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[Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, .  p. (Research Briefs on Hormonal Contraception)A new Cochrane review conducted by Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands and Family Health International suggests that monophasic regimens should be the first choice over triphasic regimens for new oral contraceptive users.
In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar.  p. (EGY-01)Egypt's family planning (FP) program, active since 1966, has been facilitated by the country's population density, flat terrain, and extensive health infrastructure. Nevertheless, by the early 1970s, a substantial proportion of couples were still not using contraception because of minimal clinic outreach; high dropout rates for oral contraceptive (OC) users; lack of knowledge about side effects among clinic staff and clients; disruptions in clinical supplies; and unavailability of other methods, such as the IUD, especially in rural areas. In 1971, USAID supported the American University in Cairo's (AUC) FP research activities in rural Egypt, in which household fertility survey data, a follow-up of women attending FP clinics, the cultural context of FP, communication and education, and the implementation of services were studied. In 1974, AUC initiated a demonstration project (which cost US $224,000) of a low-cost way to provide FP services to all married women in a treatment population through a household contraceptive distribution system. The interventions were implemented in the Shanawan (rural) and Sayeda Zeinab (city of Cairo) communities of Menoufia Governorate. During an initial canvas in November 1974, married women 15-49 years of age, who were living with their husbands and were not pregnant or less than 3 months postpartum and breast feeding, were offered 4 cycles of OCs or a supply of condoms. During a second canvas in February 1975, acceptors were provided with an additional 4 cycles of OCs and referred to a local depot for resupply. Each distribution area was mapped, and each housing unit numbered. Data collected through canvassing consisted primarily of eligibility screening items and provided numbers of acceptors, refusals, ineligibles, not at homes, etc. To increase coverage, 2 attempts were made to reach women not at home. Of the 2,493 women canvassed in Sayeda Zeinab, 1713 (69%) were eligible to receive contraceptives. Of these, 58% accepted 4 to 6 cycles of OCs. At the time of initial household distribution, 45% of eligible women were already using OCs. As a result of the canvass, an additional 5% of the women became acceptors. The AUC did not expand the household distribution of contraceptives to other urban areas of Cairo, because women there evidently already had adequate access to FP information and supplies. In the 6,915 households canvassed in Shanawan, 1156 of the 1820 women (64%) were eligible to receive contraceptives. Of these, 45% accepted 4 to 6 cycles of OCs. 21% of eligible women were already using OCs at the time of initial household distribution. Although condoms were offered, few were accepted, apparently because it was not culturally acceptable for women to either distribute or accept condoms. One year after the initial household distribution, contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age had increased 69% from 18.4 to 31% among all age and parity groups and at all educational and occupational levels, and the incidence of pregnancy declined from 19.3 to 14.9%.
Colombo, Sri Lanka, Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, 1989. 43 p.The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka (FPASL) is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). According to the FPASL the family planning (FP) acceptor rate in 1988 declined by 22% compared to 1987 and is primarily the result of civil war and an election year. Because of complex political and sociological factors, people have been more concerned with staying alive, than with FP. District level programs designed to improve the quality of life for mothers and children were often halted during the end of the year because of terrorist activities and counter security measures. The following contraceptive methods experienced declines in acceptors: sterilization 48%, IUD 12%, pill 12%, injectables 8%, foam tablets 22%. In 1988 there were 629 vasectomies, and 393 tubectomies. Of the new acceptors of temporary methods 57.8% chose depo provera, 21.3% IUD, 15.9% orals, and 5% Norplant. Sales of contraceptives have changed with condom sales down 3.6%, orals up 7.5%, and foam down 78.25%. The Community Managed Integrated Rural Family Health Programme (CMIRFH) has been recognized globally as a story of success. Since 1980 over 45,000 people have volunteered to help this program. In 1988 1676 programs were carried out by these enthusiastic young volunteers. Of the 25,000 estimated villages in Sri Lanka, the FPASL and CMIRFH program had reached 1689 villages through the end of 1988. The Youth and Population Committee is trying to reach the young people with the message that the population is growing out of hand. In July a seminar was conducted when the population of Asia reached 3 billion.
