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[Quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou of Henan province].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]. 2016 Apr; 50(4):339-45.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou city of Henan province. METHODS: During January to May in 2015, by the convenience sample, World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) (Chinese version) and a self-edited questionnaire were used to investigate 1 251 HIV/AIDS patients who were confirmed with HIV positive by local CDC, registered in"HIV serodiscordant family" and agreed to participate in a face-to-face interview with above 18 year-old based on the local CDC , township hospitals and village clinics of 9 counties and 1 district of Zhoukou city, excluding the HIV/AIDS patients who were in divorce, death by one side, unknowing about his HIV status, with mental illness and disturbance of consciousness, incorrectly understanding the content of the questionnaire, and reluctant to participate in this study. The scores of quality of life of physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were calculated. The related factors of the scores of different domains were analyzed by Multiple Two Classification Unconditioned Logistic Regression. RESULTS: The scores of investigation objects in the physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were 12.00+/- 2.02, 12.07 +/- 2.07, 11.87 +/- 1.99, and 11.09 +/- 1.84, respectively. The multiple Unconditioned Logistic Regression analysis indicated that age <40 years, on ART and no other sickness in last two weeks were beneficial factors associated with physical domain with OR (95%CI): 0.61 (0.35-1.06), 0.52 (0.30-0.90), and 1.66 (1.09-2.52), respectively. The possibility of no poverty and no other sickness in last two weeks increased to 0.15(0.09-0.26) and 1.57(1.06-2.33) times of those who was in poverty and with other sickness in last two weeks in physical domain. The possibility of participants who were below 40 years old and with children increased to 0.58 (0.34-0.98) and 0.37 (0.23-0.57) times of who were above 40 years old and without children in psychological domain. The factors of with AIDS related symptoms, no children and with other sickness in last two week were found to be significantly associated with environmental domain with OR (95%CI): 0.65 (0.48-0.88), 0.66 (0.51-0.85), and 0.65 (0.51-0.84), respectively . CONCLUSION: The scores of every domain of quality of life in HIV serodiscordant couples of Zhoukou city were good. Age, whether having AIDS related symptoms, whether to accept ART , children, status of poverty, and whether suffering from other diseases in last two weeks were the main factors associated with the quality of life.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):197-207.In March 2009, UN member states met at the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to discuss the priority theme of "the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including caregiving in the context of HIV/AIDS". This meeting focused the international community's attention on care issues and generated Agreed Conclusions that aimed to lay out a roadmap for care policy. I examine how the frame of "care" - a contested concept that has long divided feminist researchers and activists - operated in this site. Research involved a review of documentation related to the meeting and interviews with 18 participants. Using this research I argue that the frame of care united a range of groups, including conservative faith-based actors who have mobilized within the UN to roll back sexual and reproductive rights. This policy alliance led to important advances in the Agreed Conclusions, including strong arguments about the global significance of care, especially in relation to HIV; the need for a strong state role; and the value of caregivers' participation in policy debates. However, the care frame also constrained debate at the CSW, particularly about disability rights and variations in family formation. Those seeking to reassert sexual and reproductive rights are grappling with such limitations in a range of ways, and attention to their efforts and concerns can help us better understand the potentials and dangers for feminist intervention within global policy spaces. Copyright (c) 2010 UNRISD. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A demographic perspective on women in development in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1998. xvi, 135 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 148)The selection of Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam for inclusion in the study was based on a number of considerations. The ESCAP secretariat has undertaken the publication of country profiles of women in 16 other countries, namely Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The four countries included in this study, while exhibiting significant social and cultural differences, are all located in South-East Asia; they are the four least developed countries in South-East Asia on most indicators; and their economies are in transition to more open, market-oriented economies, In each of the four countries, women have traditionally played an important social role marked by considerable gender equity. Equal inheritance among children is possible, and often the norm. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic, for example, husbands traditionally move to the household of their wife and the youngest daughter inherits the family home. The proportion of households headed by women is substantial in all four countries, and quite high in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Female labour force participation rates exceed those of men in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and the female labour force is larger than the male labour force in Viet Nam. (excerpt)
Journal of Biosocial Science. 2003 July; 35(3):335-351.Improved child health and survival are considered universal humanitarian goals. In this respect, understanding the nutritional status of children has far-reaching implications for the better development of future generations. The present study assessed, first, the nutritional status of children below 5 years using the three anthropometric measures weight-forage, height-for-age and weight-for-height in two states of India, Kerala and Goa. Secondly, it examined the confounding factors that influence the nutritional status of children in these states. The NFHS-I data for Kerala and Goa were used. The results showed that the relative prevalence of underweight and wasting was high in Kerala, but the prevalence of stunting was medium. In Goa, on the other hand, the relative prevalence of wasting and underweight was very high, and that of stunting was high. Both socioeconomic and family planning variables were significantly associated with malnutrition in these states, but at varied levels. The study recommends more area-specific policies for the development of nutritional intervention programmes. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 2001 Jun 9.  p. (DPI/2214/F)This fact sheet presents five priorities for action, six key factors to achieve these goals, and recommends partnering to carry out the campaign.
