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  1. 1
    139113

    United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) moves Day of Six Billion from mid-June to 12 October 1999.

    POPULI. 1999 Jan; 25(4):3-4.

    Revised population estimates released last month by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs indicate that fertility levels in developing countries are dropping, partly due to improved reproductive health and family planning services and education for women. HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality are also helping to slow the rate of population growth in certain developing countries. The available data indicate a long-term decline to below replacement level fertility in most industrialized countries. These declines in fertility levels have caused the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to push back the date when world population will reach 6 billion people from June 16, 1999, to October 12, 1999. World population, however, continues to grow by 78 million people every year. 97% of that increase is in developing countries, where access to family planning and reproductive health services is limited.
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  2. 2
    130823
    Peer Reviewed

    The ICPD Programme of Action: pious hope or a workable guide?

    Sai FT

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:1-5.

    The consensus achieved at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) signaled a move away from discussing population issues in the context of demographic targets, toward global recognition that the problems associated with rapidly growing human populations are part of a broader human development agenda. Devoid of demographic targets, the ICPD program of action instead challenges countries to change their approach to population programs, family planning, and reproductive health. World Fertility Survey and Demographic and Health Survey data indicate a high level of unwanted fertility in almost all countries covered. The lack of availability or inaccessibility of family planning services is but one reason why there is so much unmet need. There would be greater uptake of family planning if services were planned with community involvement and oriented toward clients, offering them real choices and paying more attention to them as individuals and their overall circumstances. That expansion in concept and of services is at the core of the Cairo agenda. A number of countries around the world have started taking steps to broaden existing family planning and related programs to include other reproductive health information and services. Mexico and India are examples of two developing countries which are making program and structural changes in order to implement the ICPD recommendations, while most African countries have welcomed the approach and are looking for technical and resource help for implementation.
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  3. 3
    130822
    Peer Reviewed

    The new international population movement: a framework for a constructive critique.

    Basu AM

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:7-31.

    With the support of the international women's movement, the ideology and methods of traditional population policy were effectively attacked at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The author discusses some of the complaints about population policy and family planning programs, then considers the substantive, ethical, and feasibility issues of population and reproductive health policy. The majority of the international population movement's (IPM) new agenda is motivated by goals which tend to be more sensitive to individual needs and human rights than earlier, more impersonal versions of population policy in the developing world. Critical academic examination of the old IPM forced the discussion of the meaning of population policy and population research as they relate to the new reproductive health approach. However, the new population policy approach is now itself ready to be examined internally with regard to its practical recommendations and its assessment of the population problem. An internal critique developed by the movement but drawing upon the experience of mainstream population research and policy will strengthen the movement and hone its ability to match methods to goals. Internal dissent within the movement needs to be aired.
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  4. 4
    130821
    Peer Reviewed

    Reaching a stationary global population: what we have learnt, and what we must do.

    Caldwell JC

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:37-42.

    The onset of fertility decline in France during the late 18th century and broader decline during the last third of the 19th century in Western Europe and the English-speaking European colonies demonstrates that humans are willing to control their fertility. Fertility transition was a social phenomenon. It has also been observed that the idea of fertility decline can spread and be acted upon elsewhere. The events of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) are described and the need to control population growth in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed. While the ICPD's advocacy of improving women's autonomy, status, education, and reproductive health is laudable, those goals are opposed to that of completing the demographic transition. The existence of this opposition indicates that there have been changes in longstanding intellectual and technical aid consensuses. In the wake of the ICPD, developed country governments may never again emphasize the need for family planning programs in developing countries. The largest effect of such a course will probably be upon the demographic transition in sub-Saharan Africa. However, those interested in improving reproductive health in the Third World may join forces with the population movement when they realize that well-funded family planning programs are the key to improving reproductive health services.
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  5. 5
    099829

    Not high cost, only cost effective.

    FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1994; 10(2):2.

