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[The results of implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Loan Project "Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "tuberculosis" component]
Tuberkulez I Bolezni Legkikh. 2010; (3):10-7.Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.
In: Alternatives for cervical cancer screening and treatment in low-resource settings. Workshop proceedings, 21-22 May 1997, edited by Lynne Gaffikin, Paul D. Blumenthal, Chris Davis, Susan J. Griffey Brechin. Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 1997 Dec. 41-5.A World Bank-funded study conducted in Indonesia in 1992-94 evaluated the use potential of the aided (magnified) visual inspection (AVI) and unmagnified visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening methods for cervical dysplasia in settings with limited cytology services. 911 asymptomatic women 30-50 years of age attending Indonesian Cancer Foundation clinics were screened by gynecologists (Phase I), while 1542 women of the same age attending Yayasan Kusuma Buana clinics or outreach sessions were screened by nurse-midwives (Phase II). Overall, the results suggested that visual inspection shows promise for dysplasia detection. In Phase I, AVI had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 96.4%, and a positive predictive value of 31.9% for any acetowhite; in Phase II, these rates were (for moderate/severe dysplasia) 75.7%, 92.0%, and 18.9%, respectively. AVI detected 24 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III in Phase I and 41 cases of high-grade lesions in Phase II. All cases of invasive cervical cancer (9 in Phase I and 8 in Phase II) were discovered. VIA (used only in Phase II) had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 94.2%, and a positive predictive value of 12.0% for any acetowhite. Studies currently underway in countries with more adequate resources should help to clarify further the role and accuracy of visual inspection.
International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.
[Unpublished] 1991. , 64 p.The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.