Delegates' guide to recent publications for the International Conference on Population and Development.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 1994. , 75 p.The chapters of this listing of recent publications correspond to the chapters in the Draft Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Thus, publications are grouped under the headings: 1) interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; 2) gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; 3) the family and its roles, composition, and structure; 4) population growth and structure; 5) reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning; 6) health, morbidity, and mortality; 7) population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; 8) international migration; 9) population, development, and education; 10) technology, research, and development; 11) national action; 12) international cooperation; and 13) partnership with the nongovernmental sector. There are no entries that correspond to the Programme of Action chapters which present the Preamble, Principles, or Follow-up to the Conference. More than 40 organizations listed publications in this guide and agreed to provide copies free of charge to official ICPD delegates as long as supplies last. A full list of organization names, contact persons, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers is also given.
[Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994.  p.In its statement to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the Bahamas presented the following description of itself. It is an archipelago of over 700 islands covering 80,000 miles of ocean, with a total land area of 5,382 square miles. 22 islands are inhabited, but the bulk of the population resides on 14. The population grew from 209.5 thousand in 1980 to 255.1 in 1990, with 67% residing on the capital island of New Providence. Population growth is expected to continue at an annual rate of 1.9%. Tourism, the main economic activity, has stagnated, and new ways of stimulating economic growth are being sought. The Bahamas has the following population and development concerns: 1) the delivery of services to all of the islands; 2) the growing trend towards single-parent families and the capacity of these families to provide for their support; 3) the need for accessible and affordable health care, disease prevention, and health promotion measures; 4) the effects of an unrelenting flow of undocumented migrants on the socioeconomic structure of the nation; 5) providing quality education to insure human resource development; and 6) improving the status of women, children, and the elderly. The Bahamas urges the nations of the world to work together to enhance the health of our people; to improve the lives of our children; to halt the destruction of our environment; and to implement rational, equitable, and appropriate population policies.
[Final report on the regional population conference] Jelentes a regionalis nepesedesi ertekezletrol.
DEMOGRAFIA. 1998; 41(4):335-53.The Regional Population Conference was convened pursuant to a resolution of the General Assembly of the UN, and the government of Hungary extended an invitation to UN bodies and hosted the conference December 7-9, 1998, in Budapest. Among the participants were members of the ECE, various UN organs, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and a number of demographers. After the acceptance of the agenda and election of leadership, priority themes were discussed. These included fertility, the family, and gender (the support of families with children, the status of women and gender equality); reproductive rights and sexual as well as reproductive health; mortality and health care (maintaining the progress towards longer life and better health and reversing adverse trends in the newly independent states); the demographic aging of the population (maintaining active lives through volunteer work, the pressure on social security and retirement systems, the care of people over 80 years old); and international migration (dealing with migration, the coordination of policies, refugees, and the promotion of integration). International cooperation is very important in the area of population growth and economic development as well as in the area of collection and analysis of demographic data. At the concluding meeting of the Regional Population Conference, the agreements and commitments contained in the recommendations of the 1993 European Population Conference and the Action Program of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development were reaffirmed.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1997. x, 1087 p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/26)The Demographic Yearbook for 1995 presents comprehensive statistical tables of demography encompassing: population, vital statistics, infant mortality, maternal mortality, mortality, natality, nuptiality, divorce, and household characteristics for 233 countries throughout the world. The special topic in this 1995 issue focuses on household characteristics as updates from the 1987 issue. Data available during 1986-95 include population by sex, population by age and sex, live births by sex, live births by age of the mother and sex of the child, deaths by sex, deaths by age and sex, expectation of life at exact ages by sex, infant deaths by sex, marriages, and divorces. Marriage by age of the groom and the bride is provided for the latest available year. Household data from the census during 1985-95 pertain to household size and urban/rural residence, living arrangements by age and sex and by urban/rural residence, population by age and sex and by urban/rural residence, household by age and sex of householder and by urban/rural residence, and headship rates by age and sex of householder and by urban/rural residence. More detailed tables provide data on households by age and sex, by marital status, and by urban/rural residence; household size and relationship to head; and size and type of household.