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  1. 1

    Quick reference chart for the WHO medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use -- to initiate or continue use of combined oral contraceptives (COC), depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), norethisterone enantate (NET-EN), copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD).

    Family Health International [FHI]

    [Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, 2006. [1] p.

    The chart is a reference to different conditions (ie: age, breastfeeeding, smoking, headaches, cancers, hypertension, ect...) and shows if combined oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, or norethisterone enantate (NET-EN), copper intrauterine device can be used. The use of each one is broken down into 4 categories: there are no restrictions for use; generally use, some follow-up may be needed; usually not recommended, clinical judgment and continuing access to clinical services are required for use; the method should not be used. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Keeping up with evidence. A new system for WHO's evidence-based family planning guidance.

    Mohllajee AP; Curtis KM; Flanagan RG; Rinehart W; Gaffield ML

    American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2005; 28(5):483-490.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for providing evidence-based family planning guidance for use worldwide. WHO currently has two such guidelines, Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use and Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, which are widely used globally and often incorporated into national family planning standards and guidelines. To ensure that these guidelines remain up-to-date, WHO, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Information and Knowledge for Optimal Health (INFO) Project at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Center for Communication Programs, has developed the Continuous Identification of Research Evidence (CIRE) system to identify, synthesize, and evaluate new scientific evidence as it becomes available. The CIRE system identifies new evidence that is relevant to current WHO family planning recommendations through ongoing review of the input to the POPulation information onLINE (POPLINE) database. Using the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and standardized abstract forms, systematic reviews are conducted, peer-reviewed, and sent to WHO for further action. Since the system began in October 2002, 90 relevant new articles have been identified, leading to 43 systematic reviews, which were used during the 2003–2004 revisions of WHO’s family planning guidelines. The partnership developed to create and manage the CIRE system has pooled existing resources; scaled up the methodology for evaluating and synthesizing evidence, including a peer-review process; and provided WHO with finger-on-the-pulse capability to ensure that its family planning guidelines remain up-to-date and based on the best available evidence. (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization initiative on implantation research.

    Griffin PD

    Contraception. 2005; 71:235-238.

    Recognizing that the currently available contraceptive options represent a limited choice for women, contraceptive research and development programs have identified the process of implantation as a promising area for investigation. Contraceptive methods that prevent implantation and can be taken on a once-a-month basis appear to be an attractive option for many women in a variety of settings. A recently completed 5-year, international, collaborative research programme—conducted by the World Health Organization with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation—has identified a number of promising leads for once-a-month method development and the more promising of these leads are being actively followed up in collaboration with the pharmaceutical industry. (author's)
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  4. 4

    WHO recommendations [letter]

    Mansour D

    Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2004 Apr; 30(2):131.

    May I congratulate the Journal and the Clinical Effectiveness Unit for continuing to produce excellent Guidance for those of us working in the field of reproductive health. The wide dissemination of these articles will ensure uniformity and quality in contraception provision in primary and secondary care. I have, however, one concern. This has been alluded to in a recent article describing the consensus process for adapting the World Health Organization (WHO) Selected Practice Recommendations for UK Use. As a result of the relaxation of some of the more cautious rules a very small number of women may become pregnant. An obvious example is giving Depo- Provera injections 2 weeks late (i.e. at 14 weeks) without any precautionary measures. The Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use were developed to improve and extend contraceptive provision in developing countries. In developed countries, however, those becoming pregnant may take a more litigious view particularly when patient information leaflets and the Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) state contrary and more cautious advice. In addition, new evidence regarding follicular development potential suggests that more, rather than less, caution may be advisable. Could the Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care or the University of Aberdeen be sued? (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    [IEC in MCH / FP programs] IEC dans les programmes de SMI / PF.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. ix, 59 p. (Rapport d'Evaluation No. 7)

