Your search found 147 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis in Cuba and Thailand.

    Ishikawa N; Newman L; Taylor M; Essajee S; Pendse R

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2016 Nov; 94(11):787-787A.

    Add to my documents.
  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Association of rule of law and health outcomes: an ecological study.

    Pinzon-Rondon AM; Attaran A; Botero JC; Ruiz-Sternberg AM

    BMJ Open. 2015; 5(10):e007004.

    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. SETTING: Global project. PARTICIPANTS: Data set of 96 countries, comprising 91% of the global population. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with the rule of law. We used a novel Rule of Law Index, gathered from survey sources, in a cross-sectional and ecological design. The Index is based on eight subindices: (1) Constraints on Government Powers; (2) Absence of Corruption; (3) Order and Security; (4) Fundamental Rights; (5) Open Government; (6) Regulatory Enforcement, (7) Civil Justice; and (8) Criminal Justice. RESULTS: The rule of law showed an independent association with infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, after adjusting for the countries' level of per capita income, their expenditures in health, their level of political and civil freedom, their Gini measure of inequality and women's status (p<0.05). Rule of law remained significant in all the multivariate models, and the following adjustment for potential confounders remained robust for at least one or more of the health outcomes across all eight subindices of the rule of law. Findings show that the higher the country's level of adherence to the rule of law, the better the health of the population. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to start considering the country's adherence to the rule of law as a foundational determinant of health. Health advocates should consider the improvement of rule of law as a tool to improve population health. Conversely, lack of progress in rule of law may constitute a structural barrier to health improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Add to my documents.
  3. 3

    World health statistics 2015.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015. [164] p.

    World Health Statistics 2015 contains WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. WHO presents World Health Statistics 2015 as an integral part of its ongoing efforts to provide enhanced access to comparable high-quality statistics on core measures of population health and national health systems.
    Add to my documents.
  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    A decade of investments in monitoring the HIV epidemic: how far have we come? A descriptive analysis.

    Alfven T; McDougal L; Frescura L; Aran C; Amler P; Gill W

    Health Research Policy and Systems. 2014; 12:62.

    BACKGROUND: The 2001 Declaration of Commitment (DoC) adopted by the General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) included a call to monitor national responses to the HIV epidemic. Since the DoC, efforts and investments have been made globally to strengthen countries' HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E) capacity. This analysis aims to quantify HIV M&E investments, commitments, capacity, and performance during the last decade in order to assess the success and challenges of national and global HIV M&E systems. METHODS: M&E spending and performance was assessed using data from UNGASS country progress reports. The National Composite Policy Index (NCPI) was used to measure government commitment, government engagement, partner/civil society engagement, and data generation, as well as to generate a composite HIV M&E System Capacity Index (MESCI) score. Analyses were restricted to low and middle income countries (LMICs) who submitted NCPI reports in 2006, 2008, and 2010 (n = 78). RESULTS: Government commitment to HIV M&E increased considerably between 2006 and 2008 but decreased between 2008 and 2010. The percentage of total AIDS spending allocated to HIV M&E increased from 1.1% to 1.4%, between 2007 and 2010, in high-burden LMICs. Partner/civil society engagement and data generation capacity improved between 2006 and 2010 in the high-burden countries. The HIV MESCI increased from 2006 to 2008 in high-burden countries (78% to 94%), as well as in other LMICs (70% to 77%), and remained relatively stable in 2010 (91% in high-burden countries, 79% in other LMICs). Among high-burden countries, M&E system performance increased from 52% in 2006 to 89% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The last decade has seen increased commitments and spending on HIV M&E, as well as improved M&E capacity and more available data on the HIV epidemic in both high-burden and other LMICs. However, challenges remain in the global M&E of the AIDS epidemic as we approach the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets.
    Add to my documents.
  5. 5

    Atlas of eHealth country profiles 2013. eHealth and innovation in women's and children's health. Based on the findings of the 2013 survey of ColA countries by the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014. [132] p.

    This atlas is based on the 2013 WHO / ITU joint survey that explored the use of eHealth for women’s and children’s health in countries targeted by the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health (CoIA). The objective of the country profiles is to describe the status in 2013 of the use of ICT for women’s and children’s health in 64 responding CoIA countries. This is a unique reference source for policy makers and others involved in planning and implementing eHealth services in countries.
    Add to my documents.
  6. 6

    The PMNCH 2013 report. Analysing progress on commitments to the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health.

    Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, 2013. [104] p.

    The main objective of this year’s report is to assess the extent to which the 293 stakeholders who have made commitments to the Global Strategy since its launch in 2010 (up to June 2013) have implemented their commitments, and the extent to which implementation is contributing to reaching the goals of the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. It is not a comprehensive stocktaking of all that is being done at national, regional and global levels to improve women’s and children’s health. The content of the report is based on a range of information sources and data collection methods as relevant to the nature of the individual commitments and their implementation. The methods used were: a content analysis of all commitment statements from the Every Woman Every Child website; an online survey sent to commitment-makers, of which 120 fully completed the survey; detailed interviews based on semi-structured questionnaires with a selection of stakeholders; and an extensive desk review of relevant literature and databases.
    Add to my documents.
  7. 7

    Global vaccine action plan. Report by the Secretariat.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 22. [8] p. (A66/19)

    The Executive Board at its 132nd session in January 2013, considered and noted an earlier version of this report. The present document has been amended in response to Board members’ comments and updated to include details of recent developments. It also reports on the status of progress made towards achieving the goals of the Decade of Vaccines. Four sets of activities are essential to put the plan into practice and to turn the actions into results: (1) development of guidance for putting the plan into practice; (2) completion and implementation of a mechanism for evaluation and accountability in alignment with the accountability framework for the United Nations Secretary-General’s Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health; (3) securing commitments from stakeholders; and (4) publicizing the opportunities, while acknowledging the challenges, offered by the Decade of Vaccines. This report summarizes the progress made in these areas. (Excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  8. 8

    Atlas of African health statistics, 2012. Health situation analysis of the African region.

    African Health Observatory; World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 2012. [105] p.

    With over 730 million inhabitants in 46 countries, the African Region accounts for about one seventh of the world’s population. This statistical atlas provides the health status and trends in the countries of the African Region, the various components of their health systems, coverage and access levels for specific programmes and services, and the broader determinants of health in the Region, and the progress made on reaching the Millennium Development Goals. Each indicator is described, as appropriate, in terms of place (WHO regions and countries in the African Region), person (age and sex) and time (various years) using a bar graph. The aim is to give a comprehensive overview of the health situation in the African Region and its 46 Member States. The main source for the data is WHO-AFRO’s integrated database, based on the World Health Statistics 2012. Other UN agency databases have been used when necessary. All the data and figures in this atlas can be accessed through the African Health Observatory..
    Add to my documents.
  9. 9

    World health statistics 2012.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. [180] p.

    The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. This year, it also includes highlight summaries on the topics of noncommunicable diseases, universal health coverage and civil registration coverage.
    Add to my documents.
  10. 10

    World Health Statistics: a snapshot of global health.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. [12] p. (WHO/IER/HSI/12.1)

    WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. This year, it also includes highlight summaries on the topics of noncommunicable diseases, universal health coverage and civil registration coverage.
    Add to my documents.
  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Global cost of child survival: estimates from country-level validation.

    van Ekdom L; Stenberg K; Scherpbier RW; Niessen LW

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011 Apr 1; 89(4):267-77.

    OBJECTIVE: To cross-validate the global cost of scaling up child survival interventions to achieve the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG4) as estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007 by using the latest country-provided data and new assumptions. METHODS: After the main cost categories for each country were identified, validation questionnaires were sent to 32 countries with high child mortality. Publicly available estimates for disease incidence, intervention coverage, prices and resources for individual-level and programme-level activities were validated against local data. Nine updates to the 2007 WHO model were generated using revised assumptions. Finally, estimates were extrapolated to 75 countries and combined with cost estimates for immunization and malaria programmes and for programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FINDINGS: Twenty-six countries responded. Adjustments were largest for system- and programme-level data and smallest for patient data. Country-level validation caused a 53% increase in original cost estimates (i.e. 9 billion 2004 United States dollars [US$]) for 26 countries owing to revised system and programme assumptions, especially surrounding community health worker costs. The additional effect of updated population figures was small; updated epidemiologic figures increased costs by US$ 4 billion (+15%). New unit prices in the 26 countries that provided data increased estimates by US$ 4.3 billion (+16%). Extrapolation to 75 countries increased the original price estimate by US$ 33 billion (+80%) for 2010-2015. CONCLUSION: Country-level validation had a significant effect on the cost estimate. Price adaptations and programme-related assumptions contributed substantially. An additional 74 billion US$ 2005 (representing a 12% increase in total health expenditure) would be needed between 2010 and 2015. Given resource constraints, countries will need to prioritize health activities within their national resource envelope.
    Add to my documents.
  12. 12