    The World Bank is currently one of the world's largest financiers of family planning and reproductive health services with education and family planning figuring as two cornerstones of the organization's action plan on population. It directs approximately $200 million annually to family planning programs and $2 billion to those in education. Budgets for family planning are slated to increase by 50% over the next two years. The bank currently supervises more than 80 projects in 59 countries, at a cost of $1.3 billion. $17 billion has been estimated in the draft program of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development as required to hold world population at 7.8 billion by the year 2000. Contradicting naysayers, the president of the World Bank, Lewis T. Preston, argues that neither the goal nor the ability to appropriate the requisite funds is a pipe dream. Much of the money required can be generated by redirecting resources toward priorities and ensuring that they are used efficiently. Approximately $5 billion per year is spent on family planning in developing countries, less than 5% of military expenditures. A basic preventive healthcare package including maternal and child care services can be provided at an annual cost of about $8/person in the poorest countries, while providing education to girls at the same rate as to boys would cost just under $1 billion, 2% of annual education spending by the developing world.
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  6. 6
    074615

    Population issues: briefing kit 1992.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1992 Jul. [2], 21 p.

    The UN Family Planning (FP) Association briefing kit examines 10 key issues in the field of population and development: changes in population growth; balancing population growth in developing countries; population program needs for 2000; the right to FP; growing support for population policy; valuing women equally; balancing people with environmental resources; migration and urbanization; information, education, and communication (IEC); and overcoming the barriers to reliable statistics. These issues demand prompt and urgent action. World population is expected to reach 6 billion by 1998, or 250,000 births/day. 95% of population growth is in developing countries. There have been decreases in family size from 6.1 to 3.9 today, and population growth has declined, but the absolute numbers continue to increase. Over 50% of the world's population in 2000 will be under 25 years. Population growth is not expected to stop until 2200 at 11.6 billion. By 2020-25, the developed world's population will be under 20% and will account for 3% of the annual population increase. Africa's population growth is the fastest at 3.0%/year, including 3.2% in eastern and western Africa, while Europe's is .24%/year. The demographic trends are indicated by region. FP program funding needs to be doubled by 2000 to US $9 billion in order to achieve the medium or most likely projection. $4.5 billion would have to be contributed by developing countries to achieve coverage for 59% of women of reproductive age. Of the US $971 million contributed in 1990, the US contributed $281 million, followed by $64 million from Japan. Other large contributors were Norway, Germany, Canada, Sweden, the UK, and the Netherlands, including the World Bank. In 1990, 141 countries received international population assistance of US $602 million, of which Asia and the Pacific received 35%, sub-Saharan Africa 25%, Latin America 15%, the Middle East and North Africa 9%, Europe 1%, and interregional 15%. FP must be an attitude toward life. Having a national population policy and implementation of an integrated program with development is the objective for all countries. The best investment is in women through increasing educational levels and status and reducing maternal mortality. Policies must also balance resource use between urban and rural areas; urban strategies must include improvement in rural conditions.
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  7. 7
    073212

    Food production and the birth rate are in a new race.

    Lewis P

    NEW YORK TIMES. 1992 May 10; 4.

    English demographer Thomas Malthus argued that poverty and famine would control population. Accordingly, demographers expected famine to ravage populations of developing countries in the 1950s. Instead, revolutionary increases in the capacity to produce food were achieved, thereby allowing cultivated lands to support a doubling of the population to 5 billion by 1990. This green revolution largely eradicated endemic famine in Asia and Africa. Crop yields are now, however, increasing more slowly or declining in many areas of the developing world. Lack of water, deteriorating soil, and urban encroachment have forced farmers to scale back cultivation. Pessimists hold that we are nearing the maximum carrying capacity of the Earth and that the world cannot support another doubling of population. In contrast, others note that only few areas in the world are producing close to their theoretical capacities. Either way, large families may not be able to afford food when and if the second green revolution takes place. Developing country governments must try to both increase agricultural productivity within environmentally sustainable limits and help the rural poor to increase their incomes. Recognizing the need to reduce family size and population growth, the UN is launching a decade-long crash family planning program. If this effort fails, current 5.4 billion population may reach 10 billion by 2050 and level out at 11.5 billion after 2150. 97% of this growth is expected in developing countries.
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  8. 8
    066414

    A case for promoting breastfeeding in projects to limit fertility.