London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1992 Mar; 18(1):4-9.Estimates of the level of contraceptive use (and its cost) in developing countries that will be needed over the next decade in order not to exceed the UN's medium population projection for the year 2000 are provided. The UN's medium projection calls for population in the developing world to increase to about 5 billion by the year 2000, a projection that has become somewhat of a goal for the population establishment, which is concerned over the impact of rapid population growth. To comply with the medium projection, population growth during the 1990s must be limited to 969 million. Relying on data from the UN, USAID, and a number of surveys, the present level of contraceptive prevalence, the prevalence of specific methods, and the present costs are calculated and future needs are estimated. Presently, the number of married women of reproductive age (15-44) in developing countries is estimated at 757 million, a figure expected to increase to about 970 million by the year 2000, according to the UN medium projection. Currently at 51%, contraceptive prevalence will have to increase to 59% to meet the medium projection. And in order to reach this level of prevalence, it is estimated that over the next 10 years service providers will have to perform more than 150 million sterilizations and distribute almost 8.8 billion cycles of oral contraceptives, 663 million contraceptive injections, 310 million IUDs, and 44 billion condoms. Providing these contraceptive commodities will likely cost about $5.1 billion. The public sector will probably have to contribute about $4.2 billion of the cost, unless a concerted effort is made to increase the share carried by the commercial and private sectors.
Evaluation of Matching Grant II to International Planned Parenthood Federation / Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) (1987-1992).
Arlington, Virginia, DUAL and Associates, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 1991 Jul 26. xii, 48,  p. (Report No. 90-078-116; USAID Contract No. DPE-3043-G-SS-7062-00)This is a mid-term review of a matching grant given to the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) by USAID's Office of Population for 1987-1991. The grant covers projects in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and 9 smaller countries, and 4 regional activities, commodities, technical assistance, management information systems (MIS), and evaluation support. The goal of the grant was to reach new acceptors with quality services, to exert leadership of public sector providers, and to improve internal management. The goals in the 3 large nations are to focus on pockets of need or inadequate service or method mix. The goals of attracting 2.8 million new acceptors, improving services, making detailed plans and keeping strict financial reports have been met. The most serious problem was the lack of a regional evaluation of goal evaluation, the real cost of contraception, and impediments to contraceptive use. There were also difficulties in forwarding funds at the beginning of the FPA's year, and in sending in agency workplans on time. Better communication structures could probably remedy this. It is recommended that the matching grant be renewed in 1992.
Jakarta, Indonesia, IPPA, . 54 p.Since its founding in 1967 by a group of health professionals and community leaders, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) has promoted the concept of "responsible parenthood." The Association urges couples to consider their capabilities to provide education, good health, and the opportunity for a positive future for their children before making decisions about pregnancy and provides fertility control services to facilitate planned parenthood. Another concept central to IPPA's work is "social transformation"--the strengthening of the community through integrated approaches aimed at creating a prosperous, equitable society. In 1988, IPPA implemented 23 projects. 12,222 new and 15,477 continuing acceptors were served through IPPA's 15 comprehensive family planning clinics, and there was a trend toward selection of modern methods such as Norplant, IUDs, and sterilization. In addition, community-based distributors reached 6,179 new and 17.910 continuing acceptors through home visits and group meetings. IEC materials focused on family health and parasite control were made available to 9,807 elementary school students, 6,421 parents, and 384 teachers. The Association community development division focused its activities on a project in Integrated Family Life Education and Income Generation for Young Village Women. Family life education projects promoted responsible parenthood among adolescents and the concept of male participation in family planning. A new activity in 1988 was promotion of awareness about the prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, particularly within the tourist industry.
STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1991 Jan-Feb; 22(1):1-18.A study investigative the pros and cons of financial payments for sterilizations to clients, medical personnel, and agents who motivate and refer clients was conducted by the government of Bangladesh in conjunction with the World Bank. Results indicate that Bangladeshi men and women opt to be sterilized both voluntarily and after consideration of the nature and implications of the procedure. Clients were also said to be knowledgeable of alternate methods of controlling fertility. A high degree of client satisfaction was noted overall with, however, 25% regret among those clients with less than 3 children. Money is a contributing factor in a large majority of cases, though dominating as motivation for a small minority. Financial payments to referrers have sparked a proliferation of many unofficial, self-employed agents, especially men recruiting male sterilization. Targeting especially poor potential clients, these agents focus upon sterilization at the expense of other fertility regulating methods, and tend to minimize the cons of the process. Examples of client cases and agents are included in the text along with discussion of implications from study findings.