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. ix, 149 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/152)This UN review covers an appraisal of plans of action for the entire period of 1974-94, due to the expected new Plan of Action to be adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development scheduled for 1994 in Cairo. Plans of action were adopted at Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico city in 1984. Reviews of plan implementation were conducted in 1979, 1984, and 1989. This review covers the major topics of the Plan of Action and follows the structure of the Program of Action of the 1994 Conference. Chapters 1-9 and 15 focus on socioeconomic development and population, women, the family, population growth and demographic structure, human reproduction, mortality, population distribution, and internal and international migration. Chapters 10 and 11 focus on information, education, and communication, data collection and analyses, research, provision of services, management of program operation, creation of awareness, and evaluation of actions. Chapters 12-14 focus on government, the international community, nongovernmental organizations, scholars, the private sector, and the media. Each topic is presented with a discussion of the following issues: trends, salient issues, significance of issues, actions considered by the Plan of Action, government measures, measures taken by the international community, and an assessment of the implementation of the Plan of Action. The World Population Plan of Action presents principles and objectives that justify action on population issues, guide criteria, and determine the expected results of action. The Plan rejects any form of coercion. Couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children; have responsibility for taking into account the needs of their living and future children; and have responsibilities toward the community.
CAIRO EXAMINER. 1994 Autumn; 12-4.The UN declared in its 1994 International Year of the Family that families assume diverse forms and functions from one country to another, and within each national society. These forms and functions express the diversity of individual preferences and social conditions. Family policies must therefore be developed to bring families into conformity with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which protect the rights of individuals against family claims and intrusions. That document labels family traditions and inherited cultural values, including religion, as obstacles which perpetuate attitudes which have worked to the detriment of society and some family members, notably women. The author disagrees with the UN and believes that it is false to argue the absence of any relatively fixed definition of family. The family worldwide can be defined as a man and woman bonded through marriage to regulate sexuality; to bear, raise, and protect children; to provide mutual care and protection; to create a small home economy; and to maintain intergenerational continuity.
In: The United Nations Population Award, 1993. Laureates: Dr. Frederick T. Sai and Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Shimbun. Acceptance speeches and other statements. Award ceremony, New York, 16 September 1993. [Unpublished] 1993. 10-6.The 1993 UN Population award was given to Dr. Frederick R. Sai of Ghana. In his acceptance speech, Dr. Sai gave special thanks to President Hurtado of Mexico and thanks for the opportunity of working at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. A special tribute was given by Dr. Sai to his 92-year-old mother, who though illiterate, widowed early, and very poor, encouraged her son educationally. His wife and family received thanks for their support of his chosen profession in clinical and public health nutrition. This field opened up his awareness of the need for family planning. The horror of kwashiorkor remains an important remembrance of the too close spacing of births. Special thanks were directed to Professor Scrimshaw of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, the late Professors Ben Platt of the University of London and Jean Mayer of Harvard and Tufts Universities, and Dr. Julia Henderson at the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Thanks also were given to Dr. Sai's staff and volunteers at IPPF and to the many unrewarded and unrecognized people who devote themselves to concerns for motherhood and child health, human rights, and quality of life through family planning. Dr. Sai dedicated his prize to all the malnourished children and their parents who trusted in the future and helped with the studies without knowing for certain whether they would survive the next rainy season. These mothers are the hope of Africa. The quotation from Thomas Gray's Elegy in a Country Churchyard is reoriented to the African context and restated as "Fair science frowns not on her humble birth, and Melancholy marks her for her own." Drudgery and melancholy appear daily in the lives of African girls whose lack of access to general and science education influences their ability to care for themselves and their children. The education of women is of great concern, and progress worldwide is still limited. The call is for all to work together, regardless of differences, to improving conditions for the education of women. Safe motherhood is still a goal. Technology is available, but women's full control of their own fertility and quality information and services are the best method.