    This evaluation was made at the request of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) with the goal of evaluating strategies of information, education and communication (IEC) in support of the Family Planning Program (FP) financed by this organization, in order to improve the planning and implementation of future strategies. This evaluation took into consideration a broad number of projects implemented in different countries and regions, and separated them into two categories. The first category includes projects regarding FP or an IEC component (integrated approach); the second category includes projects that refer exclusively to IEC (independent approach). Generally speaking, those projects contributed to raising the level of knowledge about the utilization of family planning methods. In every country we visited, we found a difference between the level of knowledge, which is relatively satisfactory, and the level of practice, which is weaker. The analysis of performances per type of configuration shows that the projects with an IEC integrated component reinforce the capacity of the services to accomplish their functions by giving them resources and necessary means, elaborating tools and methods of investigation, realization and evaluation. The knowledge and the use of FP services are amplified by the information, the sensitization and the education of the populations. The intersectorial and multi-disciplinary coordination of the participants involved in the performance and the IEC activities is even better because this coordination takes place in an environment that integrates MCH (Maternal and Child Health)/ FP/ IEC services. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the National Family Planning and Sex Education Programme of Costa Rica.

    Demographic Association of Costa Rica

    [Unpublished] 1980 Mar. 89 p.

    This report of the evaluation of UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance to Costa Rica's National Family Planning and Sex Education Program covers the following: 1) project dimension and purpose of the evaluation, scope and methodology of the evaluation, composition of the mission, and constraints; 2) background information; 3) 1974-77 family planning/sex education program (overview, immediate objectives, strategy, activities and targets, and institutional framework); 4) planned and actual inputs and rephasing in 1978-79; 5) family planning activities (physical facilities and types of services provided, recruitment of new users, continuation of users within the program, distribution of contraceptive supplies, sterilizations, and indicators of program impact); 6) training and supervision; 7) education, information, and communication (formal and nonformal education, educational activities in the clinics, and the impact of the nonformal educational program); 8) maternal and child health (maternal health indicators, cytological examinations, and infant mortality); 9) program evaluation and research; 10) population policy; 11) program administration; 12) some general conclusions regarding the performance of the program; and 13) the program beyond 1979. UNFPA evaluations are independent, in depth analyses, prepared and conducted by the Office of Evaluation, usually with the assistance of outside consultants. The process of analysis used in the evaluation follows a logical progression, i.e., that which underlines the original program design. Evaluation assessment includes an analysis of inputs and outputs, an investigation of the interrelationship among activities, an indication of the effectiveness of activities in achieving the objectives, and an assessment of duplication of activities or lack of coverage and the effect of this on realization of the objectives. The program was able to expand the coverage of family planning activities but has been unsuccessful in having a population policy established. The number of hospitals, health centers, and rural health posts providing family planning services was tripled in the 1974-77 period. The program could not achieve its targets in number of new users, and it recruited in 1977, only 11% of the total population of the country, against the 20% planned. It has been estimated that between 1973-77 around 231,200 births or 44.4% of those possible had been averted. Training and supervision has been a weak area of the program. A large number of professors have been trained in sex education, but no evaluation has been undertaken of the likely impact of this trained staff at the school level. The information, education, and communication (IEC) program has been successful in taking information and education to the population on family planning/sex education concerns but less successful in motivating the political groups to formulate a population policy.
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  7. 7

    Review of family planning aspects of family health with special reference to UNICEF/WHO assistance.


    Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 p

    Family planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
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  8. 8

    Medical barriers often unnecessary.

    Best K

    Network. 2002; 21(3):4-8, 10-3.