    Berg A; Brems S

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989. 55 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 102)

    After a brief explanation of the impact of breastfeeding on fertility worldwide, inaccurate assumptions about the decline of breastfeeding are explored to point out the need for renewed promotion of breastfeeding by World Bank projects. Breastfeeding, by inhibiting fertility through lactational anovulation, is one of the most important determinants of fertility, especially for 83% of couples in developing countries who do not use modern contraception. Many believe that breastfeeding does not need promoting in areas where it is the norm, yet this belief does not take into account the need for supporting breastfeeding women, teaching them to breastfeed exclusively and frequently for the 1st 4 months. The belief that declines in breastfeeding are inevitable is belied by recent evidence in developed countries. The reliability of breastfeeding as a contraceptive for individual women varies: poor, undernourished women who breastfeed extensively may be protected up to 21.7 months (Bangladesh). Advantages of breastfeeding include significant savings of money, foreign exchange, scarce contraceptive supplies, medical treatment of diarrhea and malnutrition in infants, and possibly mothers' time. In contrast, other caregivers can prepare milk substitutes, but breastfeeding can be encouraged in the work setting, or milk expressed for later use. A review of 68 World Bank Projects revealed that 37% of all Population, Health and Nutrition projects, enumerated in an appendix, contained explicit actions to promote breastfeeding. 10 recommendations for promoting breastfeeding end the report.
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  9. 9
    062540

    The ethics of population control.

    Warwick DP

    In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. New York, New York/London, England, Praeger, 1990. 21-37.

    On the basis of the orthodox assumption that population growth constitutes an obstacle to economic development, most countries have established programs aimed at reducing fertility through contraception. The methods used by family planning programs, ranging from voluntary acceptance through educational and informational campaigns to financial incentives or disincentives to outright forced sterilization, raise complex ethical issues. Specifically, there are 5 ethical principles--freedom, justice, welfare, truth-telling, and security/survival--that can be used to evaluate deliberate attempts to control human fertility. Such an approach suggests that forced abortion, compulsory sterilization, and all other forms of heavy pressure on clients to accept a given means of fertility control violate human freedom, justice, and welfare. The violations inherent in financial incentives are demonstrated by the fact that they are attractive only to the poor and disadvantaged sectors of the population. Family planning programs that offer incentives to field workers to meet acceptor quotas often lead to a disregard of client health and welfare by subtly encouraging workers to withhold information on medical side effects, outright deceive clients about methods that are not being promoted by the family planning program, and fail to take the time for adequate medical counseling and follow-up. Even programs that provide free choice to clients are illusory if the methods offered include controversial agents such as Depo-Provera and acceptors lack the capacity to make an informed choice about longterm effects. Recommended is the establishment of an international code of ethics for population programs drafted by a broad working group that does not have a vested interest in the code's terms.
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  10. 10
    201524

    Family planning in a changing world: an IPPF reappraisal.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1987. v, 57, [6] p.

