Your search found 102 Results

  1. 1

    Argentina: women weaving equitable gender relations.

    Stubbs J

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2008 Jan. 4 p. (en breve No. 114)

    In 2001, after a long period of recession, Argentina faced the greatest economic, political and institutional crisis in its history. Unemployment reached levels nearing 18% and the poverty rate reached a peak of 58% in 2002, increasing twofold the number of people living below the poverty line and impacting –in a disproportionate manner- the most vulnerable and poverty stricken families. The crisis also had a tremendous impact on Argentina’s middle-class. Increased unemployment and the freezing of wages and bank deposits forced many families to face poverty for the first time, and to seek new survival strategies. The crisis caused the rupture of traditional roles within the household, forcing many women into the workforce, many young people to leave school in search of a job, and many tradtional breadwinners to remain at home. In many cases, these changes challenged not just the economic viability of households but the role of families. Recognizing the potential impact of the situation, the Government of Argentina approached the World Bank for a small loan ($5 million), aimed at promoting gender equity and the development of families through the Family Strengthening and Social Capital Promotion Project (PROFAM). (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Identification of the obstacles to the signing and ratification of the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers: the Asia-Pacific Perspective.

    Piper N; Iredale R

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, International Migration and Multicultural Policies Section, 2003 Oct. 68 p. (UNESCO Series of Country Reports on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Migrants; SHS/2003/MC/1 REV)

    The overall aim of this report is to investigate ways to gain wider acceptance of the ICMR in the specific context of the Asia Pacific region. This report: investigates why a sample of major sending and receiving countries in the Asia Pacific region have not ratified the Convention, and develops recommendations to encourage more ratifications in this region and beyond. The main research methods employed were semi-structured interviews with key informants in seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region. Informants were sought from among the following groups: politicians and/or governmental officials (at national and local level), NGO representatives (migrant support groups and human rights groups), academics, embassy staff (labour attaches), lawyers (bar associations), trade unions and employers/industry organizations, and National Human Rights Commissions (see Appendix I for more details). Interviews were arranged with the assistance of local coordinators, most of whom are members of the APMRN. The actual interview schedule was designed to test the obstacles and opportunities created by ratifying the Convention from a legal, social and political perspective. This also included an examination of the role the media are playing in the acceptance of human rights for migrants. Other materials informing the report comes from websites, and from newspaper clippings and copies of legal and semi-legal documents provided by the country coordinators. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Generations and Gender Survey (GGS): Towards a better understanding of relationships and processes in the life course.

    Vikat A; Speder Z; Beets G; Billari FC; Buhler C

    Demographic Research. 2007 Nov 30; 17(14):389-440.

    The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) is one of the two pillars of the Generations and Gender Programme designed to improve understanding of demographic and social development and of the factors that influence these developments. This article describes how the theoretical perspectives applied in the survey, the survey design and the questionnaire are related to this objective. The key features of the survey include panel design, multidisciplinarity, comparability, context-sensitivity, inter-generational and gender relationships. The survey applies the life course approach, focussing on the processes of childbearing, partnership dynamics, home leaving, and retiring. The selection of topics for data collection mainly follows the criterion of theoretically grounded relevance to explaining one or more of the mentioned processes. A large portion of the survey deals with economic aspects of life, such as economic activity, income, and economic well-being; a comparably large section is devoted to values and attitudes. Other domains covered by the survey include gender relationships, household composition and housing, residential mobility, social networks and private transfers, education, health, and public transfers. The third chapter of the article describes the motivations for their inclusion. The GGS questionnaire is designed for a face-to-face interview. It includes the core that each participating country needs to implement in full, and four optional submodules on nationality and ethnicity, on previous partners, on intentions of breaking up, and on housing, respectively. The participating countries are encouraged to include also the optional sub-modules to facilitate comparative research on these topics. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Policy Workshop on HIV / AIDS and Family Well-being, Windhoek, Namibia, 28-30 January 2004.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    [New York, New York], United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2004. 21 p.