    Throughout the world, many women are denied contraceptive methods due to health concerns that have no scientific basis. It is noted that such unnecessary medical barriers can limit women's method choice and endanger their health. These unnecessary medical barriers arise for various reasons, such as misinformation or misinterpretation. Often, providers believe they are protecting their clients by denying them access to methods that would cause infertility and other health problems. This paper presents different kinds of contraceptive methods and their medical restrictions, along with examples of needless barriers imposed by family planning centers around the world. It also lists four ways to reduce unnecessary medical barriers of contraception. These include: 1) paying more attention to the WHO medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use; 2) widely disseminating new guidelines; 3) adapting guidelines to reflect local needs, concerns, and resources; and lastly, 4) reinforcing training and guidelines messages through training and supervision.
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  9. 9

    Why research on contraceptive user perspectives deserves public sector support: a free-market analysis.

    Ellertson C; Winikoff B

    In: Beyond acceptability: users' perspectives on contraception, [compiled by] World Health Organization [WHO], Reproductive Health Matters. London, England, Reproductive Health Matters, 1997. 15-22.

    At least three factors intervene in the market link between contraceptive users and manufacturers: the policing role of physicians, the emphasis on demographic concerns rather than profit motives, and the dependence on donated commodities in many family planning programs. Presented in this paper is a free-market analysis that classifies contraceptive user perspectives research as a social good in need of public sector support. It is argued that, if women and men cannot plan their own reproduction, society suffers externalities in the labor market, in the environment, and in the area of human rights. Among the potential uses of user perspectives research are method refinement, development of counseling materials, building advocacy cases for or against a particular method, and documentation of side effects. Publicly supported user research should focus on gaps left in the market, especially publicly developed technologies and programs that rely on donated commodities. This research should investigate side effects and other aspects of use that may not be included in the medical literature or discussed by physicians. The need for user perspectives research is especially great for prescription methods.
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  10. 10

    Beyond acceptability: reorienting research on contraceptive choice.

    Heise LL

    In: Beyond acceptability: users' perspectives on contraception, [compiled by] World Health Organization [WHO], Reproductive Health Matters. London, England, Reproductive Health Matters, 1997. 6-14.

    Contraceptive availability research has been limited by problems of conceptual clarity, measurement, and interpretation as well as a failure to contextualize women's contraceptive method choices. There is a growing consensus, however, that contraceptive choice is determined at any given time by a complex interplay between the woman, available contraceptive methods, and the service delivery environment. This paper argues for a reorientation of research on contraceptive choice toward studies that solicit practical feedback on existing services and prototype products and explore how women choose among available methods. It advocates greater emphasis on the interrelationships between method attributes and factors in women's lives such as the quality and power dynamics in their current sexual relationships, their reproductive life stage, and the interface with the service delivery system. A user perspective approach to research would provide feedback for strengthening service delivery, identifying opportunities to improve use through client skills-building and education, and refining the design of products under development. It would also deepen understanding of how women and couples negotiate the trade-offs inherent in selecting methods in the absence of a perfect contraceptive.
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  11. 11

    Beyond acceptability: users' perspectives on contraception.

    Cottingham J

    In: Beyond acceptability: users' perspectives on contraception, [compiled by] World Health Organization [WHO], Reproductive Health Matters. London, England, Reproductive Health Matters, 1997. 1-5.

    Enhanced knowledge of contraceptive users' needs and preferences is essential for both service delivery improvements and fertility regulation technology development. A scientific consultation convened by the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction reviewed the available literature on men's and women's perspectives on contraception, the methodologies used to collect this information, and remaining gaps in knowledge. This introductory chapter summarizes the major topics discussed and questions raised at the 1995 Geneva meeting. Half the papers were presented at the Geneva meeting and have been revised for publication; the rest were prepared for this volume. The papers examine the sexual and social factors that impinge on why and how various contraceptive methods are used. They show that women's contraceptive choices defy generalizations. Methods chosen vary according to factors such as partners' attitudes and support and the stage of the reproductive life cycle. Central to the meeting were debates on people's needs, perceptions, and preferences regarding protection against not only unwanted pregnancy but also sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS. Recommended, to assess users' perspectives, is a research design that includes a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods.
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  12. 12

    The incentive trap. A study of coercion, reproductive rights and women's autonomy in Bangladesh.

