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Health Research Policy and Systems. 2018 May 22; 16(1):42.BACKGROUND: As countries continue to improve their family planning (FP) programmes, they may draw on WHO's evidence-based FP guidance and tools (i.e. materials) that support the provision of quality FP services. METHODS: To better understand the use and perceived impact of the materials and ways to strengthen their use by countries, we conducted qualitative interviews with WHO regional advisors, and with stakeholders in Ethiopia and Senegal who use WHO materials. RESULTS: WHO uses a multi-faceted strategy to directly and indirectly disseminate materials to country-level decision-makers. The materials are used to develop national family planning guidelines, protocols and training curricula. Participants reported that they trust the WHO materials because they are evidence based, and that they adapt materials to the country context (e.g. remove content on methods not available in the country). The main barrier to the use of national materials is resource constraints. CONCLUSIONS: Although the system and processes for dissemination work, improvements might contribute to increased use of the materials. For example, providers may benefit from additional guidance on how to counsel women with characteristics or medical conditions where contraceptive method eligibility criteria do not clearly rule in or rule out a method.
East Asian Science, Technology and Society. 2016 Dec; 10(4):445-467.This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.
State of world population 2017. Worlds apart: Reproductive health and rights in an age of inequality.
New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], Division of Communications and Strategic Partnerships, 2017. 140 p.In most developing countries, the poorest women have the fewest options for family planning, the least access to antenatal care and are most likely to give birth without the assistance of a doctor or midwife. Limited access to family planning translates into 89 million unintended pregnancies and 48 million abortions in developing countries annually. This does not only harm women’s health, but also restricts their ability to join or stay in the paid labour force and move towards financial independence, the report argues. Lack of access to related services, such as affordable child care, also stops women from seeking jobs outside the home. For women who are in the labour force, the absence of paid maternity leave and employers’ discrimination against those who become pregnant amount to a motherhood penalty, forcing many women to choose between a career and parenthood. The UNFPA report recommends focusing on the furthest behind first, in line with the United Nations blueprint for achieving sustainable development and inclusive societies by 2030. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has “envisaged a better future, one where we collectively tear down the barriers and correct disparities,” the report states. “Reducing all inequalities needs to be the aim. Some of the most powerful contributions can come from realizing...women’s reproductive rights.” (excerpt)
Contraceptives and condoms for family planning and STI & HIV prevention external procurement support report.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2014 Dec. 86 p.Access to reproductive health, including family planning, is recognized as a human right. Support from donors is critical to improving and ensuring the security of essential contraceptives and other life-saving reproductive health commodities. Contraceptives procured through external support constitute a significant contribution to reproductive health, including family planning and, through the dual protection provided by condoms, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. This report, updated annually, is a rich source of data for development that can drive good planning for contraceptive supply, advocacy and resource mobilization. The report contains dozens of figures, tables, and graphs, along with information and analysis that can influence policy dialogue, advocacy and interagency work. It aims to enhance coordination among donors, improve partnerships between donors and national governments, and mobilize the resources needed to accelerate progress towards universal access to sexual and reproductive health, and in particular to reduce the unmet need for family planning. The report also analyses data received from individual donors and partner organizations about the support they have provided directly to developing countries for the procurement of contraceptives and condoms.
Adolescent girls in disaster and conflict. Interventions for improving access to sexual and reproductive health services.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2016. 92 p.Safe spaces, mobile medical teams and youth engagement are effective ways to reach displaced, uprooted, crisis-affected girls at a critical time in their young lives. Adolescent Girls in Disaster & Conflict: Interventions for Improving Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services is a collection of UNFPA-supported humanitarian interventions for reaching adolescents when crisis heightens vulnerability to gender-based violence, unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, early and forced marriage and other risks.
Washington, D.C., PAI, 2015 Aug. 2 p.There are more people displaced in the world today than at any other point in history, and more than 75 percent of those needing humanitarian assistance are women and children. In humanitarian emergencies, many women want to avoid pregnancy; however they lack access to the services and supplies that would allow them to delay pregnancy. To meet the reproductive health needs of people in humanitarian emergencies, organizations and policymakers should know the answers to these 10 critical questions.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2014 Nov. 8 p.This publication outlines how, following the London Summit on Family Planning in 2012, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has worked to engage governments, with the aim of building a conducive environment to reach the most vulnerable groups, no matter how remote their location, in order to reach the key goal of ensuring 120 million more women have access to family planning by 2020.
