilateral financing for population activities, and income and expenditures.
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