    Reysoo F; van der Kwaak A; Huq N

    Leiden, Netherlands, Rijks Universiteit, Leiden, Wetenschapswinkel, 1995 Feb. 67 p.

    After initiating public debate in the Netherlands about how and to what extent UN Population Fund (UNFPA) policies respect women's autonomy and reproductive rights, the cooperating research groups investigated the UNFPA policy dealing with incentives and disincentives to accept family planning (FP) and goals for FP providers. Interviews were held in 1994 in Bangladesh with 125 women and men in rural Bogra and in suburban Dhaka to determine 1) the extent to which incentives influence contraceptive choice, 2) decision-making roles within families, 3) the extent to which health workers are rewarded and the amount of influence they exert over contraceptive choices, and 4) the extent to which service provider disincentives affect attempts to reach service goals. This report of that study provides background information on the research and on the development of population control policies in Bangladesh, the organization of the FP program, and contraceptive methods available. Part 2 traces the incentive program from its probable introduction in India in 1956 through the Bangladeshi Financial Incentive System starting in 1976. Arguments in favor of the use of incentives are summarized. The third part of the report provides an analysis of the data gained from focus group discussions and from interviews with potential users, with women who had undergone a tubectomy more than two years earlier, with vasectomized men, with IUD users, with longterm IUD users, with Norplant users, with women who rely on menstrual regulation, and with service providers. The final section compares findings from Bogra and Dhaka and provides a discussion of the findings in light of other reports in the literature in terms of such issues as quality of care, voluntary and informed choice, and women's status. Recommendations from the study include protecting the human and reproductive rights of women by prohibiting the use of incentives in favor of improving health care, contraceptive availability, and women's status.
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  13. 13

    Tackling population in Sierra Leone.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1994 Jun; (240):6.

    In this interview (April 21) with Yoshio Koike, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) country director, the population situation in Sierra Leone is described. 4.5 million persons inhabit an area of 74,000 sq. km. Independence was achieved in 1961, but the country was under the patronage of the United Kingdom until April 1992 when a military coup occurred. The new leaders are young (22-29 years) and enthusiastic; a democratic general election will be held in 1996 and the municipal assembly election will occur in 1995. Sierra Leone was the ninth African country receiving aid from UNFPA to establish a population policy (1989). A National Population Commission, which has remained dormant, was also established. The population growth rate is 2.4% annually (average for west African countries); the total fertility rate is 6.8. The maternal mortality rate is estimated to be 1400-1700/100,000 live births. The infant mortality rate (IMR) is about 180; for those under 5 years of age, it is 275. Although the country has 470 clinics available on paper, only 25% are operational according to UNFPA. This is the third year of the MCH/FP project, but only 76 clinics provide family planning information and services. Through coordination of nongovernmental and governmental efforts, 20,000 newcomers and acceptors are being recruited for family planning annually. If expansion continues at this rate and repeaters are maintained for 5 years, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) should reach 20%. Currently, it is 2% in rural areas and 9% in cities. The national average is about 4-6%. The CPR should approach the goal of 60% in 10 years. There is no serious objection to family planning on the basis of religion; however, people are not informed about the importance of birth spacing and about where they can obtain services. Information, education, and communication (IEC) activities are being improved.
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  14. 14

    A diagnostic study to evaluate the prevalence of clinical and non-clinical delivery of Norplant in the Indonesian family planning program.