    The present survey of the international environment in which the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) operates shows many advances in family planning, in particular the strong commitment of most governments. But it also confirms that there is still an unmet need on a very large scale and in many countries the gap between knowledge and practice of family planning is striking evidence of the absence of services and of adequate motivation. The resurgence of opposition to family planning and the declining investment in contraceptive research are significant negative trends. A positive development of great importance to IPPF is the strong endorsement of the role of non-governmental organizations, and this represents a special challenge in the years ahead. Family planning associations (FPAs) retain, but could strengthen, their important role as advocates of family planning at the national level, now needed more than ever to counter new forms of opposition. Donors while anxious for FPAs to remain at the cutting edge, are in the main content with the contributions FPAs make as consumer-oriented, voluntary movements for family planning. The importance of IPPF for information, inspiration, and support is now more widely recognized among FPAs. IPPF's general principles include 1) human rights,2) a strong non-governmental role, 3) a voluntary movement, 4) autonomy and responsibility, 5) voluntary and informed choice, 6) advocacy, 7) improved service delivery, 8) increasing demand and practice, 9) meeting the needs of young people, 10) male involvement in family planning, 11) combining family planning with other development activities, 12) management training and program evaluation, 13) resource development at a local level, and 14) long-term planning.
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  11. 11
    054916

    The changing nature of population education for workers.

    Richards H

    INTERNATIONAL LABOUR REVIEW. 1988; 127(5):559-71.

    The efforts of the International Labour Office (ILO) to educate workers in developing countries about population issues and family planning are discussed. "The author traces the evolution of ILO thinking from population control to family planning to family and community welfare and discusses the rationale for concentrating on the industrial sector, the programmes' orientation, content and methods, and the need to involve personnel managers and trade union leaders in particular." (EXCERPT)
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  12. 12
    270580

    Worldwide reports on A.I.D. population programs, FY 1987.

    John Snow [JSI]. Family Planning Logistics Management Project

    Boston, Massachusetts, John Snow, Inc., 1988 Mar. 33 p. (Population Projects Database)

    This document contains, in looseleaf format, reports generated from the Office of Population's Population Projects Database (PPD) which is now maintained by John Snow's (JSI) Family Planning Logistics Management Project. JSI will issue "The Woldwide Report on A.I.D. and IPPF Funded Population Activities," also known as the "Subproject Activities Report," on a semi-annual basis. The fiscal year (FY) 1986 to FY 1987 is now available. Issued on an annual basis will be "The Country Funding Attribution Report"; the report for FY 1987 is included in the binder under the heading: CA Cost Report. Also provided is a list of current contracts, an acronym list, and an instruction manual for filling in the questionnaire on which the porject reports are based. A blank section is also provided for any special reports requested by the user from the Population Projects Database. Using the subproject activities report and the CA Cost Report together provides a full picture of population activities worldwide. Both reports are organized by country and both attempt to capture actual expenditures in prior years and expected expenditures in the current and future years. The reports differ in the following ways: the Subproject Activities Report focuses on in-country activities, including those carried out by A.I.D. Missions and Regional Bureaus, Cooperating Agencies and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It includes activities covered under host country contracts, but does not include certain US-based activities of Cooperating Agencies which support the Office of Population programs or those contracts that provide support solely in the form of technical assistance. Both descriptive and financial information is provided. The CA Cost Reports covers all contracts issued directly to Cooperating Agencies by the Office of Population as well as Mission "buy-ins" to those contracts. It does not cover other activities of A.I.D. Missions and Regional Bureaus, host country contract or activities of other international agencies. It is purely a financial report and focuses on the way total contract expenditures have been allocated among various cost categories. Both reports are prepared in tabular format. The PPD, wich was started in 1983, includes information on more than 2400 population assistance project activies funded by A.I.D. in over 100 countries; it also includes 600 projects funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and about 100 projects fund by IPPF. Reports on specific topics can be requested from JSI.
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  13. 13
    109688

    Employment-based family planning programs. L'emploi et le planning familial.

    Rinehart W; Blackburn R; Moore SH

    Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1987 Sept-Oct; (34):921-51.

