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  1. 1

    Tuberculosis control in seventeen developing countries.

    Shepperd JD

    [Unpublished] 1994 Sep. Presented at the 122nd Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Washington, D.C., 1994. iii, 28 p.

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from an infectious disease and is responsible for 3.9 million deaths/year. The incidence and severity of TB are exacerbated by the rapid spread of HIV infections. In 1993, a USAID task force presented a report on the TB situation in less developed countries and recommended agency actions (no policy decisions have been made). The World Health Organization (WHO) subsequently requested USAID assistance for a broad range proposal to tackle the problem of TB and implied that WHO had developed a cost effective TB strategy. USAID requested the country evaluations WHO referred to in its proposal, and this report is based on a review of those data. The country reports reviewed are from Burundi, Comoros, Ethiopia, Guinea, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Afghanistan, China, India, the Philippines, Brazil, Cuba, Nicaragua, Algeria. A summary is presented for each country report (except Afghanistan), overall findings are discussed, and unmet needs are identified. In general, the reports summarized from a variety of authors indicate that TB can be controlled through an extraordinary devotion of resources. Only Cuba treats TB as a socioeconomic problem; most of the other reviewers were entirely concerned with the medical aspects of the complex multidrug therapy approach and almost ignored that fact that patient compliance averaged only 30% unless there was massive donor support. It is concluded that the following needs must be met to address TB: 1) political commitment to TB control must be strong; 2) the cost of TB to economic security must be established; 3) the public understanding of TB must be enhanced; 4) the serious barriers to treatment must be addressed; 5) the health care delivery systems in developing countries must be strengthened; and 6) the capacities to support TB control must be increased. It was recommended that existing projects could be supplemented by a program which would cost US $2-5 million/year in order to address some unmet needs in the technical areas of training, research, and advocacy in developing countries.
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  2. 2

    USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
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