    The Policy Workshop was organized by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and hosted by the Government of Namibia, National Planning Commission Secretariat. It was held at Windhoek, Namibia. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together representatives of governments and non-governmental organizations as well as academic experts and practitioners from various countries in southern Africa to discuss the impact of HIV/AIDS on families in the region, to consider how families and communities are coping with the disease, and to contribute to the development of a strategic policy framework to assist Governments to strengthen the capacity of families and family networks to cope. In order to compare experience across regions, a participant from Eastern Europe was also invited to the workshop. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    HIV / AIDS does not recognize borders.

    Choices. 2001 Dec; 1.

    As UNDP's Goodwill Ambassador to combat poverty, I am deeply aware of the link between poverty and AIDS. Poor people suffer more from disease, and HIV/ AIDS creates more poverty. Being poor is hard enough, but poverty added to a deadly disease is nothing short of a disaster for families and whole communities. Since HIV/ AIDS is found especially among the youngest and most active, the more it spreads, the more people in the prime of life must stop working and support those who depend on them. The results are devastating for low-income families. HIV/AIDS is becoming a major development problem affecting all sectors of society and, even worse, it is wiping out the progress made thus far. While it has been possible to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS in rich countries through prevention campaigns and investment in research and treatment, things have been very different in many poor countries. In the poorest countries, many have no access to information that could prevent infection, and those who are infected do not have the drugs that could give them a few more precious years to live. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Reviewing UNFPA's role in PopEd programmes.

    Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Jun; 8(1):3-4.

    EDUCATION PROGRAMMES for young people can be intricately linked to development goals (left). This was illustrated in a document released last year based on a technical review of UNFPA's three-decade experience in Population Education (PopEd). UNFPA PopEd programmes could be categorized into: 1) Population and Family Life Education; 2) Sexuality Education; and 3) Life Skills Education. Common elements of all programmes are: advocacy to promote an enabling socio-political environment; capacity-building through teacher training and development of curriculum and materials; and peer education. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO healthy cities and the US family support movements: a marriage made in heaven or estranged bed fellows?

    Chamberlin RW

    Health Promotion International. 1996; 11(2):137-142.

    The family support movement in the US emerged at about the same time that the WHO Healthy Cities project was gaining momentum in Europe, and the underlying principles and ecologic frameworks of the two have much in common. However, while many 'Healthy Cities' in Europe have included activities that benefit families, this has not been made a major focus. There seems to be little awareness of experience gained in the US in terms of establishing programs with limited or no government funding, using volunteers, and developing social marketing and advocacy strategies sustain long term viability. Similarly, cities and states in the US are struggling to develop networks of family support programs and they appear to be doing this without the benefit of experience gained in Healthy Cities projects on how to engage political leadership, develop public policies, establish intersectoral councils, fund a coordinator position, mobilize neighborhoods, and evaluate community wide health promotion programs. The purpose of this paper is to examine how these two movements might join forces and learn from each other. (author's)
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  8. 8

    1994 proclaimed 'Year of the Family'; rededication to social progress asked - by General Assembly.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Mar; 27(1):[2] p..

    The Year will highlight global awareness of family issues and the improvement of national mechanisms directed at tackling serious family-related problems. Also on 8 December, the Assembly commemorated (44/57) the 20th anniversary of the proclamation in 1969 of the Declaration on Social Progress and Development. The Assembly asked (44/70) for increased international co-operation to implement the World Programme of Action for the UN Decade of Disabled Persons 1983-1992. Margaret J. Anstee, Director-General of the UN Office at Vienna, warned that by the end of the century, the number of disabled people would have risen to 30 to 40 per cent of the population of some countries. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Exploitation of women workers in family enterprises decried - United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2):[1] p..

    Women who work in family enterprises without payment are being exploited, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) declared, calling for guaranteed payment, social security and social benefits for them. As it concluded its tenth annual session (21 January-1 February, New York), the Committee also recommended that the value of women's domestic work be added to countries' gross national products. Nations should provide information on disabled women and on measures taken to ensure equal access for them to education, employment, health services and social security. The 23-member watchdog body monitors how countries implement the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Families at risk: UN tackles the challenge - proposals to help unfortunate families - International Year of the Family, 1994 - Cover story.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Mar; 31(1):[3] p..

