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New York, New York, UNFPA, 1999. iv, 25 p.The purpose of this new guidebook is to provide a brief checklist of essential actions to help logistics managers worldwide ensure that service programmes always have adequate supplies of contraceptives and other products that they need for clients. The guidebook begins with an overview of the resupply systems that logistics managers must direct; it elaborates the actions that would ensure that each stage of the resupply process is completed before initiating actions that depend upon the completion of previous tasks; and it includes a list of the principal sources of technical information with which the logistics manager should be familiar. (excerpt)
Family Life Association of Swaziland [FLAS] community-based distribution (CBD) pilot project evaluation.
In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar.  p. (SWA-01)The Family Life Association of Swaziland (FLAS), an associate member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, provides family planning (FP) services through a network of 3 clinics and through industry- and community-based distributors (CBDs). FLAS is the second largest provider of FP services in Swaziland, supplying approximately 30% of all services available. In 1986, FLAS initiated a 2-year CBD pilot project to demonstrate the effectiveness of an alternative service delivery approach to increase contraceptive availability and use in rural areas. If effective, the model was to be recommended for replication on a larger scale in similar rural settings. FLAS conducted an internal assessment of its activities in 1987. The evaluation found that the project's immediate objectives had been met and the project had community support. However, the future of the pilot project was not adequately addressed in the internal evaluation. Ministry of Health officials determined there was a need for additional information in order to decide the pilot program's future. The Population Council conducted the first external evaluation of the FLAS' CBD project. The pilot CBD project successfully demonstrated that CBD of FP services can increase contraceptive availability and accessibility in underserved rural areas. Success in terms of service use was influenced by the level and quality of supervision, the appropriate selection of agents and areas, and adequate training. An area of need in the expanded program is to broaden the choice of methods given to clients in order to increase service coverage. Several research topics related to improved delivery and sustainability of CBD services were identified.
In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar.  p. (KEN-13)For the past 20 years, Chogoria Hospital has run a steadily expanding clinic and community-based health service program in Meru District. This hospital, with its 32 satellite clinics and its catchment area, has been renowned for its high contraceptive prevalence and low fertility rate compared to the Kenyan national average and that of many sub-Saharan countries. Several factors have contributed to this success, including community-based distribution by family health educators (FHEs) and community health workers (CHWs). Through these community-based distributors, family planning (FP), child welfare, and antenatal clients who fail to turn up for appointments within a month after the default date are followed-up and encouraged to visit a clinic. Financial support for this default tracking system has been ensured through donor funds. Lately, however, the longterm sustainability and usefulness of the tracking system have been questioned. In response to this concern, the management at Chogoria Hospital asked The Population Council to evaluate the default tracking system. This study, which cost US $15,080, determined the extent to which the default tracking system is effective in identifying, tracking, and bringing defaulters back to the program. In addition, the cost of tracking down and bringing back a client was determined. A third component involved assessing the attitude of clients towards this activity and their consequent behavior when they visit Chogoria or other clinics. Data were collected from interviews with 654 defaulting clients using a general questionnaire and 3 other ones specific to FP, child welfare, and antenatal issues. 4 teams composed of local school teachers, with heads of schools acting as supervisors, identified and interviewed the defaulters over a period of 13 days. The teams, who had substantial previous experience in interviewing and data collection, received a week-long training session which included 2 days of fieldwork. A different questionnaire was used to collect information from CHWs. These data were supplemented by information received from field team observations. True defaulters were few, and the impact of CHWs and FHEs in bringing back these clients was low (11-17%). The benefits derived from bringing back a defaulter were negligible compared to the high cost of deploying the CHWs and FHEs. As a result, it was recommended that the default tracking system be discontinued. In addition, it was suggested that the CHWs and FHEs be supervised more effectively and that they concentrate their efforts on other community health activities such as primary health care counseling.