    Family planning services through the workplace is an idea that is attracting more attention, benefit's workers, employers, and nations. Large manufacturers and plantations in India first offered family planning to workers in the 1950s. Now also in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, South Korea, Turkey, Egypt, Kenya, and elsewhere, many large companies have added family planning to other health services. In some Latin American countries social security systems have added family planning for many workers. Many different groups, including compaines, labor unions, government-sponsored social marketing programs, and the military, run employment-based programs. Services are offered in workplace clinics, through referrals, in free-standing facilities, in social security hospitals, and in community clinics. Funding comes from employers, governments, unions, family planning associations, and USAID. The most effective programs offer supplies and services as well as information, offer them directly at the workplace, and use worker-volunteers to distribute pills and condoms. Successful programs require the full support of company management. Favorable cost-benefit projections can show managers that offering family planning makes financial sense and contributes to employee health.
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  14. 14
    051486

    Financial resources for maternal/child health and family planning: a global review.

    Maine D; Wray J; Wallace M; Belsey M

    [Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the NCIH 11th Annual International Health Conference, Arlington, Virginia, Jun 11-13, 1984. 19 p. (NCIH 11th Annual International Health Conference Paper)

    This article discusses the relative merits of various maternal and child health interventions and programs. The Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH) has been studying international resources for maternal and child health (MCH), including family planning (FP) at the request of the Maternal and Child Health Program of the World Health Organization. A questionnaire was sent to 100s of donor agencies, including multilateral, bilateral and governmental agencies (NGOs). Data were obtained from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development which collects information on development cooperation from 17 developed countries. Despite its limitations, this study indicates important program implications. Over US$37 billion in official (government) development funds were disbursed in 1981, 73% of which came from DAC members. Of DAC members, the United States provides the largest amount of official development funding (US$5.8 billion in 1981). Nongovernmental funds for 1981 are estimated to be over US$2 billion. 6% of bilateral commitments for funding from DAC countries were for health in 1981, amounting to US$1.3 billion. The median allocations of funding to the sectors and programs of interest in various geographical regions are shown, indicating that in African countries a much smaller proportion of total development funding is allocated to health and population than in Asia or Latin America. Overall, about 10% of the reported international funding was allocated to health and population. In the last year or 2 numerous family planning projects (often integrated with health services) have been initiated in Africa. More money is available per eligible person in Africa than in other regions both for health and population services and for MCH/FP services because African countries have small populations compared to those in Asia and Latin America. For all regions, the US$s/per person eligible for services is very low. Only for all health and population services in Africa is there over US$1 available per person. In recent years a large proportion of agencies have increased funding of MCH/FP. 46 of 53 agencies indicated they would consider increasing funding. The priority of possible services should be considered carefully if they are to reach the vast number of women and children needing services in developing countries.
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  15. 15
    267402

    The United Nations' flawed population policy.

    Huessy PR

    Washington, D.C., Heritage Foundation, 1984 Aug 27. 16 p. (Backgrounder No. 376)

    The United Nations' 2nd World Population Conference (Mexico City, 1984) called for greatly expanding funding for family planning assistance worldwide. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the conference's chief sponsor, will no doubt receive the largest portion of any assistance increase. UNFPA plays a critical role in population-related programs worldwide. The central debate on population policy should be over the extent and adequacy of the natural resources base and how countries can humanely and voluntarily change family size preferences. In countries like Singapore and South Korea, success has been achieved by combining social and economic incentives to discourage large families. Although couples in developing countries report wanting contraceptive service programs, they also want families of 4 to 6 children. So far UNFPA has been ineffective in changing the population situation. This overview of its activities reveals that UNFPA loses ultimate reponsibility for implementation of many of its own programs. UNFPA does not advocate a reduction in population growth within a single country, but rather helps couples have the number of children they desire. UNFPA's specific population and family programs are divided into functional areas: basic data collection, population change study, formulation and implementation of population policies, support for family planning/maternal child health programs and educational and communication programs. UNFPA stresses the importance of using contraceptives but not of achieving the small family norm. UNFPA's projects in some of the largest less developed nations are described, illustrating how the UN agency spends its assistance funds. From 1971 to 1982, the UNFPA spent almost US $230 million in the 10 largest less developed countries without any significant change in population growth. UNFPA program administrators are far from resolving the serious population problems facing developing countries and generally oblivious to new directions in which population policies should move. No progress will be made until UNFPA recognizes the need to approach the problem from a different perspective, working to change attitudes toward small families.
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  16. 16
    266944

    International consultation of NGOs on population issues in preparation of the 1984 United Nations International Conference on Population: report of the consultation.