    In today's world, many families face daunting challenges that threaten their ability to function and, indeed, to survive. Disease, war, poverty, famine, environmental problems, unemployment, drugs, crime and the scourge of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are taxing families in both the developing and developed worlds, often beyond their ability to cope. "War and political conflict are widespread today, and they exact a heavy toll", said the Secretary-General at the launching of the international Year of the Family on 7 December. "Separation and loss physically threaten family cohesion. Trauma and displacement inflict overwhelming emotional distress. Economically, unplanned development disrupts traditional patterns of family life. Industrial strategies are often pursued with little regard for their impact upon the family. The inability of some families to provide for themselves weakens family cohesion and undermines self-respect." (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Children often bear high cost of armed conflicts, poverty: Assembly promotes rights, ensures their tomorrows - includes related article on family - from a UNICEF report, The State of the Worlds Children.

    Seufert-Barr N

    UN Chronicle. 1995 Mar; 32(1):[4] p..

    Economic marginalization, along with the devastations of armed conflict, are "casting a shadow over the future of nations by depriving millions of children of the right to develop normally in mind and body", asserts The State of the World's Children 1995, published annually by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). In the wars of the last decade--a series of catastrophes that includes Rwanda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mozambique, Angola, Somalia, the Sudan, Afghanistan, Cambodia and Haiti--far more children than soldiers have been killed and disabled, according to the report. In just ten years, approximately 2 million children have died in wars and between 4 million and 5 million have been physically disabled. "These are statistics of shame. And they cast a long shadow over future generations and their struggle for stability and social cohesion", asserts the report. "More quietly, the continued economic and social marginalization of the poorest nations, and of the poorest communities within nations, is depriving far larger numbers of children of the kind of childhood which would enable them to become part of tomorrow's solutions rather than tomorrow's problems." (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    The changing roles of women and families in an urbanizing world.

    Hutjes L; Feldman S

    Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2):[3] p..

    Grassroots women care for families, homes and communities. They do it intimately, through all the familiar, endless tasks - cooking, cleaning, building, repairing, planting, making money, caring for the sick and the old and seeing that the young are educated. Even as social, cultural, economic and political realities around them change, they must meet these primary responsibilities. Their obligations make grassroots women among the strongest supporters of the Habitat Agenda. In its goals, they see their concerns reflected -- especially the emphasis placed on family. "The family," says the Habitat Agenda, "is the basic unit of society and should be strengthened" and "Human settlements planning should take into account the constructive role of the family…" (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    [Children. HIV / AIDS. It's everyone's responsibility] Niños. VIH / SIDA. La responsabilidad es de todos.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    VIDAS. 1997 Nov; 1(4):12-13.

    The most recent perspective of UNAIDS and its associates involves a world in which HIV transmission has been greatly reduced, where the treatment, care, and assistance provided are adequate, and where the vulnerability of children, their families, and their communities to the effects of HIV/AIDS has decreased appreciably. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    [Intrafamily violence from the perspective of international conferences: the role of the United Nations] La violencia intrafamiliar desde la perspectiva de las conferencias internacionales: el papel de las Naciones Unidas.

    Guandalini B

    In: Memorias del Encuentro Continental sobre Violencia Intrafamiliar, [compiled by] United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]. Mexico City, Mexico, UNIFEM, 1996. 17-18.

    The interest and the efforts of the United Nations Organization with regard to the subject of violence and, in particular, intrafamiliar violence has been manifested on very different occasions. The United Nations' Decade for Women (1976-1985) significantly contributed to bring to light the problem of violence against women. Additionally, the issue was debated in 1985 in the Seventh United Nations Conference on Crime Prevention and Treatment of Delinquents. In 1985, the United Nations General Assembly invited the member States to act to prevent violence within the home and suggested measures by which the judicial system could deal with the problem in a just and humanitarian way. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Care, women and AIDS. Media backgrounder.