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 124-54. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The UN Secretary-General's state of the population and family message is an expansive discussion of many issues. There are some historical perspectives and definitions of family type, socioeconomic change, and demographic changes affecting the family. Population trends are given for family size, more and less developed regions, the family life cycle, and family structures. Policies in industrialized countries are examined with a focus on the nuclear family, new marriage patterns and the sociological implications, and political responses to population growth. Family policy is also viewed from within transitional societies: demographic characteristics; specific populations such as those in Latin America, India and Indonesia; economic and social change; nuclear and extended families; international migration and urban-rural differences; marriage age changes; educational impacts from population growth; health programs; and family planning. Some basic principles for population policies are outlined. Parents must have the right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. Children have a right to education, and parents to literacy. Women have an equal right to employment. Women have a right to choose their own marriage partners. Social policy in order to ensure the welfare of the family relies on social and economic services, including care for the aged. Market expansion and economic policy also impacts on the family through increasing participation of marginal workers especially women and should be sensitive to the well-being of the family. Population pressure will affect housing shortages and inefficiencies in social welfare, for example. Traditional societies are defined as those not affected yet by modernization. Regional illustrations are given for tropical Africa, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The threshold hypothesis is advanced that even in traditional societies substantial mortality decline has occurred; the stages of demographic transition for specific countries has been shortened and inadequacy of data prevents a detailed estimation. Raising national and income/capita is seen as a goal of notional government. National governments have a responsibility to develop family and population policies. Human rights must be protected. The implications of growth patterns, the objectives of national policies, priorities, and universal criteria for a family policy are all discussed.
In: The 1984 International Conference on Population: the Liberian experience, [compiled by] Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Monrovia, Liberia, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, . 232-47.This paper summarizes those aspects of the 1984 World Development Report which deal with population prospects and policies in Liberia. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only area of the world where there has not yet been any decline in the rate of growth of the population, and Liberia with a population of 2 million and growing at the rate of 3.5%/year has 1 of the highest growth rates in that area. The birth rate is 50/1000 of the population, and the death rate is 14/1000. The fertility rate is nearly 7 children/woman and is not expected to decline to replacement level before year 2030. Infant mortality is 91/1000, and half of all deaths occur among children under 5. Projecting these demographic trends into the future leads to the conclusion that the population will double in 20 years and exceed 6 million by 2030. Although fertility will begin to decline in the 1990s, the population will continue to increase for a few years with the growth rate declining to 2%/year by 2020 and 1.2%/year by 2045. Such rapid population growth will cause great stress on the country's ability to provide food, schools, and health care. For the children themselves, large, poor families, with births spaced too close together, means malnutrition, poor health , and lower intellectual capacity. And the cycle of poverty continues over the generations as the families save less and expend more on the immediate needs of their children. In macroeconomic terms, a growth rate of l2%/year means a massive explosion of need for food, water, energy, housing, health services and education, with a gross domestic product (GDP) growth of only 2%/year; and this projection is probably optimistic. The rural sector will not be able to support the 23% additional rural labor force, which will migrate to the towns, adding to the already high urban growth rate of 5.7%/year from natural increase. In this society, where literacy is only 20% and secondary education completed by only 11% of the girls, it is estimated that only %5 of eligible couples practice birth control despite the fact that it costs less than $1.00 per capita. Government must step in to ensure that resources exist for population planning at county and local levels. Government is responsible for making demographic data accessible and for coordinating population program inputs. Government should also make sure that family planning programs can be implemented through integration with existing health services. A project including restructuring of health care management, financing and delivery, as well as development of a national population policy, has been proposed for World Bank and other international agencies' support.