Proceedings of the Caribbean Regional Conference "Operations Research: Key to Management and Policy", Dover Convention Centre, St. Lawrence, Barbados, May 31 - June 2, 1989.
[New York, New York], Population Council, 1989. 19,  p.Objectives, proceedings, and conclusions of a Caribbean regional conference on operations research (OR) in maternal-child health and family planning programs (FP/MCH) are summarized. Sponsored by the Population Council, USAID, and UNICEF, participants included policy makers, program managers, service providers, and representatives from international agencies in health and family planning from Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Mexico, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. The conference was held with hopes of contributing to the legitimization of OR as a management tool, and helping to develop a network of program directors and researchers interested in using OR for program improvement. Specifically, participants were called upon to review the progress and results of recent regional OR projects, analyze the utilization of these projects by policy makers and program managers, highlight regional quality of care, and establish directions for future projects in the region. Overall, the conference contributed to the dissemination and documentation of OR, and provided a forum in which to identify important service, research, and policy issues for the future. OR can improve FP/MCH services, and make positive contributions to the social impact of these programs. The unmet need of teenagers and men and structural adjustment were identified as issues of concern. Strategies will need to be developed to maintain currently high levels of contraceptive prevalence, while responding to the needs of special groups, with OR expected to focus on the quality of care especially in education and counseling, and screening and user follow-up. The technical competence of service providers and follow-up mechanisms are both in need of improvement, while stronger institutional and management capabilities should be developed through training and human resource development.
[Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the National Family Planning and Sex Education Programme of Costa Rica.
[Unpublished] 1980 Mar. 89 p.This report of the evaluation of UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance to Costa Rica's National Family Planning and Sex Education Program covers the following: 1) project dimension and purpose of the evaluation, scope and methodology of the evaluation, composition of the mission, and constraints; 2) background information; 3) 1974-77 family planning/sex education program (overview, immediate objectives, strategy, activities and targets, and institutional framework); 4) planned and actual inputs and rephasing in 1978-79; 5) family planning activities (physical facilities and types of services provided, recruitment of new users, continuation of users within the program, distribution of contraceptive supplies, sterilizations, and indicators of program impact); 6) training and supervision; 7) education, information, and communication (formal and nonformal education, educational activities in the clinics, and the impact of the nonformal educational program); 8) maternal and child health (maternal health indicators, cytological examinations, and infant mortality); 9) program evaluation and research; 10) population policy; 11) program administration; 12) some general conclusions regarding the performance of the program; and 13) the program beyond 1979. UNFPA evaluations are independent, in depth analyses, prepared and conducted by the Office of Evaluation, usually with the assistance of outside consultants. The process of analysis used in the evaluation follows a logical progression, i.e., that which underlines the original program design. Evaluation assessment includes an analysis of inputs and outputs, an investigation of the interrelationship among activities, an indication of the effectiveness of activities in achieving the objectives, and an assessment of duplication of activities or lack of coverage and the effect of this on realization of the objectives. The program was able to expand the coverage of family planning activities but has been unsuccessful in having a population policy established. The number of hospitals, health centers, and rural health posts providing family planning services was tripled in the 1974-77 period. The program could not achieve its targets in number of new users, and it recruited in 1977, only 11% of the total population of the country, against the 20% planned. It has been estimated that between 1973-77 around 231,200 births or 44.4% of those possible had been averted. Training and supervision has been a weak area of the program. A large number of professors have been trained in sex education, but no evaluation has been undertaken of the likely impact of this trained staff at the school level. The information, education, and communication (IEC) program has been successful in taking information and education to the population on family planning/sex education concerns but less successful in motivating the political groups to formulate a population policy.
Program report [of the Central America regional seminar-workshop entitled] New Focuses of Family Planning Program Administration: Analysis of Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys and Other Program Data, [held in] Antigua, Guatemala, May 25-30, 1980.