    From paper to practice. Implementing the World Health Organization’s 2010 Antiretroviral Therapy Recommendations for Adults and Adolescents in Zambia.

    Bolton C; Topp S; Rossi V; Ojikutu B

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources [AIDSTAR-One], 2011 May. [12] p. (USAID Contract No. GHH-I-00-07-00059-00; AIDSTAR-One Case Study Series)

    After the 2009 release of WHO’s Rapid Advice for HIV treatment in adults and adolescents, Zambia launched a broad-based effort to update its national treatment protocols. The Ministry of Health succeeded in creating an efficient and inclusive review and revision process for the guidelines, which they began implementing in 2011.
    Add to my documents.
  13. 13

    Population aging: Is Latin America ready?

    Cotlear D

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2011. [324] p. (Directions in Development)

    The past half-century has seen enormous changes in the demographic makeup of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In the 1950s, LAC had a small population of about 160 million people, less than today's population of Brazil. Two-thirds of Latin Americans lived in rural areas. Families were large and women had one of the highest fertility rates in the world, low levels of education, and few opportunities for work outside the household. Investments in health and education reached only a small fraction of the children, many of whom died before reaching age five. Since then, the size of the LAC population has tripled and the mostly rural population has been transformed into a largely urban population. There have been steep reductions in child mortality, and investments in health and education have increased, today reaching a majority of children. Fertility has been more than halved and the opportunities for women in education and for work outside the household have improved significantly. Life expectancy has grown by 22 years. Less obvious to the casual observer, but of significance for policy makers, a population with a large fraction of dependent children has evolved into a population with fewer dependents and a very large proportion of working-age adults. This overview seeks to introduce the reader to three groups of issues related to population aging in LAC. First is a group of issues related to the support of the aging and poverty in the life cycle. Second is the question of the health transition. Third is an understanding of the fiscal pressures that are likely to accompany population aging and to disentangle the role of demography from the role of policy in that process.
    Add to my documents.
  14. 14

    Health systems and wealth generation: the role of reproductive health.

    Baris E

    Entre Nous. 2009; (68):4-5.

    The WHO European Ministerial Conference on “Health Systems, Health and Wealth” held in Tallinn in June 2008 was a watershed event that took stock of and consolidated the recent conceptual and methodological developments, as well as, practice-based innovations in the European health arena. The upshot of the conference was that not only does health matter - we knew that already because we in Europe value health in its own right - but also good health contributes to wealth generation. The conference also argued that health systems contribute to the generation of wealth, since in almost any society, albeit at varying degrees, the health sector constitutes one of the major spheres of economic activities, producing, consuming and trading goods and services, and contributing to knowledge and technology generation through research and development.
    Add to my documents.
  15. 15

    Trends in development assistance and domestic financing for health in implementing countries. Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria third replenishment (2011-2013).

    Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

    Geneva, Switzerland, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 2010 Mar. [26] p.