In: Tras nuevas raices: migraciones internas y colonizacion en Bolivia [by] Carlos Garcia-Tornell, Maria Elena Querejazu, Jose Blanes, Fernando Calderon, Jorge Dandler, Julio Prudencio, Luis Lanza, Giovanni Carnibella, Gloria Ardaya, Gonzalo Flores [and] Alberto Rivera. La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Direccion de Planeamiento Social, Proyecto de Politicas de Poblacion, 1984 Apr. 51-251.A study of colonization programs in Bolivia was conducted as part of a larger evaluation of population policy. The 1st of 8 chapters examines the history of colonization programs in Bolivia and the role of state and international development agencies. It sketches the disintegration of the peasant economy, and presents 5 variables that appear to be central to colonization processes: the directedness or spontaneity of the colonization, the distance to urban centers and markets, the diversification of production, the length of time settled, and the origin of the migrants. The 2nd chapter describes the study methodology. The major objective was to evaluate government policies and plans in terms of the realistic possibilities of settlement in colonies for peasants expelled from areas of traditional agriculture. Interviews and the existing literature were the major sources used to identify the basic features and problems of colonization programs. 140 structured interviews were held with colonists in the Chapare zone, 43 in Yapacari, and 51 in San Julian. The 3 zones were selected because of their diversity, but the sample was not statistically representative and the findings were essentially qualitative. The 3rd chapter examines the relationships between the place of origin and the stages of settlement. The chapter emphasizes the influence of place of origin and other factors on the processes of differentiation, proletarianization, and pauperization. The 4th chapter examines the productive process, profitability of farming, the market, and reproductive diversification. The next chapter analyzes the technology and the market system of the colonists, the dynamics of the unequal exchange system in which they operate, and aspects related to ecological equilibrium and environmental conservation. The 6th chapter concentrates on family relationships and the role played by the family in colonization. Some features of the population structure of the colonies are described. The 7th chapter assesses forms of organization, mechanisms of social legitimation, and the important role of peasant syndicates. The final chapter summarizes the principal trends encountered in each of the themes analyzed and makes some recommendations concerning the colonization program, especially in reference to the family economy and labor organizations.
[Unpublished] 1987. 13,  p.Africa's colonial legacy is such that countries contain not only a multiplicity of nations and languages, but their governments operate on separate cultural and linguistic planes, remnants of colonial heritage, so that neighboring peoples often have closed borders. Another problem is poor demographic data, although some censuses, World Fertility Surveys, Demographic Sample Surveys and Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys have been done. About 470 million lived in the region in 1984, growing at 3% yearly, ranging from 1.9% in Burkina to 4.6% in Cote d'Ivoire. Unique in Africa, women are not only having 6 to 8.1 children, but they desire even larger families: Senegalese women have 6.7 children and want 8.8. This gloomy outlook is reflected in the recent history of family planning policy. Only Ghana, Kenya and Mauritius began family planning in the 1960s, and in Kenya the policy failed, since it was begun under colonial rule. 8 countries made up the African Regional Council for IPPF in 1971. At the Bucharest Population Conference in 1974, most African representatives, intellectuals and journalists held the rigid view that population was irrelevant for development. Delegates to the Kilimanjaro conference and the Second International Conference on Population, however, did espouse the importance of family planning for health and human rights. And the Inter-Parliamentary Union of Africa accepted the role of family planning in child survival and women's status. At the meeting in Mexico in 1984, 12 African nations joined the consensus of many developing countries that rapid population growth has adverse short-term implications on development. Another 11 countries allow family planning for health and human rights, and a few more accept it without stating a reason. Only 3 of 47 Sub-Saharan nations state pro-natalist policies, and none are actively against family planning.
[Institutions of youth promotion and services in La Paz, Bolivia: an analytical-descriptive study] Las instituciones de promocion y servicio a la juventud en La Paz, Bolivia. Un estudio analitico-descriptivo.
La Paz, Bolivia, Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, . 104 p. (Estudios de Recursos Humanos No. 8)This work presents the results of an evaluation of 30 institutions in La Paz, Bolivia, which offer recreational, nonformal educational, training, and sports programs to young people. The 1st chapter provides theoretical background on the psychological, social, and sexual problems and tasks of adolescents in modern societies. The 2nd chapter briefly discusses the roles of the family, friendships, and organizations in the development of adolescents, and briefly describes the goals, programs, and financing of 17 of the 20 organizations studied. 21 of the 30 had formal legal status. 16 of the organizations were public and 13 were private. 7 were national in scope and 15 had international ties. 2 were for women only, 23 were for both sexes, and 5 included children. The primary program objectives were educational in 11 cases, cultural in 8, and sports and religious in 5 cases each. 24 of the organizations reported that they fulfilled their objectives and 5 that they possibly did so. 9 of the organizations had vertical patterns of authority, 16 had horizontal, and 5 had other types. 26 reported that their personnel were qualified. 21 were financed by member contributions, 5 by donations, and 1 by parental contributions. 21 reported that attendance was normal and 5 that there was little participation or interest among members. None of the organizations provided more than very superficial sex education programs, although 26 organizations indicated their belief that sex education is important. 12 of the organizations had professionals on their staffs and 17 had volunteers only. 19 reported they had sufficient manpower and 2 that they did not. The material resources of the organizations were scarce; only 6 had their own meeting places. 15 relied on financing by members, 8 had governmental help or received donations from nonmembers, and 4 had international assistance.