New York, New York, FPIA, . 227 p.This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) since its inception in 1971, with particular emphasis on activities carried out in 1983. The report's 6 chapters are focused on the following areas: Africa Regional Report, Asia and Pacific Regional Report, Latin America Regional Report, Inter-Regional Report, Program Management Information, and Fiscal Information. Included in the regional reports are detailed descriptions of activities carried out by country, as well as tables on commodity assistance in 1983. Since 1971, FPIA has provided US$54 million in direct financial support for the operation of more than 300 family planning projects in 51 countries. In addition, family planning commodities (including over 600 million condoms, 120 million cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUDs) have been shipped to over 3000 institutions in 115 countries. In 1982 alone, 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA-assisted projects. Project assistance accounts for 52% of the total value of FPIA assistance, while commodity assistance comprises another 47%. In 1983, 53% of project assistance funds were allocated to projects in the Asia and Pacific Region, followed by Africa (32%) and Latin America (15%). Of the 1 million new contraceptive acceptors served in 198, 42% selected oral contraceptives, 27% used condoms, and 8% the IUD.
IPPF/WHR FORUM. 1987 Aug; 3(2):10.The latest statistics on new acceptors reported by the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) for 1986 show important growth in male methods, condoms and sterilization (up 33%). The area included is Latin America and the Caribbean. The most popular method for new acceptors is the IUD (43% of new users); the second most popular method is the pill (27% of new users); and the third is sterilization (14% of new users). Total increase in new acceptors in clinics and community programs combined was 13%. Other methods, including diaphragms, spermicides, and natural family planning, increased 65% in clinic clients and 223% in community based distribution programs. During 1982-1986, the total number of new acceptors rose by 26% to 1.5 million; total number of visits to a clinic rose 15% to 3.3 million, and the number of clinics rose 39% to 1899.
Arlington, Virginia, International Science and Technology Insitute, Population Technical Assistance Project, 1987 Jul 15. ix, 66,  p. (Report No. 86-099-056)This evaluation of the village family planning program in Indonesia is prepared for USAID, which has supported the program for 15 years, and is to complete support in 1986. It is in general a positive evaluation, prepared by interviews, and visits to 7 out of 27 Provinces, 14 out of 246 Kabupatens (Districts), and 16 Villages. Village distribution centers have increased 38%, new acceptors by 38%, continuing user levels by 57%, and overall contraceptive prevalence by 38%. Access to varieties of contraceptives, especially longer acting methods, has improved, and costs per capita have decreased. Some problems were pointed out, generating several recommendations: physical conditions of the clinics need attention; motivation by consciousness raising has not been matched by better knowledge; the surgical program needs to be expanded; self-sufficiency in cost recovery should be fostered; operations research is needed on payment for field workers and volunteers; and social marketing should be expanded. USAID should continue support for the Outer Islands. In a final list of recommendations were the suggestions that USAID assist clinical programs further, support training of field workers, do more statistical review, continue to support the IEC program, operations research on community-based distribution, and program integration.
Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1984.  p.This 1983-84 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong lists council and executive members as well as subcommittee members and volunteers for 1983 and provides information on the following: administration of the Association; clinical services; education; information; International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) activities; laboratory services; library service; motivation; personnel resource development and production; the Sexually Assualted Victims Service; studies and evaluation; subfertility service; surgical service; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; women's clubs; the Youth Advisory Service; and youth volunteer development. In 1983, there was a total of 45,384 new cases; total attendance at clinics was 261,992. A series of thirteen 5-minute segments on sex education was produced as part of a weekly television youth program. An 8-session sexual awareness seminar continued to receive a very good response. To meet the increasing demand of young couples for better preparation towards satisfactory sexual adjustment in marriage, a 3-session seminar on marriage was regularly conducted every month during 1983. 13 seminars were held, reaching a total of 374 participants. Other education efforts included a family planning talk, the Kwun Tong Population and Family Life Education Week, and 39 sessions of talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. The year-long information campaign was organized in response to the 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, Practice findings that many couples still fail to recognize the concept of shared responsibility in family planning. Laboratory services include hepatitis screening, premarital check-up examinations, pap smear, the venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), and seminal fluid examinations. Throughout the year, 256 interviews were given to sexually assaulted victims. To arouse the awareness of the public with regard to preventing rape through education, counselors conducted talks and gave radio and television interviews on the Sexually Assaulted Victims Service. The records of the 3 sub-fertility clinics showed that altogether in 1983 there were 1355 new cases and 561 old cases, with a total attendance of 6682. 144 pregnancies also were recorded. Training programs included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for teachers and social workers.
Jakarta, Indonesia, U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Population and Health, 1984 Jun. 32 p.This booklet, intended to provide a brief introduction to the Indonesian Family Planning Program and US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to this program, describes Indonesia's population problem, population policy and government goals, population strategy, and results. The data were compiled from numerous sources, including the National Family Planning Coordinating Board and USAID Office of Population and Health. Based on Indonesian census figures, the annual average rate of population growth was 2.3% during the 1971-80 period. USAID currently projects a decrease in the average annual rate of natural increase to 1.6% during the 1980-90 period and to 1.1% during the 1990-2000 period. The population policy goal is to institutionalize the small, happy, prosperous family norm. The strategy is to reduce significantly the rate of population growth through the family planning program and related population policies, to ameliorate population maldistribution through transmigration programs, and to improve socioeconomic conditions for all citizens through expanded development programs. The family planning target is to reduce the crude birthrate to 22/1000 population by March 1991. This represents a 50% reduction in the crude birthrate over the 1971-91 period. In 1970, the total of new family planning acceptors was 53,103 in Java-Bali; in 1984 3,895,120. For the Outer Islands I, acceptors numbered 117,875 in 1975 and 1,009,852 in 1984. For Outer Islands II, the acceptors numbered 56,705 in 1975 and 341,212 in 1984. The percent of married women 15-44 using modern contraceptives increased from 2% in 1972 to 58% in 1984. In Java-Bali, 32% of married women aged 15-44 were oral contraceptive (OC) users as of March 1984; 16% were IUD users, 2% condom users, 6% injectable acceptors, and 2% acceptors of other methods. For Outer Islands I, 33% were OC users, 8% IUD acceptors, 4% condom users, 3% injectable acceptors, and 2% acceptors of other methods. In the Outer Islands II, 12% were OC acceptors as of March 1984, 5% IUD acceptors, 1% condom users, 4% injectable acceptors, and 1% acceptors of other methods.
Overview: 1975. Contraceptive services of the family planning programs of IPPF in the Western Hemisphere.
New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemsisphere Region, Medical Department, Nov. 1976. 28 pAdd to my documents.
London, IPPF, . 46 p.Mexican social, economic, and population indicators are discussed and tabulated. In 1972, the government, realizing the magnitude of the nation's population problem, reversed its previous antinatalist policy. The President acknowledged the individual's right to have family planning services available and the government's duty to provide family planning information. The Ministry of Health instituted a program to provide family planning services for that part of the population needing public services. A National Population Council was established to coordinate various public and private services active in the population field. Market research is being undertaken into the feasibility of government sponsored commercial distribution of contraceptives. Sterilization will be an integral part of the governmental family planning services. Acceptor targets and accomplishments and the budget for these governmentally-provided services are presented. A detailed discussion of the history and activities of the IPPF affiliate in Mexico is also presented. Despite the initially unfavorable atmosphere in the mid-1960s, FEPAC (Foundation for the Study of Population) was able to establish a network of family planning clinics. In addition to clinic programs, FEPAC carries out research, training, and education/information activities.