    Indonesia. National Family Planning Coordinating Board [BKKBN]; Population Council

    In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar. [1] p. (INS-14)

    Indonesia's national family planning (FP) program constituted the largest introduction of Norplant in the world; the first 5-year removals were scheduled for late 1991. The ANE operations research/technical assistance (OR/TA) project is conducting a use dynamics study to examine Norplant's use in the field. To prepare for that study and to get early information on program functioning, the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) and the Population Council, in conjunction with Andalas University in West Sumatra and BKS-PENFIN in West Java, undertook a diagnostic study in the fall of 1991 at a cost of US $6,250. Field teams investigated 6 clinics in each of the 2 provinces, interviewing service providers and examining records. 10 acceptors from each clinic (total 120) were visited in their homes to determine the feasibility of locating them and whether they were still using implants. About 70% of acceptors in each province had been served by nonclinical sources, either "safaris" or mobile teams. The 4-year life-table continuation rate was 78%. No written information specifically devoted to Norplant was available to providers or to clients. All physicians and nurse-midwives, as well as many nurses, had some training in Norplant insertion and removal. Contrary to expectation, clinical staff, records, and logistics all seemed generally adequate for 5-year removal. Results were used to address issues raised, and a final report has been completed. The feasibility of the use-dynamics study was confirmed. Available records generally matched official records, although significant gaps were found. The study allowed questionnaires and field procedures to be refined.
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  15. 15

    Paying for family planning. Le financement du planning familial.

    Lande RE; Geller JS

    Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1991 Nov; (39):1-31.

    This report discusses the challenges and costs involved in meeting the future needs for family planning in developing countries. Estimates of current expenditures for family planning go as high as $4.5 billion. According to a UNFPA report, developing country governments contribute 75% of the payments for family planning, with donor agencies contributing 15%, and users paying for 10%. Although current expenditures cover the needs of about 315 million couples of reproductive age in developing countries, this number of couples accounts for only 44% of all married women of reproductive age. Meeting all current contraceptive needs would require an additional $1 to $1.4 billion. By the year 2000, as many as 600 million couples could require family planning, costing as much as $11 billion a year. While the brunt of the responsibility for covering these costs will remain in the hand of governments and donor agencies (governments spend only 0.4% of their total budget on family planning and only 1% of all development assistance goes towards family planning), a wide array of approaches can be utilized to help meet costs. The report provides detailed discussions on the following approaches: 1) retail sales and fee-for-services providers, which involves an expanded role for the commercial sector and an increased emphasis on marketing; 2) 3rd-party coverage, which means paying for family planning service through social security institutions, insurance plans, etc.; 3) public-private collaboration (social marketing, employment-based services, etc.); 4) cost recovery, such as instituting fees in public and private nonprofit family planning clinics; and 5) improvements in efficiency.
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  16. 16

    Laporan tahunan 1990 annual report.

    Sarawak Family Planning Association

    [Kuching, Malaysia, SFPA, 1991]. ii, 35 p.

    The Sarawak Family Planning Association's (SFPA's) main focus in 1990 was the strengthening of the Family Planning Clinic Service Program. Although the number of clinics has remained at 8, the number of resupply points increased from 50 in 1989 to 112 in 1990. These resupply points are set up in areas where transportation, financial, or social factors impede the ability of established acceptors to attend the static clinics. In part because of the increased availability of contraceptive services, the number of acceptors increased by 3352 over 1989, to reach 28,996 in 1990. The remaining 31, 847 acceptors in the country are serviced by the Ministry of Health. The SFPA utilizes a "cafeteria approach" to contraceptive choice; methods available are oral contraceptives, IUD, condom, injectable, spermicides, vasectomy, and natural family planning. At SFPA's clinic sites, the pill accounts for 57-93% of total contraceptive acceptance. The physicians at the 8 clinics also provide clients with cervical and breast cancer screening, pregnancy testing, infertility counseling, gynecological examinations and referral, and premarital advice. An extension of the Clinic Service Program, the Community Clinic Extension Family Planning Program, operates in the main towns. Involved in this program are 41 physicians, who distributed largely hormonal forms of contraception to 3587 acceptors, and 76 non-medical workers, who distributed condoms to 289 acceptors. As the major source of family planning information in Sarawak, the SFPA has an extensive IEC program that uses talks, home parties, fieldwork motivation, mass media campaigns, and community meetings to recruit new acceptors. Finally, the Family Life Education Project sought, in 1990, to increase the involvement of young people in determining their own programs and activities.
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  17. 17

    Population education in the nineties: a quest for a regional programme strategy in Asia and the Pacific.