    [Unpublished] [1984]. 83 p.

    196 individuals from 44 countries, representing national and international non-governmental organizations, bilateral agencies and intergovernmental organizations attended the consultation. The purposes of the consultation were: 1) to provide an overview of the contributions of non-governmental organizations to the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action through a wide range of population and population related programs carried out since the Plan was adopted in 1974; 2) to explore what non-governmental organizations believe needs to be done in the world population field during the balance of the century; 3) to prepare for participation in the January 1984 Conference Preparatory Committee meeting and in the Conference itself to be held in August 1984; and 4) to provide suggestions for activities of national affiliates relative to the 1984 Conference. This report provides a synopsis of the plenary sessions and their recommendations. Addresses by numerous individuals covered the following topics: the creative role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the population field; vital contributions of NGO's to the implementation of the world population plan of action; the family; population distribution and migration; population, resources, environment and international economic crisis; mortality and health; and NGO prospects for the implementation of the world population plan of action.
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  17. 17
    260467

    Assistance to fertility regulation projects within the United Nations system.

    SOM RK

    Population Bulletin of the United Nations. 1977; 10:36-62.

    A review was undertaken to summarize information on the amount of technical assistance provided within the U.N. system to fertility regulation projects through 1976. Projects funded by the U.N. Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) included family planning delivery systems, which received an average of 71% of all funding for fertility regulation; and program development for family planning, which received 7% of this funding. Total assistance granted by UNFPA to fertility regulation projects increased from $4.6 million before 1972 to $43.2 million in 1976. The amount given to fertility regulation relative to the amount given to other population projects averaged 49% for the period and 53% in 1976. Assistance to country fertility projects consistently increased from 60% before 1972 to 87% in 1976. However, assistance to regional projects declined from 18% before 1972 to 5% in 1976. The World Bank and its affiliate, the International Development Association (IDA) had loaned a total of $134.5 million to 12 different countries by the end of 1976. These loans financed construction, vehicles, furniture and equipment as well as training, demographic research and assessment, management and other technical assistance to fertility regulation programs. Anticipated improvements in the range and standardization of data should permit future reviews to provide more detailed analysis dealing with additional aspects of the assistance given to fertility regulation projects.
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  18. 18
    032908

    The Vatican and population growth control. Why an American confrontation?

    Mumford SD

    Humanist. 1983 Sep-Oct; 43(5):18-24, 34.

    The writer's purpose is to document why an American confrontation with the Vatican over its anti-family planning efforts is a prerequisite to removal of this obstruction. The role of the Roman Catholic Church is seen as an important factor in thwarting organized family planning efforts; it is a variable which must enter population scientists' search for the determinants of fertility. Reasons for which communication with the leadership of the Church will not occur are discussed. Among those is the introduction, under President Reagan, of an administration which is the most Catholic in American history. In addition, international agencies' "population moneys" are being spent for "general development" and not on family planning. It is argued that Catholics have been primarily responsible for propagating the strategy "development will take care of population growth". The decline of the world population growth control effort in the past couple of years has coincided with the activities of the Pope and his position that immoral contraception must be fought. It is claimed that until this stronghold on predominantly Catholic countries is reduced, and the Vatican's strong influence on international donor agencies is eliminated, very little improvement in world efforts to control population growth can be expected. The Vatican's control over governments in predominantly Catholic countries is illustrated by excerpts from a study by a Canadian sociologist who points out that the world is faced with Vatican imperialism to some extent. This article concludes that nothing significant is likely to happen in population control efforts until the United States confronts the Vatican on this issue as the weak governments of most nations would not survive such as effort.
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