[Introduction to the Second Latin American Seminar on the Migrant Woman] Introduccion al Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano sobre la Mujer Migrante.
In: La Mujer Migrante, Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano, organizado por la Oficina Regional del Servicio Social Internacional y la Oficina Argentina de S.S.I., Buenos Aires, 9-12 de Septiembre de 1.985. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 7-12.Social Service International (SSI) is a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization which aids individuals who require assistance because of voluntary or forced expatriation or who require help for other social problems of an international character. Each national office is completely autonomous in its country and can adapt its programs to local needs. The General Secretariat in Geneva strives to assure that high quality services are maintained in each country. SSI has 17 national offices as well as volunteer correspondents in over 100 countries. SSI assists an average of 150,000 refugees and migrants in over 160 countries each year. In recent years Latin America has seen a massive increase in international migration because of political and economic problems. The consequences for families have been disastrous, but no adequate infrastructure has yet been developed to assist migrants and their families or to take preventive measures. Programs for training specialized personnel such as social workers and psychologists are also lacking. Private social agencies to aid recently arrived migrants have existed for many years in countries with histories of significant immigration, but they have tended to be limited to persons of a single nationality or religion and to have few specialized professional workers. SSI's 2nd major objective is to study the conditions and consequences of migration for individuals and families. Latin American women live in patriarchal societies whose norms still marginalize them or limit their participation. Women who migrate face discrimination in employment and education in addition to their other problems. The conclusions and recommendations of the seminar on migrant women are intended to improve understanding of the situation of such women at the regional and local level and to alert governmental and nongovernmental international organizations of the need for programs to improve the circumstances of migrant women.
UNESCO/IPDC Regional Seminar on the Media and the African Family, Livingstone, Zambia, 6-10 January 1986. Report.
[Unpublished] 1986 Jan. v, 63 p.A seminar was planned and conducted by UNESCO's Population Division during January 1986 to promote increased media attention to issues which affect family stability and welfare. Especially important are the social, economic, and health problems created by high rates of population growth, urbanization, and migration. The seminar intended to give participants an opportunity to: examine the changing characteristics and emergin problems of the African family; review and appraise both past and current efforts on the part of the media to promote understanding of the interrelationships between socioeconomic conditions and family welfare, composition, stability, and size; and develop plans to increase the involvement and effectiveness of the media in promoting understanding of these interrelationships and in enabling families to make decisions and take action to enhance their welfare and stability. This report of the seminar is presented in 2 sections. The 1st section presents the participants' review of the changing nature of the African family over recent decades and the socioeconomic and sociocultural problems which have emerged as a consequence of these changes. Additionally, the 1st section reviews the extent to which communication systems in the region have tried to deal with the population related issues which affect family welfare. A "Communication Plan of Action" is proposed by the participants as a logical outcome of their 2 analyses and as a synthesis of their recommendations for the manner in which communication systems in the region must develop in order to meet ongoing and future population-family life changes. The Plan of Action identifies the following strategies as necessary to realize the increased involvement of the media in family issues and problems: institutionalizing population family life content within the curricula of media training institutions within the region; intensifying preservice and inservice training of media personnel to enable them to deal effectively with the demographic, social, and economic issues which impinge upon family welfare; highlighting population family life communication matters; ensuring that research on population family life issues be widely disseminated to media personnel and media based organizations; sensitizing political and administrative decisionmakers to population family life issues so that media communication can be supported and opportunities for media coverage can be extended; emphasizing in national development plans the importance of the media in generating public awareness of and response to the constraints placed upon national development and improved family welfare by rapid population growth and large-scale urban migration; and encouraging the involvement of community organizations in media programs. The 2nd section of the report includes the participants examination of the communication planning process.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Economic and Social Commision for Asia and the Pacific, 1986. 