[Washington, D.C., CEFPA, 1980.] 30 p. (Contract AID/pha-c-1187)This report 1) presents a summary of the planning process of the seminar-workshop in family planning held in Antigua, Guatemala from May 25-30, 1980; 2) reviews program content and training methodology; and 3) provides feedback on the evaluation of the program and in-country follow-up responses to the workshop. Negotiations were made between the Centre for Population Activities (CEFPA) officials, USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) population/health officials, and family planning officials from each participating country to elicit program suggestions and support. The ensuing communication process facilitated the development of the program in many ways, including: 1) program design, which incorporated in-country family planning program needs, suggested workshop topics, and country-specific requests for workshop objective; 2) participant selection; and 3) USAID mission commitment. The workshop aimed to provide an opportunity for leaders of family planning and related programs to make an intelligent and effective use of data available to them. The training methodology consisted of structured small-group exercises. Program content included: 1) contraceptive prevalence survey case exercise, which aims to identify problem areas and need in the delivery of family planning and maternal child health services as a tool in assessing progress towards family planning goals; 2) other data sources available to family planning program managers, including World Fertility Survey data and program service statistics; 3) program alternatives in the form of mini-workshops on such topics as logistics management, improving clinic efficiency, primary health and family planning, adolescent fertility, and voluntary sterilization; and 4) program planning, which enables participants to interpret data and apply them in the planning process. In evaluating the workshop, a majority of the participants reported that the workshop and their own personal objectives were either completely or almost completely achieved, and they also indicated that more workshops at the regional and national levels should be conducted.
Population growth problem in developing countries: coordinated assistance essential, Report to the Congress of the United States by the Comptroller General.
Wash., D.C., GAO, 1978 Dec. 91 p.This document argues that a formal coordinating mechanism should be established to oversee the increasing bilateral and multilateral assistance funds being channeled into population activities in developing countries. Effective coordination is needed, according to the General Accounting Office, to ensure that funds are applied to the highest priorities, to maximize efficiency of country programs, and to take advantage of opportunities of cost reduction. The report is based on visits to 6 countries including Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Thailand, and interviews with U.S. ambassadors, AID mission directors, officials of donor organizations and host governments, and visits to headquarters of voluntary organizations and the 3 principal donors of population assistance. Viewpoints of the officials and agencies contacted and provisions for coordination within country programs are described. In-country coordination was found to consist largely of informal discussion among field representatives, officials of several voluntary organizations warned that overdeveloped coordination would be counterproductive, and officials of AID, the World Bank, and UNFPA, the main donors, felt that obstacles in the way of greater coordination were many. The GAO was unable to identify instances of unproductive duplication.
Current approaches to strengthening the management of national maternal / child health and family planning programs.
[Unpublished] . 7 p.This presentation provides an overview of past efforts by the WHO to support management development in health and to describe some of the specific methods being used in the Family Health Division. WHO has for many years recognized the importance of sound program management and has striven to support countries in practical ways to strengthen management skills, procedures and practices. Certain programs have designed and provided tailor-made management training for the improvement of specific types of services. Generally, WHO has attempted to develop and share methods in health planning and management which were felt of potential usefulness to national administrations. The current management strengthening activities discussed in this paper are the following: 1) rapid evaluation of maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) programs; 2) district team problem-solving in MCH/FP; 3) application of patient flow analysis in clinics; 4) development of indicators for managing MCH/FP services; and 5) the national formulation of major UN Population Fund Projects in MCH/FP.
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1997. , 65 p. (Western Pacific Education in Action, Series No. 10)The health of mothers and children in developing countries continues to lag far behind that in the developed world. As a result of cultural factors and a lack of access to essential services, women are often denied freedom of reproductive choice. This manual was prepared by the World Health Organization to assist managers of health services, especially at the district level, to ensure the availability of high-quality maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) care in developing countries. MCH/FP program management has gained recognition as an essential component of adequate reproductive health care. Practical guidelines are presented on how to plan, implement, and evaluate MCH/FP programs as well as how to establish objectives, strategies, training activities, and evaluation procedures.
STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1997 Jun; 28(2):79-94.In response to difficulties associated with the introduction of new contraceptive technologies to public sector service systems, the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction has formulated a new model. The strategic approach to contraceptive introduction shifts the emphasis from the promotion of a particular technology to quality of care issues, a reproductive health focus, and users' perspectives and needs. It further entails a participatory approach with collaboration among governments, women's health groups, community groups, nongovernmental providers, researchers, international donors, and technical assistance agencies. The underlying philosophy is that method introduction should proceed only when a system's ability to provide high-quality services exists or can be generated. Since 1993, WHO has provided support for the implementation of this perspective in public sector programs in Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Myanmar, South Africa, Viet Nam, and Zambia. Preliminary assessments in these countries revealed major structural, managerial, and philosophical barriers to high-quality family planning services. In cases where assessments have indicated the feasibility of new method introduction, this has been implemented through a carefully phased, research-based process intended to encourage the development of appropriate managerial capacity and to promote a humanistic philosophy of care.
PROGRESS IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION RESEARCH. 1996; (38):6.An assessment conducted in South Africa with the goal of formulating recommendations for a national reproductive health policy identified numerous problems with existing services, including a limited contraceptive availability through the public sector, a neglect of barrier methods despite a high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), significant unmet need among adolescents and rural residents, and inadequate technical capabilities. Over 70% of contraceptive usage (even higher levels in underserved areas) involved injectables. Despite a high demand, female sterilization is rarely offered because of inadequate facilities, a lack of trained physicians, the risk of sterilization failure due to poor surgical technique, and the requirement for husband's consent. Of particular concern was the lack of resources for the diagnosis and treatment of STDs. The assessment team recommended that family planning services should be expanded to include a broader range of barrier methods, emergency contraception, and improved access to surgical sterilization. In addition--and in conformity with South Africa's ongoing health sector reform, the team stressed that any contraceptive introduction effort should operate within the district model. Recommended was development of a series of district-based projects in several provinces to identify changes in service delivery administration and operations necessary to expand contraceptive choice through the planned introduction of appropriate methods. However, research related to improving the use of existing methods was deemed more important at this time than the introduction of new methods. The assessment was conducted according to a three-stage model devised by the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction.
PROGRESS IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION RESEARCH. 1996; (38):5-6.An assessment of contraceptive needs undertaken in Zambia in 1995 resulted in calls for fundamental changes in the provision of reproductive health services. The assessment team found that use of the diaphragm, IUD, foam, injectables, and implants was negligible due to constraints in the service delivery system, client and provider misinformation, and weaknesses in the management support system. Increases in the number of methods available at a given service delivery point did not, in themselves, enhance contraceptive choice. For example, many clinics in the 13 districts visited had adequate IUD supplies; however, they lacked personnel with the experience to perform pelvic examinations, detect sexually transmitted diseases, or insert the device. A review of these findings at a national workshop attended by 120 community and government representatives led to the recommendation that user-friendly service delivery guidelines be developed and field-tested and--ultimately--to production of the document, "Family Planning in Reproductive Health: Policy Framework and Guidelines." The Ministry of Health has adopted these guidelines as its future agenda for health services research. Any introduction of new contraceptive methods will be based on an assessment of both users' needs and service capabilities. For example, Norplant will be available only at a small number of urban centers capable of backing up this method with adequate program support and quality of care. The assessment was conducted according to a three-stage model devised by the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Stage II research will accompany the introduction of Depo-Provera to selected Zambian districts and explore the need for emergency contraception.