    In 1990, Asia and the Pacific constituted 59% of the world's population and this percentage has been estimated to climb to 61.76% by 1995. In addition to rapid population growth, some of the other problems plaguing the region in the early 1990s included illiteracy, absolute poverty, environmental pollution, and low status of women. Population education can play a key role in an intervention strategy for fertility decline. Schools should include population education because, if girls attend school, it can improve girls' chances for employment and affect future family sizes, and both male and female students are most apt to occupy important private sector and government positions and be leaders. UNESCO has proposed a 1992-1995 regional population education and communication program and hoped to gain UNFPA support for the program. UNESCO has heeded UNFPA's plea for more formidable and intensive backstopping to country programs. It proposed to create regional advisory teams that will provide technical assistance, organize study tours and workshops, facilitate intercountry sharing, and identify new areas of development. This team would also be population education advocates. It has also proposed a workshop in population communication for staff of rural oriented nongovernmental organizations and religious groups to close the UNFPA identified gap in information, education, and communication (IEC). Other similar proposed activities to close the IEC gap included workshops on audiovisual (AV) aids development and use and maintenance of AV equipment and on communication strategies to reach male family planning acceptors and intercountry research studies. UNESCO has also planned to place more emphasis on management, development of prototype population education materials, and other needed population education activities.
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  18. 18

    Natural family planning: a good option.

    Georgetown University. School of Medicine. Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning

    Washington, D.C., Georgetown University, School of Medicine, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1989 Jul. 15, [2] p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)

    Natural family planning (NFP) is a technique for determining a woman's fertile period to regulate childbearing. There are many methods in NFP including rhythm or calendar, basal body temperature, cervical mucus, modified mucus, and sympto-thermal. All of these methods use the natural signs and symptoms of a woman's fertile and infertile periods of the menstrual cycle. The rhythm or calendar is still the most widely used method, and women keep track of the lengths of previous menstrual cycles to determine the days of fertility. The cervical mucus method uses changes in the characteristics of the mucus during the fertile period. The basal body temperature method uses the change in resting temperature to determine the fertile period. The sympto-thermal method uses a combination of body temperature, cervical mucus, and breast tenderness to determine the fertile period. Breast feeding provides a period of about 6 months after birth when there is a delay in the return of ovulation. The advantages of natural family planning include the following: little contact with medical personnel and procedures, it is less expensive, it may provide a method in agreement with religious or ethical beliefs, and it can help couples understand how their reproductive system works. In a World Health Organization study, the effectiveness of NFP was shown to be 78% overall, and the continuation rate was 65%. Many other studies have shown rates between 70-90% effectiveness over a 12 month period. In a recent African study over a 5 year period, unplanned pregnancy rates were 4.3% and 9.6% in Liberia and Zambia respectively.
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  19. 19

    Incentives, disincentives, and family planning: selective bibliography for countries in the ESCAP region: annotated.

    Yap MT

    [Unpublished] 1987 Jan. 141 p.

    This is a first draft of an annotated bibliography on incentives and disincentives in family planning programs in the ESCAP region. Each entry contains fields for author, title, citation, type (type of study), country, sponsor, recipient, positive or negative, form (type of incentive), structure (graduated or fixed), timing, objective (use, space or limit), and effect measures (observed endpoint). The annotation consists of an abstract or condensed conclusion in most cases. Over 100 documents are reviewed.
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  20. 20

    The ECOP-ILO Population Education Program: a report on program implementation (January 1985 - December 1986).

    Employers Confederation of the Philippines [ECOP]

    [Unpublished] [1986]. 11 p.