Lancet. 2017 Jul 01; 390(10089):1.Add to my documents.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB, the IPPF Member Association in Bangladesh) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. The government has made some progress towards its pledges, but existing efforts are not enough to deliver on its promises by 2020. In addition, other problems and gaps have emerged. The government must address these problems urgently. Civil society calls on the government to: Increase the budgetary allocation to family planning and reduce the resource gap for family planning by 50% by 2021. The government pledged US $40 million per year (or US $380 million by 2021), but since 2009, increases to the annual development budget have not met this commitment; Expand access to long-acting and reversible contraception (LARC) in order to ensure that vulnerable groups have access and choice of family planning methods; Empower women and girls to make family planning choices and freely exercise their sexual and reproductive rights.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (ZNFPC, the IPPF Collaborating Partner in Zimbabwe) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Facilitate the active participation of girls and young women, including those who are marginalized and those living with HIV, in all aspects of national programming and decision-making relating to HIV and AIDS; Strengthen commitment to women’s health by responding to the health impact of unsafe abortion, a major public health concern, by scaling up post-abortion care and reducing unintended pregnancies through expanded and improved family planning services; Implement evidence-based HIV prevention programmes that address the needs of girls and young women, especially those living in prison or detention centres, those involved in transactional sex or child marriages, survivors of gender-based violence and orphans.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ, the IPPF Member Association in Zambia) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Demonstrate that family planning is a top priority on its development agenda by allocating more resources towards family planning. Currently, there are a lot of competing priorities resulting in fewer resources for family planning. Increases to the family planning budget should be sustained in subsequent budgets and the government should consult with civil society to decide how these resources can be used most effectively; Create a dedicated budget line for family planning to ensure that resources are appropriately distributed and used for family planning. CSOs must be involved in the discussion to help formulate clear aims for family planning funding that are informed by their experiences in communities, with the people who need access to services; Allocate government staff and resources to engage with religious and traditional leaders and communities, particularly in the poorest and most under-served areas, to reduce socio-cultural barriers to family planning.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.Rahnuma, Family Planning Association of Pakistan (Rahnuma-FPAP, the IPPF Member Association in Pakistan) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Demonstrate political commitment to deliver the FP2020 pledges. To date, there has been slow progress on all family planning indicators due to inadequate financial commitments and ownership by governments and government ministries; Allocate government funding to family planning at the provincial level. Budgets are a responsibility of provincial governments, due to devolution; Invest in effective procurement and logistics systems for family planning to ensure commodity security and address unmet need for family planning, including unmet need for long-acting reversible contraceptives. In the absence of a functioning supply chain, unmet need will increase.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.Family Health Options Kenya (FHOK, the IPPF Member Association in Kenya), the Centre for the Study of Adolescence (CSA) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Respond to severe shortages of health workers and poor working conditions in the health sector; Recruit 17,000 health workers by 2017 and an additional 40,000 community health extension workers by 2017 (in accordance with promises made at the Human Resources for Health Conference in Brazil, 2013); Improve the procurement and supply of FP commodities. Currently, Kenya can access FP commodities for free, but only when they are ordered alone. The Kenya Medical Supplies Authority (KEMSA) often orders FP supplies with other essential supplies, and as a result the government has to pay for them, wasting valuable resources; Accelerate the training of trainers on new FP technologies to increase access to developments in family planning. New family planning technologies offer different benefits compared to modern family planning methods currently available. However, health workers must be trained to deliver them.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (PKBI/IPPA, the IPPF Member Association in Indonesia) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. The government has made some progress towards its pledges, but existing efforts are not enough to deliver on its promises by 2020. In addition, other problems and gaps have emerged. The government must address these problems urgently. Civil society calls on the government to: Create a dedicated budget line for family planning and increase budget allocations for family planning. Currently, only 2.2% of the health budget is allocated for nutrition and maternal health and family planning, which falls short of the US $263.7 million target pledged at the 2012 Family Planning Summit. Although the government increased the health budget by 1.5% from 2014-2015, it is not clear how much of the increase was allocated to family planning; Amend Population Law 52/2009 to state that family planning services must not discriminate on the basis of marital status. To implement this amendment, the government must issue new health service delivery guidelines and raise awareness of the policy change; Establish mechanisms to involve young people in government decision-making processes. Youth programmes, in particular, must take into account young people’s needs and demands in order to be effective.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Spotlight on Family Planning series offers a snapshot on progress governments have made in delivering on their FP2020 pledges, made at the London 2012 Family Planning Summit. The Family Planning Association of India (FPA India), the IPPF Member Association in India) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP, the IPPF Member Association in the Philippines) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Improve implementation of the Reproductive Health Law by issuing clear guidance to government agencies and local government units with regards to what their duties and responsibilities are in relation to the RH Law; Implement behaviour change programmes for bureaucrats, health workers and civil servants so they clearly understand their responsibilities with regards to the RH Law, and to eliminate any possibility that they will misinterpret the Law.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Sep. 2 p.To hold the government to account for its FP2020 commitments, the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) developed a monitoring and accountability tool, called the FP annual score card, in collaboration with local partners. The score card measures the government’s annual performance against their commitments, using indicators such as ‘demand generated for FP’, ‘financing’ and ‘access to services’. The score card helps advocates to identify what the government has delivered to date and what it should be delivering, based on a trajectory towards 2020. Family planning organizations and champions, national and international, use the results in their advocacy messaging and monitoring.