PROGRESS IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION RESEARCH. 1996; (38):4-5.An assessment conducted in municipalities in four of Brazil's nine states in 1993 revealed high rates of unwanted fertility. As many as 58% of pregnant women reported that their current pregnancy was either unwanted or mistimed. Despite Ministry of Health approval for the provision of oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, spermicides, diaphragms, and natural family planning methods, public-sector programs generally offered a limited range of contraceptive options and frequently were out of supplies. Also observed by the assessment team was a strong medical (as opposed to primary health care) orientation among contraceptive providers and a lack of training of physicians and nurses in family planning. On the basis of this assessment, the team recommended that efforts be directed toward strengthening the provision of methods that are often unavailable (e.g., IUDs, barrier methods, and lactational amenorrhea) rather than expanding contraceptive options. Research currently underway in Sao Paulo state seeks to identify the operational and management changes necessary to broaden contraceptive choice and improve the quality of reproductive health services. A data collection and information retrieval system has been set up to record health post activities, and a family planning training and referral system has been established. The Brazil assessment was conducted according to a three-stage model devised by the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction.
PROGRESS IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION RESEARCH. 1996; (38):2-4.The UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction has developed a three-stage model for the introduction of new contraceptive methods that emphasizes both users' needs for additional contraceptive choices and the ability of the family planning service to provide these methods with suitable quality of care. The three stages of this approach, which has been field-tested in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, are: 1) assessment, 2) research to guide decision making about contraceptive introduction, and 3) use of research for policy and planning as the method is made more widely available. Assessment in the first stage is based on determining whether there is a need for a new contraceptive method, for improved use of existing methods, or for withdrawing methods whose safety and efficacy have not been established or have been replaced by improved formulations. Research in the second stage addresses the ability of the program to provide the method within the context of the current method mix and user attitudes toward both the method and the service delivery system. In the third stage, research activities are focused on ensuring that previous research findings are applied systematically to upgrade the quality of care, ensure contraceptive availability, and promote program sustainability. Advantages of this model over previous approaches include its orientation to the entire mix of methods provided and its recognition that methods must be matched with management capabilities to ensure they are provided appropriately. Also unique is its insistence that users as well as administrators should participate in the research and decision-making processes and that decisions should be driven by country needs rather than by donor priorities.
PROGRESS IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION RESEARCH. 1996; (38):1.Before new contraceptive options are introduced to a family planning program, administrators must ensure that the methods are needed and that the service delivery system can provide them with appropriate quality of care. The UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction has devised a three-stage research approach to the introduction of fertility regulation methods. This model allows for consideration of factors such as the total mix of methods available, sociocultural factors that influence contraceptive acceptance and use, provider skills and capabilities, and the managerial and logistic systems required for service delivery. Moreover, it calls for the participation of all those affected by method introduction, including policymakers, program managers, women's groups, and young people. Finally. the introduction of a contraceptive method is conceptualized as an opportunity to improve the quality of care associated with the provision of all available methods.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1990. iii, 92 p.The introductory chapter in this book notes that it is aimed at program managers and that it examines the integration of maternal-child health services (including family planning) with primary health care. The book identifies barriers to such integration, clarifies the issues involved, and provides examples of current innovations in the field. Chapter 2 provides background information on maternal and child health and primary health care. The third chapter gives an overview of program-related issues such as putting integration in place, the use of static versus mobile health units, expanded coverage, utilization of the work-force, appropriate technology, support services, cost effectiveness, using the epidemiological concepts of relative and attributable risk, health systems research, community relations, and finances. Chapter 4 considers how to plan integrated services at the community, health center, district, and national levels. The summary contained in the final chapter points out that the integration of maternal-child health services within primary health care will lead to wider health coverage, more efficient use of personnel, and greater cost effectiveness.