    A 2-year (Jan. 1985 - Dec. 1986) Population Education Project was carried out by the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) with the objectives of informing employers of the importance of population and family life education and assisting them in the provision of family life education programs and family planning services for their workers. ECOP undertook a preliminary survey of 269 companies, which showed that: 1) Only 49 had family planning programs; 2) Only 37 of the others had any interest in having one; 3) Only 8.7% of the workers were acceptors; 4) Only 45 companies had clinics; 5) Only 7 had incentive schemes to motivate the workers; and 6) 98% of the 210 respondents felt that ECOP should not be involved in family planning. To accomplish its objectives ECOP held 22 population education seminars, attended by 98 company representatives over the 2-year period. With the assistance of the Population Center Foundation (PCF) ECOP established an In-Plant Family Planning Program, which determined the existing knowledge, attitude and practice of workers; recruited and trained clinic staffs and volunteers; disseminated information; and delivered family planning commodities and services. The ECOP also approved an incentive scheme to encourage employers to support the program. The ECOP Population Unit participated in the 1986 Philippine International Trade Fair by setting up exhibits, showing audiovisual presentations, and distributing ILO handbooks on population education. The ECOP project officer attended an inter-country population workshop in Tokyo. The ECOP recommended that the participating companies meet to discuss the project's accomplishments, implement incentive plans, assist in setting up family planning programs, join with family planning agencies to provide services, devise ways of making men aware of their responsibilities in family planning, and study the productivity of workers who practice family planning.
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  21. 21

    Annual report: 1983.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, New York, FPIA, [1984]. 227 p.

    This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) since its inception in 1971, with particular emphasis on activities carried out in 1983. The report's 6 chapters are focused on the following areas: Africa Regional Report, Asia and Pacific Regional Report, Latin America Regional Report, Inter-Regional Report, Program Management Information, and Fiscal Information. Included in the regional reports are detailed descriptions of activities carried out by country, as well as tables on commodity assistance in 1983. Since 1971, FPIA has provided US$54 million in direct financial support for the operation of more than 300 family planning projects in 51 countries. In addition, family planning commodities (including over 600 million condoms, 120 million cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUDs) have been shipped to over 3000 institutions in 115 countries. In 1982 alone, 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA-assisted projects. Project assistance accounts for 52% of the total value of FPIA assistance, while commodity assistance comprises another 47%. In 1983, 53% of project assistance funds were allocated to projects in the Asia and Pacific Region, followed by Africa (32%) and Latin America (15%). Of the 1 million new contraceptive acceptors served in 198, 42% selected oral contraceptives, 27% used condoms, and 8% the IUD.
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  22. 22

    Action area 6: male participation in family planning. IPPF plan 1988-90.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1986 Nov. 17-8.

    In response to increasing recognition of the importance of male participation in family planning decision making and practice and of responsible fatherhood as a key aspect of family life education, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has developed a plan to further work in this area. The 1st objective is to increase male contraceptive practice. National activities toward this end will include: a review of service delivery programs, including IEC components, to ensure they meet the needs of both men and women; encouragement of male opinion leaders to support male contraceptive practice; the recruitment and training of more satisfied male acceptors to promote male methods; exploration of more effective approaches to the delivery of male methods; provision of men and women with accurate information about male contraception; and involvement of greater numbers of male community leaders in planned parenthood programs at the local level. International activities will include: identification of successful approaches to planned parenthood programs for men, research on barriers to male acceptance of family planning, and assistance to family planning associations. The 2nd IPPF objective is to increase joint responsibility for family planning. National activities in this area will include: an emphasis on values and traditions that encourage shared responsibilities in family life; encouragement of men to support women's family planning practices; the stimulation of community discussions, promotion of family life education programs; collaboration with parliamentarians, trade unions, and the armed forces; and involvement of men in efforts to promote women's development activities and women's equality. On the international level, IPPF will assist family planning associations in identifying opportunities for the promotion of joint responsibility, including through collaboration with other international organizations that reach male groups.
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  23. 23

    IPPF/WHR service statistics for 1987.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    IPPF/WHR FORUM. 1987 Aug; 3(2):10.