New acceptors of clinic, CBD, and sterilization services provided by family planning associations. [Tables]
[Unpublished] 1979 Dec. 10 p.The Evaluation Dept. of IPPF has compiled statistics for new family planning acceptors for the year 1978 using data provided by national Family Planning Associations. Clinic service contraceptive usage figures are tabulated by country, arranged by continental area. Figures for the following methods of contraception are included: orals, injectables, IUDs, condoms, male sterilization, female sterilization, and other. For each region, the combined total of new IUD and pill acceptors makes up approximately 5/6 of the total of new contraceptive users for the year. Data on sterilization acceptors as a percentage of all new acceptors for the 1972-1978 period is presented by tables and a graph. The sterilization data is broken down on a country-by-country basis, by continental areas, and for the 13 largest grant-receiving associations totalled. Male and female sterilization as a method achieved its greatest percentage of the total of new acceptors for the year during the years 1976 and 1977. Since that time, sterilization usage as a percentage of the whole number of methods has declined somewhat.
In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977). London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 9-14.Kenya has a fairly well developed family planning program at the official government level along with an active voluntary Association. It is estimated that over 50,000 women are visiting family planning clinics annually, but as many women drop out of the program in each given month as are recruited. This discontinuation rate presents a major problem for family planning programs, and the underlying causes need to be determined. It is believed that, with the exception of those women who are highly motivated to use contraceptives on a continuous basis, the majority of women, particularly in rural areas, will fail to use contraceptives for long periods of time if the significant others in their lives do not support the idea. It is also probable that many women drop out of family planning programs due to the lack of reliable transport, high transport costs, varying weather conditions, and the family planning program policy which, with the exception of the IUD, provides only sufficient contraceptives to last for 3 months. There are several other reasons why a woman might want to stop using contraceptives: 1) a desire to become pregnant; 2) social pressure to withdraw from the family planning program; 3) the side effects of her method and without a suitable alternative method; 4) difficulty in obtaining contraceptive supplies; and 5) reaching menopause. A family planning campaign which ignores the men is destined for failure in Africa, for the women do not make many of the important decisions. The male must be persuaded to participate in decision-making concerning the use and non-use of contraceptives. Family planning programs should deliberately reduce their drop-out rates even if that means lowering acceptor rates.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
Overview of the medical and clinical activities performed by the family planning associations of the Western Hemisphere Region.
N.Y., International Planned Parenthood Federation Western Hemisphere Region, 1973. 103 pAdd to my documents.
[Latin America: the state of family planning programs since 1973] America Latina: situacion de los programmas de planificacion de la familia hasta 1973.
Santiago, Centro Latinamericano de Demografia, April 1975. 73 p. (Serie A, No. 130).Add to my documents.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Evaluation and Social Sciences Department, May 1976. (Research for Action No. 2) 13 pThe Botswana government, now an affiliate member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the IPPF have collaborated since 1969 in the stablishment of family planning services within the maternal and child health programs. Evaluation of the family planning aspects of this program conducted between April 1972 and October 1973 focused on 3specific research studies: 1) a description of the Family Welfare Educator cadre in Botswana, their workload, problems, and training; 2) an analysis of service statistics generated by the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning programs; and 3) a follow-up survey to trace family planning acceptors. By April 1972, 60 women had been trained as family welfare educators. A weekly reporting system was introduced as a means of establishing contact between the family welfare educators and the Office for Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning, learning about the problems workers encountered, and assessing their work. In studying the service statistics it was learned that over the 5 years of this study period 72% of the clients received oral contraceptives, 16% IUDs, and 2% injections on their 1st visit to the clinic. The ratio of oral contraceptives to IUD acceptors changed from .75:1 in 1968 to 28:1 in 1972. It was found that nearly 1/3 of the clients discontinued contraceptive use within 3 months and nearly 2/3 within a year. It was recommended that greater emphasis be placed on the IUD as a method of contraception. Regarding the follow-up survey, a 100% sample of new acceptors in the selected months was drawn from the records of Gaborone and Serowe clinics and data were abstracted from the individual client cards at each clinic. It was learned that 20% of the women interviewed discontinued contraception within 6 months and 34% within a year. These continuation rates were lower than those derived from service statistics. It was recommended that follow-up surveys be repeated at regular intervals in order to monitor the acceptability of the program to new acceptors and to ensure client feedback to improve the program.
CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.
Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 pThis report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: status and trends of family planning/population programs in developing countries. Vol. 2. Hearings, April 25-27, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 331-354USAID became involved in developing a population program in Colombia in 1967 by helping Colombian institutions to plan their strategy, establish informal communication among themselves, and seek international financial and technical support. USAID provided a large part of the necessary resources itself, either directly or through USAID-funded organizations. The program that evolved combined private and public efforts in the areas of training, information and education, service delivery, and research/evaluation with a shifting emphasis as was appropriate to meet changing needs. Overall, some 51 million dollars were invested during a 10-year period with approximately 15 million cycles of oral contraceptives and 116 million condoms delivered to about 1,900,000 new acceptors. Thus the 1967 birth rate of 42/1000 dropped below 32/1000 by 1975, leading to a projected Colombian population of 35 million rather than 50 million in the year 2000. It has been estimated that 40-60% of this reduction is attributable to the organized family planning program. The Colombian experience indicates that religious belief will not hinder family planning activities, that strong motivation is not necessarily a precursor to establishing a desire for a small family, that a formal population policy (although desirable) does little to strengthen a program, that availability of services and supplies is more important to success than socioeconomic factors, and that integration with maternal and child health activities is not essential. On the other hand, a well-balanced program which provides services in an appropriate fashion will be accepted wholeheartedly by poor, rural people as well as rich, urban dwellers. Colombia's population problems are not solved, indeed assistance will be needed until birth rates reach 20/1000, but user demand has been well established and a brighter future has been obtained.
In: Watson, W.B., ed. Family planning in the developing world: a review of programs. New York, Population Council, 1977. p. 54-55The government of Honduras included a population policy in its National Development Plan for the period 1974-1979. This policy will be implemented by providing information regarding responsible parenthood, by using natural and technical resources to produce a well-nourished and creative population, and by applying the principles of voluntary participation in family planning programs. The 2 family planning programs in Honduras are the government maternal and child health program and the Family Planning Association of Honduras program. The government program, initiated in 1968, operates 34 clinics which offer family planning along with prenatal and postnatal care, child care, and nutrition education services. The Family Planning Association, established in 1961, operates 2 clinics and served 42,000 people during 1975. 9000 of this group were 1st acceptors. Oral contraceptives were chosen by 80% of the new acceptors; 13% chose IUDs and 5% chose injectables. The Association's information and education activities included conferences, talks, courses, seminars, and home visits. Additionally, the Association is operating a demonstration community-based distribution program with financial assistance from the International Planned Parenthood Federation. 40 workers in each of 2 cities provide contraceptives in their own neighborhoods.
In: Stamper, B.M. Population and planning in developing nations: a review of sixty development plans for the 1970's. New York, Population Council, 1977. p. 87-90In Kenya's Development Plan 1966-1970 it is stated that the population problem seriously impacts on the future development of the country and noted that the government has decided to emphasize measures to promote family planning education. The 1970-1974 Kenya plan estimates the size of its population as 10.7 million in 1969 and assumes a rate of growth of 3.1%/year throughout the duration of the plan. The crude birthrate is estimated to be 50/1000 population and the crude death rate to be 19/1000 population. The 1974 population is estimated as 12.4 million. Included in the plan is a current estimate and a future projection of the size of the working-age population but neither a current estimate or a future projection of the school-age population is provided. Rapid population growth is recognized as a contributing cause of the country's unemployment problem, and population pressures on health services and on housing are discussed. The government plans to double the existing 130 family planning clinics outside of Nairobi and increase the part-time family planning workers from 300 to 700. The program proposed in the plan has not been fully implemented. Contraceptives were being offered by only about 1/3 of the government's clinics by 1974, and they are not available to a large proportion of the population. Some private family planning activities have been in operation in Kenya since as early as 1952, and the Family Planning Association of Kenya was created in 1962. The 1974-1978 development plan proposes a comprehensive program for achieving specific demographic targets. The new 5-year family planning program, financed by the government of Kenya and 8 international donors, hopes to have some 400 full-time service points and another 17 mobile units to serve another 190 places on a part-time basis.