In: Innovative approaches to population programme management. Volume 3. Reproductive health, edited by Jay Satia, Sharifah Tahir. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes [ICOMP], 1995. 1-10.The Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development set forth a goal of achieving comprehensive reproductive health for men, women, and adolescents. Reproductive health problems, which affect from a half a million to hundreds of millions of people worldwide each year, include unmet family planning (FP) needs, infertility, maternal mortality and morbidity, perinatal mortality, low-birth-weight infants, unsafe abortions, HIV infections, AIDS, curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and female genital mutilation. Reproductive health services, therefore, include FP services, prevention and treatment of reproductive tract infections and STDs, prevention and assessment of HIV/AIDS cases, maternal and child care, prevention and treatment of infertility, prevention of abortion and management of its consequences, gynecological services, and active discouragement of harmful practices. The paradigm shift necessary to provide such services requires reorientation and restructuring of programs, paying attention to gender issues, establishing partnerships, and strengthening leadership. Innovative programs that address elements of reproductive health care include the efforts of Brazil's PRO-PATER to include and serve men, an innovative STD clinic in Kenya, family welfare services provided to employees by the Tata Iron and Steel Company in India, and the UMATI youth program in Tanzania in which youth are trained as peer counselors.
In: The United Nations Population Award, 1993. Laureates: Dr. Frederick T. Sai and Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Shimbun. Acceptance speeches and other statements. Award ceremony, New York, 16 September 1993. [Unpublished] 1993. .Nafis Sadik, Secretary of the Committee for the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), summarized the accomplishments of the recipients of the 1993 UNFPA award. Awards were presented to Dr. Frederick T. Sai of Ghana and to the Population Problems Research Council of Mainichi Shimbun of Japan. The 10 members of the selection committee represented 10 member countries of the UN. Awards are based on accomplishments in creating awareness of and solutions to population questions. Dr. Sai was selected for his leadership and organizational ability in assisting developing countries in establishing family planning (FP) programs. Dr. Sai is known for his expertise and research in nutrition, community welfare, and FP. The Population Research Council was selected for its achievements in using the Mainichi Shimbun, a leading Japanese newspaper, to provide information on population issues and in other efforts to publish population information. The Council is known for its biennial surveys of FP in Japan between 1950 and the present. The awards help to focus and highlight awareness on population and related issues. The following documents are included in the 1993 award booklet: statements of the Secretary General and the Chairman of the UNFPA Award Committee and the acceptance speeches of Dr. Sai and Mr. Tadao Koike, President of the Population Research Council of Mainichi Shimbun. These statements were made to remind people of the importance of population programs and to indicate what can be achieved.
In: The United Nations Population Award, 1993. Laureates: Dr. Frederick T. Sai and Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Shimbun. Acceptance speeches and other statements. Award ceremony, New York, 16 September 1993. [Unpublished] 1993. 10-6.The 1993 UN Population award was given to Dr. Frederick R. Sai of Ghana. In his acceptance speech, Dr. Sai gave special thanks to President Hurtado of Mexico and thanks for the opportunity of working at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. A special tribute was given by Dr. Sai to his 92-year-old mother, who though illiterate, widowed early, and very poor, encouraged her son educationally. His wife and family received thanks for their support of his chosen profession in clinical and public health nutrition. This field opened up his awareness of the need for family planning. The horror of kwashiorkor remains an important remembrance of the too close spacing of births. Special thanks were directed to Professor Scrimshaw of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, the late Professors Ben Platt of the University of London and Jean Mayer of Harvard and Tufts Universities, and Dr. Julia Henderson at the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Thanks also were given to Dr. Sai's staff and volunteers at IPPF and to the many unrewarded and unrecognized people who devote themselves to concerns for motherhood and child health, human rights, and quality of life through family planning. Dr. Sai dedicated his prize to all the malnourished children and their parents who trusted in the future and helped with the studies without knowing for certain whether they would survive the next rainy season. These mothers are the hope of Africa. The quotation from Thomas Gray's Elegy in a Country Churchyard is reoriented to the African context and restated as "Fair science frowns not on her humble birth, and Melancholy marks her for her own." Drudgery and melancholy appear daily in the lives of African girls whose lack of access to general and science education influences their ability to care for themselves and their children. The education of women is of great concern, and progress worldwide is still limited. The call is for all to work together, regardless of differences, to improving conditions for the education of women. Safe motherhood is still a goal. Technology is available, but women's full control of their own fertility and quality information and services are the best method.