7 p. (Population Research Leads No. 23.)This paper discusses the impact that the aging of the population and the extension of life will eventually have on various Asian countries. Currently, Japan is the only country in the Asia-Pacific region that has a large elderly population (those 65 years of age and over). During the 1st quarter of the next century, however, several countries in the region will have 10% or more of their populations in the elderly age group. While the problem of aging is not imminent for this region, within the next 13 or 14 years, the steadily growing proportion of the aged in the population is expected to modify the savings, consumption, and investment patterns of the people concerned and alter the region's economies. The statistics on aging for the period until the year 2000 may mask the problem. In many Asian countries there are only slight increases projected between 1980 and 2000 in the proportions of the elderly; however, large jumps of about 40% or more are projected between the yaers 2000 and 2025. In this context, the governments of the region must face the following issues or else risk being caught by suprise by new population problems in the future: 1) their ability to sustain the cost of an increasing proportion of elderly dependents as the nature of dependency shifts from the young to the old; 2) the maintanance of the traditional veneration of the elderly and the integration of the age group into the 3-generational family as families increasingly become 4-generational; and 3) the implications of aging trends with regard to retirement and pension schemes and those related to the swelling ranks of the labor force employed in the fornal sector in urban areas. (author's modified)
[National Conference on Fertility and Family, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, April 13, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Fecundidad y Familia, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., a 13 de abril de 1984.
Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 228 p.Proceedings of a national conferences on the family and fertility held in April 1984 as part of Mexico's preparation for the August 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses outline the background and objectives of the conference, while the 1st paper details recommendations of a 1983 meeting on fertility and the family held in New Delhi. The main body of the report presents 2 conference papers and commentary. The 1st paper, on fertility, contraception, and family planning, discusses fertility policies; levels and trends of fertility in Mexico from 1900 to 1970 and since 1970; socioeconomic and geographic fertility differentials; the relationship of mortality and fertility; contraception and the role of intermediate variables; the history and achievements of family planning activities of the private and public sectors in Mexico; and the relationship between contraception, fertility, and family planning. The 2nd paper, on the family as a sociodemographic unit and subject of population policies, discusses the World Population Plan of Action and current sociodemographic policies in Mexico; the family as a sociodemographic unit, including the implications of formal demography for the study of family phenomena, the dynamic sociodemographic composition of the family unit, and the family as a mediating unit for internal and external social actions; and steps in development of a possible population policy in which families would be considered an active part, including ideologic views of the family as a passive object of policy and possible mobilization strategies for families in population policies. The conference as a whole concluded by reaffirming the guiding principles of Mexico's population policy, including the right of couples to decide the number and spacing of their children, the fundamental objective of the population policy of elevating the socioeconomic and cultural level of the population, the view of population policy as an essential element of development policy, and the right of women to full participation. Greater efforts were believed to be necessary in such priority areas as integration of family planning programs with development planning and population policy, creation of methodologies for the analysis of families in their social contexts, development and application of contraceptive methodologies, promotion of male participation in family planning, coordination of federal and state family planning programs, and creation of sociodemographic information systems to ensure availability of more complete date on families in specific population sectors. The principles of the World Population Plan of Action were also reaffirmed.
[World population at a turning point? Results of the International Conference on Population, Mexico, August 14-16, 1984] De wereldbevolking op een keerpunt? Resultaten van de Internationale Bevolkingsconferentie, Mexico, 6-14 augustus 1984.
Brussels, Belgium, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS], 1985. viii, 274 p. (CBGS Monografie No. 1985/3)The aim of this report is to summarize the results of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, and to review the findings of working groups and regional meetings held in preparation for the conference. Chapters are included on developments in the decade since the 1974 World Population Conference, world population trends, fertility and the family, population distribution and migration, mortality and morbidity, population and the environment, results of five regional U.N. conferences, the proceedings and results of the Mexico City conference, and activities involving Belgium.