    Global Coalition on Women and AIDS; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Feb 2. [2] p.

    All over the world women are expected to take the lead in domestic work and in providing care to family members. HIV and AIDS have significantly increased the care burden for many women. Poverty and poor public services have also combined with AIDS to turn the care burden for women into a crisis with far-reaching social, health and economic consequences. The term 'care economy' is sometimes used to describe the many tasks carded out mostly by women and girls at home such as cooking, cleaning, fetching water and many other activities associated with caring for the young, sick and elderly in the household. The value of the time, energy and resources required to perform this unpaid work is hardly recognized and accounted for, despite its critical contribution to the overall economy and society in general. Women and girls pay an opportunity cost when undertaking unpaid care work for HIV and AIDS-related illnesses since their ability to participate in income generation, education, and skills building diminish. AIDS intensifies the feminization of poverty, particularly in hard-hit countries, and disempowers women. Entire families are also affected as vulnerability increases when women's time caring for the sick is taken away from other productive tasks within the household. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Profile: Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Walsh M

    In: Women and civil war. Impact, organizations, and action, edited by Krishna Kumar. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001. 57-67.

    After World War II, Joseph Broz (Tito) became the head of the new Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, which incorporated the six republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bill). Bosnia was the third largest of the six republics in terms of both land mass and population. According to the 1991 census, Bosnia's population was 4.3 million, of whom 41 percent were identified as Muslim, 31.4 percent as Serb, 17.3 percent as Croat, and 7.6 percent as other. Despite ethnic identification in the census, all three populations mixed and mingled in urban and rural societies. Since World War II, 30 to 40 percent of marriages in urban areas were mixed. The shared history and culture of all three groups formed the basis of a distinct and unifying identity that "straddled ethnoreligious communities, but did not subsume these differences." When Tito died in 1980, the national unity he had struggled to create began to crumble. In March 1992, Bosnia held an independence referendum that was approved by a two-thirds majority. The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was recognized by the European Union on 6 April. On the same date, Bosnian Serb nationalists began the siege of Sarajevo, and the Bosnian war began. Bosnian Muslim and Croat forces originally fought a united defense against Bosnian Serb advances. However, relations broke down in 1993, engendering a "war within a war." The Bosnian Muslim/Croat conflict was eventually resolved in 1994 through international mediation, which resulted in the creation of the Bosniac-Croat Federation. The reunification of the forces enabled a stronger resistance. In 1995, the combined forces launched a dramatic offensive, forcing the Bosnian Serbs into a negotiating position. In November 1995, the factions met and reached agreement, and a month later, on 14 December 1995, they signed the General Framework Agreement, also referred to as the Dayton Accords, which brought a halt to the hostilities. The effect of the General Framework Agreement was to create one state, Bosnia and Herzegovina, consisting of two entities. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 51 percent of the territory and has a Bosniac and Croat majority among the population. The Republika Srpska (RS) has the remaining 49 percent of the territory, with a Bosnian Serb majority. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Summary measures of population health in the context of the WHO framework for health system performance assessment.

    Murray CJ; Frenk J

    In: Summary measures of population health: concepts, ethics, measurement and applications, edited by C.J.L. Murray, J.A. Salomon, C.D. Mathers and A.D. Lopez. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 1-11.

    This volume addresses the conceptual, ethical, empirical and technical challenges in summarizing the health of populations. This is critical for monitoring whether levels of population health are improving over time and for understanding why health differs across settings. At the same time, it is also important to recognize that improving population health is not the only goal of health policy and to understand the way health improvements interact with these other goals. For that reason, we briefly review the World Health Organization (WHO) framework for assessing the performance of health systems and the role of summary measures of population health (SMPH) in this framework. Following the recent peer review of the methodology used for health system performance by WHO (Anand et al. 2002), this framework will continue to evolve in response to the detailed recommendations of the scientific peer review group and to ongoing scientific debates and research. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    HIV-infected women and their families: psychosocial support and related issues. A literature review.