    Donors at the Mid-Term Review of the Global Fund's Second Voluntary Replenishment 2008- 2010 held in Caceres in March 2009 requested a report on the progress made by African countries with regard to the Abuja Declaration. This declaration, adopted at a 2001 summit of the Organisation of African Unity, was a commitment of African states to allocate at least 15 percent of their annual budgets to the health sector. Donors at the Mid-Term Review meeting also requested information concerning counterpart funding from middle-income countries. 2. This update begins with an explanation of current trends in development assistance for health (DAH) and the role that these external resources play in the total expenditure on health in low- and middle-income countries. It examines progress in 52 African countries and a sample of 20 non-African middle-income countries. It utilizes data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) / Development Assistance Committee's (DAC) aggregated aid statistics and the Creditor Reporting System (CRS), the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) Development Assistance for Health database, the World Bank Development Indicators and the World Health Organization (WHO) National Health Accounts database. 3. Since the Abuja Summit in 2001, many African countries have increased the proportion of their national budget allocated to health. Over half of African countries recorded increases in health budget allocations between 2001 and 2007. By 2007, three African countries had achieved the Abuja target of 15 percent, and three others had exceeded this amount. For all 52 countries, the average general government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure rose marginally from 8.8 percent in 2001 to 9.0 percent in 2007. 4. The proportion of gross domestic product (GDP) devoted to health also increased marginally in the period 2001-2007, from 5.0 percent in 2001 to 5.3 percent in 2007. Substantial flows of DAH to these countries (amounting to US$ 4.7 billion in 2007) have contributed to these increased total expenditures on health. 5. Funding of the health sector in the lower-income countries examined contains a substantial proportion of DAH. In the middle-income countries examined, this funding is predominantly from domestic sources and external resources only contribute a negligible proportion of the total expenditure on health. In nearly two-thirds of the middle-income countries assessed for this paper, external resources contributed less than 1 percent of the total expenditure on health in 2007. 6. In the current economic climate, the likelihood of African governments significantly increasing the proportional allocation to the health sector is not encouraging. With the current low per-capita expenditure on health in these countries, inflows of external resources remain critical if African countries are to run national programs at a scale necessary to achieve national and global targets in the fight against the three diseases. 7. Global Fund policy requires lower-middle income countries and upper-middle income countries to contribute substantially to their national program costs, for a number of reasons: to ensure national ownership of programs and their longer-term sustainability of programs, as well as to ensure sufficient funds are available to lower-income countries. In line with the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness and in an attempt to avoid imposing specific further reporting requirements, it has not been the practice to request middle income countries to identify specific program components that they will fund. It is recognized that data in this domain needs to be strengthened and systematically collected and the Secretariat will explore ways in which to do that with technical partners in a manner that is consistent with aid effectiveness principles. The reform of the Global Fund business model, known as the architecture review, presents an opportunity for progress in this work.
    Add to my documents.
  16. 16

    Donor support for contraceptives and condoms for STI / HIV prevention 2008.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [New York, New York], UNFPA, 2008. 30 p.

    Since 1990, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has been tracking donor support for contraceptives and condoms for STI / HIV prevention. The Fund publishes an annual report based on this donor database to enhance the coordination among partners at all levels to continue progress toward universal access to sexual and reproductive health, as set forth in the ICPD Programme of Action and, subsequently, the Millennium Development Goals. This report represents the 2008 installment of the series and has three main sections. The first section summarizes patterns and trends—by method, by donor and by region—in donor support from 2000-2008. The second section takes a closer look at donor support for male and female condoms over time and by region. The third and final section compares aggregate donor support to global contraceptive need for 2000-2008 and provides projections of contraceptive needs through 2015. (Excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Global health governance and the World Bank.

    Ruger JP

    Lancet. 2007 Oct 27; 370(9597):1471-1474.

    With the Paul Wolfowitz era behind it and new appointee Robert Zoellick at the helm, it is time for the World Bank to better define its role in an increasingly crowded and complex global health architecture, says Jennifer Prah Ruger, health economist and former World Bank speechwriter. Just 2 years after taking office as president of the World Bank, Paul Wolfowitz resigned amid allegations of favouritism, and is now succeeded by Robert Zoellick. Many shortcomings marked Wolfowitz's presidency, not the least of which were a tumultuous battle over family planning and reproductive health policy, significant reductions in spending and staffing, and poor performance in implementing health, nutrition, and population programmes. Wolfowitz did little to advance the bank's role in the health sector. With the Wolfowitz era behind it and heightened scrutiny in the aftermath, the World Bank needs to better define its role and seize the initiative in health at both the global and country levels. Can the bank have an effect in an increasingly plural and complex global health architecture? What crucial role can the bank play in global health governance in the years ahead? (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    Estimated global resources needed to attain international malaria control goals.

    Kiszewski A; Johns B; Schapira A; Delacollette C; Crowell V

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Aug; 85(8):623-630.