In: The United Nations Population Award, 1993. Laureates: Dr. Frederick T. Sai and Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Shimbun. Acceptance speeches and other statements. Award ceremony, New York, 16 September 1993. [Unpublished] 1993. 5-9.This statement was made by Dr. Nicolaas H. Biegman in introducing the winners of the UN Population Award for 1993. 10 individuals and eight institutions received past awards. Current Committee members represent Burundi, Belarus, Cameroon, Ecuador, El Salvador, India, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Rwanda. The Secretary General and the Executive Director of the UN Population Fund also participate in the decision making. Past honorary members are Mrs. Robin Chandler Duke, a champion of health education and family planning (FP) and women's reproductive rights and Chairperson of Population Action International, and H.E., Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, a former President of Mexico and host of the 1984 International Conference on Population in Mexico City. Nonattendees and past honorary members include Mr. Takao Fukuda, the former Prime Minister of Japan, and Mr. Bradford Morse, former Ambassador of the UN Development Program. The award for 1993 was presented to Dr. Fred Sai and to the Population Problems Research Council (PPRC) of the Mainichi Shimbun, Japan. Dr. Sai was recognized for his achievements in assisting developing countries and for demonstrated expertise in population and FP and community health and nutrition. His considerable organizational skills were instrumental in the formation of National FP Associations in several African countries and of other international groups such as the Conference on Population and the 1987 WHO and UN Children's Fund Meeting on Infant and Young Child Feeding. Dr. Sai served as Chairman of the Preparatory Committee for the forthcoming UN Conference on Population and Development. His writings reflect both the practical need for comprehensive approaches to development and compassion and concern for ethical and human dimensions. Dr. Sai has promoted FP in his capacity as President of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Recognition is given to Mainichi Shimbun's PPRC for its lengthy outstanding achievements in promoting domestic population awareness and in encouraging Japan's support for global programs. Both awards show how individuals and institutions can find solutions and promote awareness and understanding of population issues.
In: The United Nations Population Award, 1993. Laureates: Dr. Frederick T. Sai and Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Shimbun. Acceptance speeches and other statements. Award ceremony, New York, 16 September 1993. [Unpublished] 1993. 1-4.This statement by Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary General of the UN, introduces the new 1993 winners of the UN Population Award. The winners are Dr. Fred Sai of Ghana and the Population Problems Research Council (PPRC) of Mainichi Shimbun, represented by the President, Mr. Takao Koike. The award is shared this year because of the pioneering efforts of this individual and this institution. The UN General Assembly established this award in 1981 in order to recognize within the international community the outstanding contributions of individuals and groups to population issues. The awards recognize accomplishments achieved under different national, social, and economic conditions. The 1993 award winners highlight new possibilities in a world where the greatest challenge is development. Peace is tied to development, and democracy and human rights will not be attained without development. Social peace and political stability are intertwined in the process. Poverty is prevalent in countries where there are large families. Food production is strained by population numbers. Food purchases may not be an option for some. There is pressure to work marginal land and to overwork fertile land. These practices harm the environment and are not sustainable. Rural conditions promote migrations to cities, which, under conditions of rapid growth, creates social deprivation, tension, and disease as well as some social and economic advantages. International migration is also desirable as a means of obtaining a higher quality of life. Family life can be disrupted, and women are placed in hardship positions. The UN Population Fund has recognized international migration and mass movements due to war, famine, natural disaster, and economic conditions. The impact on regulation has proven to be troublesome. The State of World Population report identifies social tension and political upheaval as potential outcomes. The UN Population Fund's activities should be viewed as part of a wider effort in balancing development with population, consumption, and environmental concerns. Dr. Sai is recognized for leadership in family planning, primary health care, and community participation. The PPRC is recognized for its research studies and surveys on population issues.