    Lindsey E

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2003. vi, 57 p. (Occasional Paper; WHO/RHR/03.07; WHO/HIV/2003.07)

    This review is divided into three sections. Section one provides a synthesis of the reviewed literature on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, voluntary HIV testing and counselling (VCT), and other issues that impact on the care, psychosocial support and counselling needs of HIV-infected women and their families in the perinatal period. Section two provides examples from around the world of projects that focus on the care and support of women and families, with a focus on MTCT. The fi nal section contains recommendations on psychosocial support and counselling for HIV-infected women and families. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    It takes 2: partnering with men in reproductive and sexual health. UNFPA programme advisory note.

    Cohen SI; Burger M; Dairo AE; Mbugua W

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003. 46, 6 p. (UNFPA Programme Advisory Note)

    This document is intended to help UNFPA country staff plan national programmes, develop strategies and projects, review progress made, and assess the soundness of their strategies. It illustrates how one can increase men’s involvement in reproductive health issues through research, advocacy, behaviour change communication and education, policy dialogues and well-tailored and innovative reproductive health services. It starts by defining partnering with men and providing a rationale for this approach from the standpoint of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). A framework for selecting essential elements of such a programme is then described. Examples are provided of ways in which UNFPA has supported a partnering approach, followed by a summary of lessons learned. A matrix of sample outputs and their indicators provides options for defining and measuring results. Additional resources are also provided for information on gender, masculinities, adolescent boys, education, services, working with special populations, and research on partnering with men. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    [Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health Project. Phase V. Consultation report. Pilot phase: April 1998 - July 2000. Community component of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy] Projet de Planification Familiale et Sante Maternelle et Infantile. Phase V. Rapport de consultation. Phase pilote: avril 1998 - juillet 2000. La composante communautaire de la strategie de la prise en charge integree des maladies de l'enfant.

    Escoffier C

    Rabat, Morocco, John Snow [JSI], 2000 Aug 3. 36 p. (USAID Contract No. 608-C-00-94-00006)

    This paper explores the community and familial practices improvement aspect of the WHO/UNICEF Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Strategy. Sections explore the key prerequisite steps to implementing the community approach; examine the Community Assessment and Planning (CAP) concept and methodology, as well as their suitability to the Moroccan context; and explore the feasibility of expanding the strategy to the national level, including healthcare personnel training methodology.
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  21. 21

    The Secretary-General's global call to action against HIV / AIDS. Fact sheet.

    United Nations Special Session on HIV / AIDS (2001: New York)

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 2001 Jun 9. [2] p. (DPI/2214/F)

    This fact sheet presents five priorities for action, six key factors to achieve these goals, and recommends partnering to carry out the campaign.
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  22. 22

    Statistical charts and indicators on the situation of youth 1970-1990.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development. Statistical Office; United Nations. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. x, 50, [1] p. (Statistics on Special Population Groups. Series Y. No. 6; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.Y/6)

    This compendium provides statistical tables and charts and descriptive summaries of the main trends in the social and economic conditions of youth in 176 countries during 1970-90. Country specific tables are presented at the end of each of the five chapters on population, education and training, economic activity, health and childbearing, and households and marital status. Regional and subregional averages are based on unweighted data. Subregional averages are indicated where there are wide differences among countries. Data are obtained from official national and international sources. The world youth population aged 15-24 years was an estimated 519 million men and 493 million women in 1990 (>1 billion total). This total reflects a 52% increase since 1970. Over 80% of youth lived in developing regions. Over 60% lived in Asia. The annual growth rate of youth declined to 1-2% during the late 1980s. In 37 countries, the youth growth rate is increasing by more than 3% per year. In developed regions, the youth growth rate was under 0.5% per year. The male/female sex ratio was about 106:100. In 30 countries the sex ratio was higher. Over 50% of youth lived in urban areas in Eastern Europe and the USSR, other developed regions, North Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and West Asia. Most youth lived in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Oceania. Almost 30% of young men aged 20-24 years were household heads in developed regions and sub-Saharan Africa. By age 20, few women were married, except in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Fertility rates among women aged 20-24 years were lowest in developed regions, except Eastern Europe and the USSR, and in East and Southeast Asia. 66% of youth lived in countries with very low per capita income (under $1000/year). Young women's illiteracy rates were higher than men's except in Latin America and the Caribbean.
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  23. 23

    Planning a future for children. PLAN International worldwide annual report, 1995. Planifier un avenir pour les enfants. PLAN International rapport annuel mondial, 1995. Planificando un futuro para los ninos. PLAN International informe anual mundial, 1995.