Making universal access to sexual and reproductive health a reality – building momentum for comprehensive family planning.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Apr. 4 p.In 2015, 225 million women will not have access to contraception globally, resulting in 74 million unplanned pregnancies, ill health and over 500,000 maternal deaths. Maternal health is currently far off track and universal access to sexual and reproductive health remains a distant reality for many of the world’s poor, marginalized and vulnerable women, men and young people. To enable 120 million more women and girls to use contraception by 2020, IPPF is doing its part by: increasing family planning services to save the lives of 54,000 women, averting 46.4 million unintended pregnancies and preventing unsafe abortion; tripling the number of comprehensive and integrated sexual and reproductive health services annually, including 553 million services to adolescents. For over 60 years, IPPF has been at the vanguard in delivering comprehensive voluntary family planning services and is the leading global service provider for sexual and reproductive health. This technical briefing showcases IPPF’s work globally. We are a grassroots organization, directed by and responding to the needs of the communities that we serve.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Oct. 50 p.As the largest civil society provider of family planning, IPPF plays a leadership role – holding governments to account for the pledges they made at the London Summit on Family Planning 2012, pushing for family planning and SRHR within the new Sustainable Development Goals national plans whilst strengthening our own delivery. Our new pledge is to reach an additional 45 million between 2015 and 2020 – meaning a total FP2020 contribution from IPPF of 60 million new users to family planning. This report showcases IPPF’s innovation and impact as the global leader in family planning services and advocacy.
London, United Kingdom, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2016 Jun. 12 p.Governments have agreed a range of commitments to advance sustainable development, including promoting women’s and girls’ health and protecting human rights for all. Global commitments are important as they set a framework for funding to flow towards a particular issue and influence national development strategies and programming. As advocates, we can use global commitments to encourage coordination across national development plans, to push for funding and to increase political buy-in. This factsheet will focus on the linkages between the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) commitments.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF], 2016. 21 p.Family planning is a critical, human rights-based, and cost-effective approach to climate change adaptation and resilience building. The aims of the paper are for national family planning advocates to be better placed to ensure: (a) national development (including climate change) planning processes include greater emphasis on family planning; and (b) more “climate change programmes” include family planning actions, therefore increasing overall investment and action in reproductive health. After defining “climate change” and introducing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 10 arguments are summarised which national family planning advocates are encouraged to employ, to suit their national contexts, to further these aims.
Climate change: time to "think family planning." A communications toolkit for family planning advocates.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF], 2016. 9 p.This paper asserts that family planning is a critical, human rights-based, and cost-effective approach to climate change adaptation and resilience building. The aims of the paper are for national family planning advocates to be better placed to ensure: (a) national development plans (including climate change planning processes) include greater emphasis on voluntary family planning; and (b) more “climate change programmes” and strategies include family planning actions, therefore increasing overall investment and action in reproductive health. The accompanying policy paper summarises strategies which family planning advocates are encouraged to employ, to suit their national contexts, to further these aims. This Communications Toolkit summarises how those arguments can be edited into key messages and how those key messages can be used to reach advocacy targets in the run up to COP22, the next Climate Change Conference, to be held in Marrakech, Morocco, from 7 to 18 November 2016.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 144 p.HIV is not only driven by gender inequality, but it also entrenches gender inequality, leaving women more vulnerable to its impact. Providing sexual and reproductive health interventions for women living with HIV that are grounded in principles of gender equality and human rights can have a positive impact on their quality of life; it is also a step towards long-term improved health status and equity.
A tool for strengthening gender-sensitive national HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) monitoring and evaluation systems.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 126 p.WHO and UNAIDS have released a new tool for strengthening gender-sensitive national HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) monitoring and evaluation systems. The tool provides step-by-step guidance to strategic information specialists and monitoring and evaluation officers of HIV and SRH programmes on how to ask the right questions in order to uncover gender inequalities and their influence on health; identify and select gender-sensitive indicators; conduct gender-analysis of SRH and HIV data; and strengthen monitoring and evaluation systems to enable appropriate data collection and gender analysis. The tool has been used by nearly 30 country teams of strategic information specialists, civil society and HIV programme implementers to analyse their own SRH and HIV data from a gender equality perspective. It can be used for training monitoring and evaluation specialists as well as a resource guide for SRH and HIV programmes to develop gender profiles of their SRH and HIV situation. “Know your epidemic, know your response” has been the cornerstone of the HIV response. This tool supports this approach by helping identify inequities and underlying drivers and hence, improve evidence-informed SRH and HIV programmes for all, but particularly for women and girls.
Union of the Comoros. Adolescent contraceptive use. Data from l'Enquete Demographique et de Sante et a Indicateurs Multiples aux Comores (EDSC-MICS), 2012.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Nov. 4 p. (WHO/RHR/16.20)These facts sheets present information from 58 countries on adolescents’ (ages 15-19) contraceptive use by marital status. In addition, key information, such as reasons for non-use of contraception, as well as where adolescents obtain their contraceptive method, is included. The Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) program www.dhsprogrogram.com conducts nationally representative surveys in low- and middle-income countries. We use the most recently collected data from any country where 1) a survey has been conducted in the past 10 years (2006-2016) and 2) the data are publically available. Analyses of DHS in the fact sheets are weighted according to DHS guidance to be nationally representative. The data provided is aimed to help policymakers and programme planners reduce inequities in service provision and access by understanding adolescents’ current sources of contraception, utilised methods, and reasons why they are not using contraception.