In: The United Nations Population Award, 1993. Laureates: Dr. Frederick T. Sai and Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Shimbun. Acceptance speeches and other statements. Award ceremony, New York, 16 September 1993. [Unpublished] 1993. 17-20.The acceptance statement of Mr. Takao Koike to the Committee for the UN Population Award for 1993 includes a thank you to the UN Committee on behalf of the Population Problems Research Council, of which Mr. Koike is President. The address summarizes the 44 years of Council operations. The population need in 1949 was to come to terms with the 6.2 million people crowded on four islands and beset with hunger and unemployment. Eight million infants were born between 1947-49. In 1952, the newspaper Mainichi Shimbum, which supports the Council, invited Margaret Sanger to address the issue of birth control. Her views were heard in three major cities, on radio shows, and among women's groups. Interest in family planning increased following her visit. The largest activity of the Council is the continuation of the annual National Opinion Survey on Family Planning which was established in 1950. The 21 surveys that were conducted illustrate the Japanese demographic transition. The Council is now prepared to address global population and environmental problems. An international symposium on the survival of mankind was supported by the Council in 1989. The issues of importance are identified as overpopulation and nuclear weapons. Agreements on arms reductions between world leaders will be part of the global solution. The population bomb has no such mechanism for defusion. The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo will provide a structure for addressing development and the well-being of the world population. There is promise in recent scientific advances but also undesirable side effects of further population growth. The central objective is balance between the earth and habitation. Population problems are the most serious faced ever by man. Faith in human wisdom provides solace, and the belief that man will not ignore his responsibilities to future generations provides some hope.
[Unpublished] 1994. 34 p. (Expanding Family Planning Options; WHO/HRP/ITT/94.1)The World Health Organization's Task Force on Research on the Introduction and Transfer of Technologies for Fertility Regulation, established in 1991, has developed a three-stage framework to assist programs in developing countries determine whether and how to introduce new contraceptive methods. Of concern to the Task Force was the existing pattern of overemphasis on techniques for the management of the entry of new methods without an assessment of the needs of potential users and the capability of service delivery systems to provide the new methods appropriately. Moreover, the focus on new method introduction has diverted attention from analyses of the underlying causes of low levels of acceptance and continuation of existing methods. The framework presented is method mix oriented, quality of care focused, driven by management capability, geared for decision making, based on community participation, and country rather than donor agency owned. The first stage, assessment, seeks to determine whether the new technology confers significant benefits relative to methods currently available and if better utilization of existing methods is more cost-effective. The second stage, research to inform decision making on contraceptive introduction, identifies the service delivery and user issues that will impact on method utilization. In stage three, research findings are analyzed and decisions are made about options such as restricting delivery to specific sites, pilot testing of new interventions, and expanded service delivery.
[Unpublished] 1993. , 47 p.Program Advisory Notes (PAN) are intended as a source of practical information, based upon evaluation and research activities, to guide the UNFPA and other interested parties in implementing population programs and projects. The objective of this PAN is to improve the design, development, and implementation of management information systems (MIS) in support of family planning programs. MIS is a managerial tool to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of family planning services through improved routine data recording, reporting, and processing systems as well as through an effective analysis and use of data collected. Management, for example, may need information which is absolutely necessary to run a program, information which would help to effectively manage a program, and information which a manager would simply like to have to improve the program. With regard to MIS support for family planning programs, an urgent need was found to develop methodologies for service statistics/MIS systems and impact analysis, and the identification in some detail of the kinds and sources of information which are considered necessary for effective program management. This PAN is mainly directed at national program managers, but can also provide UNFPA, other UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations with practical guidance regarding needs assessment, project planning, and implementation, as well as monitoring and evaluation. Its primary focus is at the national level and government programs which represent the primary beneficiaries of UNFPA assistance. It should be noted, however, that with the exception of management issues and information needs which are unique to national programs, much of the material contained in the note is also relevant to other types of family planning programs.