    Plan International

    Woking, England, PLAN International, 1995. [2], 28, [10] p.

    This annual report, written in English, Spanish, and French, describes the work of PLAN International during the period July 1994-June 1995. The report opens with a message from the chairman and international executive director which notes that PLAN International continues its original mission by collaborating with local communities to focus on the needs of the child. The next section relates some of the facts which govern the lives of children in developing countries such as the major causes of child mortality, the incidence of maternal mortality, and the poverty which results from 20% of the world's population existing on 1.5% of the world's income. Given this framework, the report goes on to describe how PLAN is structured in general and how it specifically addresses issues like family assistance, health, AIDS awareness, education, community development, and resources and skills development. Examples are provided of specific PLAN activities in Central America and the Caribbean, eastern and southern Africa, southeast Asia, South America, south Asia, and west Africa. The remaining portions of the report highlight people working for PLAN and relay the financial activities of the agency, a brief history of PLAN, and a statement which describes PLAN's identity, vision, mission, and commitment to quality. Appended to the report are a list of specific locations in which PLAN operates, and a financial statement which includes a combined statement of field expenditures worldwide for Foster Parents PLAN.
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  24. 24

    HIV and the family.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. HIV and Development Programme


    As the UN Development Programme (UNDP) prepares to join with five other UN organizations in a new HIV/AIDS program, it issued the statement contained in this essay for the 1994 World AIDS Day. The family is the most basic social unit which, despite cultural and temporal variations, acts as a source of care and support for its members and provides a context for human development. The AIDS epidemic has affected many families and led to the creation of new configurations, such as families headed by adolescents and families where dying adults are tended by their children. The responsibility of families for the well-being of children is shared by the state which must provide appropriate programs to assist and support families in light of the devastation of the AIDS epidemic. The UNDP holds families at the center of its development strategy and will assist in the development of policies and programs to strengthen sustainable human development. Whereas the HIV/AIDS epidemic makes this goal more difficult to attain, it also makes it more imperative.
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  25. 25

    World AIDS Day 1994: "AIDS and the Family".

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Information

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1994 Apr 28. 2 p. (Press Release WHO/38)

    AIDS and the Family was chosen by the World Health Organization as the theme of World AIDS Day 1994. Held for the first time on December 1, 1988, the day was designed to raise public awareness of AIDS and spur international response. Themes of recent World AIDS Days include "Sharing the Challenge," "A Community Commitment," and "Time to Act". In 1993, hundreds of thousands of people worldwide took part in events which included concerts, speeches, marches, seminars, workshops, radio features, street theater, and special condom promotions. The World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS estimates that in early 1994 there were approximately 13 million individuals living with HIV and AIDS worldwide. Even though many families are disrupted by political upheaval, civil unrest, migration, and other factors, they are urged in coming months and in special events on and around December 1, to focus especially on how they are affected by AIDS, how families can more effectively prevent and care for AIDS cases, and how families can contribute to global efforts against the disease. The report stresses, however, that the concept of family is not limited to relationships of blood, marriage, sexual partnership, or adoption, but extends to a broad range of groups whose bonds are based upon feelings of trust, mutual support, and a shared destiny. Groups of street children, sex worker collectives, and self-help circles of drug injectors, among others, are therefore families. Families in which there is love, trust, nurturing, and openness are extremely well-placed to protect their members against infection and to give compassionate care and support to those affected by HIV or AIDS. Families are also where young people learn to practice safe behavior and reject discrimination.
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