    The latest statistics on new acceptors reported by the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) for 1986 show important growth in male methods, condoms and sterilization (up 33%). The area included is Latin America and the Caribbean. The most popular method for new acceptors is the IUD (43% of new users); the second most popular method is the pill (27% of new users); and the third is sterilization (14% of new users). Total increase in new acceptors in clinics and community programs combined was 13%. Other methods, including diaphragms, spermicides, and natural family planning, increased 65% in clinic clients and 223% in community based distribution programs. During 1982-1986, the total number of new acceptors rose by 26% to 1.5 million; total number of visits to a clinic rose 15% to 3.3 million, and the number of clinics rose 39% to 1899.
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  24. 24

    Evaluation of Village Family Planning Program, USAID Indonesia Project: 497-0327, 1983-1986.

    Bair WD; Astawa IB; Siregar KN; Sudarmadi D

    Arlington, Virginia, International Science and Technology Insitute, Population Technical Assistance Project, 1987 Jul 15. ix, 66, [41] p. (Report No. 86-099-056)

    This evaluation of the village family planning program in Indonesia is prepared for USAID, which has supported the program for 15 years, and is to complete support in 1986. It is in general a positive evaluation, prepared by interviews, and visits to 7 out of 27 Provinces, 14 out of 246 Kabupatens (Districts), and 16 Villages. Village distribution centers have increased 38%, new acceptors by 38%, continuing user levels by 57%, and overall contraceptive prevalence by 38%. Access to varieties of contraceptives, especially longer acting methods, has improved, and costs per capita have decreased. Some problems were pointed out, generating several recommendations: physical conditions of the clinics need attention; motivation by consciousness raising has not been matched by better knowledge; the surgical program needs to be expanded; self-sufficiency in cost recovery should be fostered; operations research is needed on payment for field workers and volunteers; and social marketing should be expanded. USAID should continue support for the Outer Islands. In a final list of recommendations were the suggestions that USAID assist clinical programs further, support training of field workers, do more statistical review, continue to support the IEC program, operations research on community-based distribution, and program integration.
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  25. 25

    Annual report 83/84.

    Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

    Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1984. [108] p.

    This 1983-84 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong lists council and executive members as well as subcommittee members and volunteers for 1983 and provides information on the following: administration of the Association; clinical services; education; information; International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) activities; laboratory services; library service; motivation; personnel resource development and production; the Sexually Assualted Victims Service; studies and evaluation; subfertility service; surgical service; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; women's clubs; the Youth Advisory Service; and youth volunteer development. In 1983, there was a total of 45,384 new cases; total attendance at clinics was 261,992. A series of thirteen 5-minute segments on sex education was produced as part of a weekly television youth program. An 8-session sexual awareness seminar continued to receive a very good response. To meet the increasing demand of young couples for better preparation towards satisfactory sexual adjustment in marriage, a 3-session seminar on marriage was regularly conducted every month during 1983. 13 seminars were held, reaching a total of 374 participants. Other education efforts included a family planning talk, the Kwun Tong Population and Family Life Education Week, and 39 sessions of talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. The year-long information campaign was organized in response to the 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, Practice findings that many couples still fail to recognize the concept of shared responsibility in family planning. Laboratory services include hepatitis screening, premarital check-up examinations, pap smear, the venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), and seminal fluid examinations. Throughout the year, 256 interviews were given to sexually assaulted victims. To arouse the awareness of the public with regard to preventing rape through education, counselors conducted talks and gave radio and television interviews on the Sexually Assaulted Victims Service. The records of the 3 sub-fertility clinics showed that altogether in 1983 there were 1355 new cases and 561 old cases, with a total attendance of 6682. 144 pregnancies also were recorded. Training programs included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for teachers and social workers.
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