    The objective was to provide the international community with an estimate of the amount of financial resources needed to scale up malaria control to reach international goals, including allocations by country, year and intervention as well as an indication of the current funding gap. A costing model was used to estimate the total costs of scaling up a set of widely recommended interventions, supporting services and programme strengthening activities in each of the 81 most heavily affected malaria-endemic countries. Two scenarios were evaluated, using different assumptions about the effect of interventions on the needs for diagnosis and treatment. Current health expenditures and funding for malaria control were compared to estimated needs. A total of US$ 38 to 45 billion will be required from 2006 to 2015. The average cost during this period is US$ 3.8 to 4.5 billion per year. The average costs for Africa are US$ 1.7 billion and US$ 2.2 billion per year in the optimistic and pessimistic scenarios, respectively; outside Africa, the corresponding costs are US$ 2.1 billion and US$ 2.4 billion. While these estimates should not be used as a template for country-level planning, they provide an indication of the scale and scope of resources required and can help donors to collaborate towards meeting a global benchmark and targeting funding to countries in greatest need. The analysis highlights the need for much greater resources to achieve the goals and targets for malaria control set by the international community. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    More emphasis needed on HIV prevention, warn experts.

    Hargreaves S

    Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Aug; 7(8):508.

    A report from the Global HIV Prevention Working Group, a panel of leading AIDS experts, warns that prevention efforts are not keeping pace with the gains being made in treating people infected with HIV. New data outlined in the report show that by fully scaling up all scientifically proven prevention strategies, an estimated 30 million of the 60 million HIV infections expected to occur by 2015 could be averted. With expanded prevention, the annual number of new infections would drop to 2 million per year by 2015-a level that may cause the epidemic to move into long-term decline. "It is widely assumed that HIV continues to spread because prevention isn't effective, and that's simply not true", said David Serwadda (Institute of Public Health, Makerere University, Uganda). "The problem is that effective prevention isn't reaching the people who need it". According to the report, prevention strategies including those to reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission are accessible to fewer than one in five people who could benefit from them. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  20. 20

    Jordan National Health Accounts reproductive health subanalysis, 2001.

    Abt Associates. Partners for Health Reform Plus

    Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Partners for Health Reform Plus, 2006 Jul. [45] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00019-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADH-035)

    This National Health Accounts study estimates current national reproductive health (RH) spending in Jordan in order to accurately predict what additional funding will be needed to meet Millennium Development Goals and the national priorities set in the Reproductive Health Action Plan (RHAP). The RH subanalysis was conducted using solely secondary data from the public and private sectors. Overall RH expenditures total 91.6 million JD (or US$129.4 million), which represents 15 percent of total health expenditures (THE) and 1.5 percent of the gross domestic product. RH expenditures per woman of reproductive age are 70 JD (or US$99.53) and out-of-pocket spending by women of reproductive age equals 28.08 JD (or US$39.10). Fifty-seven percent of RH financing comes from the private sector, 38 percent from the government, and 5 percent from donors. Donor spending on RH accounts for 16 percent of all donor health spending and household spending for RH is approximately 15 percent of all household health spending. Providers of RH services are mainly the public sector (45 percent of RH THE), followed by the private sector (37 percent of RH THE). Medical (curative) care accounts for 83 percent of RH resources, pharmaceuticals for 15 percent. Maternal health spending consumes 48 percent of all RH expenditures, with deliveries and antenatal and postnatal expenditures contributing 24 percent each. Family planning expenditures are on pharmaceuticals (4 percent) and outpatient care (8 percent). Other RH expenditures are on inpatient care (23 percent), pharmaceuticals (11 percent), and outpatient care (5 percent). A very small amount goes to RH-related programs for prevention and public health (0.5 percent of RH total health expenditure). Subanalysis results have three key policy implications: the share of public financing in the total resource envelope for RH services is low, expenditure on family planning is low, and the quality of care administered in the public sector facilities is perceived to be lower than quality in private facilities. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Health, development and the Millennium Development Goals.