World plan of action for the implementation of the objectives of the International Women's Year: a summarized version.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1976. 43 p.This booklet's objective is to bring the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year to a wide audience. The 1st section focuses on national action -- overall national policy, national machinery and national legislation, funding, and minimum objectives to be realized by 1980. The 2nd section covers specific areas for national action: international cooperation and the strengthening of international peace; political participation; education and training; employment and related economic roles; health and nutrition; the family in modern society; population; housing and related facilities; and other social questions. The subsequent 4 sections deal with the following: research, data collection and analysis; mass media; international and regional action; and review and appraisal. A major focus of the Plan is to provide guidelines for national action for the 10-year period up to 1985 which the Generaly Assembly, at its 30th session, proclaimed as the Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. Its recommendations are addressed primarily to governments and to all public and private institutions, political parties, employers, trade unions, nongovernmental organizations, women's and youth groups and all other groups, and the mass communication media. Governments are urged to establish short, medium, and longterm targets and objectives to implement the Plan. The following are among the objectives envisaged as a minimum to be achieved by 1980: literacy and civic education should be significantly increased, especially among rural women; coeducational, technical, and vocational training should be available in both industrial and rural areas; equal access at every level of education, including compulsory primary school education, should be ensured; employment opportunities should be increased, unemployment reduced, and discriminatory employment conditions should be eliminated; infrastructural services should be established and increased, where necessary, in both rural and urban areas; legislation should be introduced, where necessary, to ensure women of voting and electoral rights, equal legal capacity, and equal employment opportunities and conditions; there should be more women in policymaking positions locally, nationally, and internationally; more comprehensive measures for health education, sanitation, nutrition, family education, family planning, and other welfare services should be provided; and equal exercise of civil, social, and political rights should be guaranteed.
[Unpublished] 1985 Nov 25. 8 p.For some time there has been an active debate centering on the relationship between population growth and economic growth and the relationship, if any, between abortion and family planning programs. This debate has been characterized by strongly held and often polarized convictions, yet the debate usually fails to consider a most important set of reasons for family planning programs. Specifically, there has been little attention directed to the interests of families and individuals. This is unfortunate since the availability or lack of family planning services is of enormous consequences to some families and individuals. These family and individual interests fall into 3 categories: the desire of couples to determine the size and spacing of their family; mother and child survival; and reduction of abortion. The right of the family to choose the number and spacing of their children was strongly reaffirmed by international consensus at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. Governments should not dictate the number of children couples can have, but family planning services should be encouraged so that people really do have the option, if they desire, of fewer children. Families make decisions in their own interest based upon their social and economic and religious situation. Change, including urbanization and lower child mortality, has created a new situation for millions of families throughout the developing world. One can debate the impact of population growth on economic growth in a family, but there is no question that many families feel they can do more for each child if they have fewer children. The unfulfilled desire of 3rd world families to have fewer children is not just Western speculation. Surveys show a large number of women who would like to space or limit their family size but cannot because no services are available. The health and survival of mothers and children provides a 2nd important reason for family planning. 1 of the most serious consequences of women having many children in quick succession is that more children and mothers die. There are dramatic statistics that family planning saves lives. Sound economic policies and various development efforts are critical to economic growth, but family planning has been part of successful packages in some key countries in recent years. Based upon that, sound economic and population policies are mutually supportive components of a country's plans for economic growth. This was the position taken by the Agency for International Development and remains its position. Strong family planning programs should be supported in the interests of families and individuals.
In: Aspects of population change and development in some African and Asian countries. Cairo, Egypt, Cairo Demographic Centre, 1984. 43-56. (CDC Research Monograph Series no. 9)This paper examines the relationship between economic development and demographic change in the 13 states of the Economic Commission for West Asia (ECWA) region. Demographic variables considered include per capita income, proportion urban, proportion in urban areas with over 100,000 inhabitants, literacy among those over 15 years, and literacy among women. Unweighted rankings on these variables were added to produce a development ranking or general development index. Then this index was used to investigate the relationship between development and individual scores and rankings for various demographic indices. The development index exhibited a rough fit with the mortality indices, especially life expectancy at birth. Mortality decline appears to be most closely related to rise in income. At the same income level, countries that have experienced substantial social change tend to exhibit the lowest mortality, presumably because of a loosening in family role patterns. In contrast, the relationship between development and fertility measures seemed to be almost random. A far closer correlation was noted between the former and the general development index. It is concluded that economic development alone will not reduce fertility. Needed are 2 changes: 1) profound social change in the family and in women's status, achievable through increases in female education, and 2) government family planning programs to ensure access to contraception.