    Dodd R; Cassels A

    Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2006 Jul-Sep; 100(5-6):379-387.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which emerged from the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000, are increasingly recognized as the over-arching development framework. As such, the MDG are increasingly guiding the policies of poor countries and aid agencies alike. This article reviews the challenges and opportunities for health presented by the MDG. The opportunities include that three of the eight MDG relate to health -- a recognition that health is central to global agenda of reducing poverty, as well as an important measure of human well-being in its own right. A related point is that the MDG help to focus attention on those health conditions that disproportionally affect the poor (communicable disease, child health and maternal health), which should, in turn, help to strengthen the equity focus of health policies in low-income countries. Further, because the MDG are concrete, it is possible to calculate the cost of achieving them, which in turn strengthens the long-standing calls for higher levels of aid for health. The challenges include that, while the MDG focus on specific diseases and conditions, they cannot be achieved without strengthening health systems. Similarly, progress towards the MDG will require health to be prioritized within overall development and economic policies. In practice, this means applying a health 'lens' to processes such as civil-service reform, decentralization and the drawing-up of frameworks of national expenditure. Finally, the MDG cannot be met with the resources available in low-income countries. While the MDG framework has created pressure for donors to commit to higher levels of aid, the challenge remains to turn these commitments into action. Data are presented to show that, at current rates of progress, the health-related MDG will not be achieved. This disappointing trend could be reversed, however, if the various challenges outlined are met. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  22. 22

    Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS; core indicators. United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV / AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Jul. [2] p.

    Expenditures: 1. Amount of national funds disbursed by governments in low- and middle-income countries. Policy Development and Implementation Status: 2. National Composite Policy Index: Areas covered: prevention, care and support, human rights, civil society involvement, and monitoring and evaluation Target groups: people living with HIV, women, youth, orphans, and most-at-risk populations. National Programmes: 3. Percentage of schools with teachers who have been trained in life-skills-based HIV education and who taught it during the last academic year. 4. Percentage of large enterprises/companies which have HIV/AIDS workplace policies and programmes. 5. Percentage of women and men with sexually transmitted infections at health care facilities who are appropriately diagnosed, treated and counseled. 6. Percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving a complete course of antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  23. 23

    2004 report on the global AIDS epidemic. Executive summary.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jun. 18 p. (UNAIDS/04.16E)

    AIDS is an extraordinary kind of crisis; it is both an emergency and a long-term development issue. Despite increased funding, political commitment and progress in expanding access to HIV treatment, the AIDS epidemic continues to outpace the global response. No region of the world has been spared. The epidemic remains extremely dynamic, growing and changing character as the virus exploits new opportunities for transmission. Rates of infection are still on the rise in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2003 alone, an estimated 3 million people in the region became newly infected. New epidemics appear to be advancing unchecked in other places, notably Eastern Europe and Asia -- regions that are experiencing the fastest-growing epidemics in the world. More than 20 years and 20 million deaths since the first AIDS diagnosis in 1981, almost 38 million people (range 34.6 -- 42.3 million) are living with HIV. Even though the cure is elusive, we have learned crucial lessons about what works best in preventing new infections and improving the quality and care for people living with HIV. There have been some major developments, including antiretroviral medicines. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    Public-health challenges in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Akala FA; El-Saharty S

    Lancet. 2006 Mar 25; 367(9515):961-964.

    In the past couple of decades, while there was modest growth and poverty reduction in the Middle East and North Africa (MEAN) region, impressive gains have been achieved in health status through improvements in technology, health-service delivery, public-health programmes, and socioeconomic development. In 2000, MEAN governments signed on to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and most MEAN countries are on track to achieving most of the goals. But health outcomes are generally worse among the poorest than among the richest. The challenges facing the MEAN region can be grouped into health-transition and health-systems issues. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  25. 25

    Building back better. A 12-month update on UNICEF's work to rebuild children's lives and restore hope since the tsunami.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Dec. 28 p.

    Immediately after the tsunami, UNICEF rushed in to deliver medical supplies and since then has continued to support basic health care for children. In this massive effort, 1,113,494 children under 15 have been immunized against measles, 493,699 children have received vitamin A supplements, 26,040 pregnant women were supplied with iron tablets, and 199,924 women and children received insecticide-treated bednets to protect them against malaria. UNICEF has also provided 14 ambulances to 11 districts in Aceh, and 2,000 midwives are being supported with training or supplies to help ensure safe deliveries in the temporary encampments. UNICEF is now helping to construct new village health posts that will enable the people of Aceh to achieve a level of care they have never had before. And, because of an incursion of polio from outside Indonesia, UNICEF launched a major campaign to prevent polio. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.