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Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Women and Children.
In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 39-40. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)According to World Health Organization estimates, there are about 2 million women and children throughout the world infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), most of whom remain asymptomatic and unidentified. At least 30% of infants whose mothers are HIV-positive will become infected before, during, or soon after birth. At present, HIV antibody tests are unable to diagnose perinatally acquired HIV infection in infants under 18 months of age. In such cases, the diagnosis can be made only on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms such as unexplained neurological abnormalities, developmental regression, recurrent severe bacterial infections that fail to respond to conventional therapy, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, or opportunistic infections related to cellular immunodeficiency. Given the importance of timely diagnosis of HIV infection, research focused on both the development of sensitive, specific laboratory tests for the diagnosis of HIV in infants under 18 months of age and refinement of the case definition of pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) should be prioritized. Policy decisions as to whether women of reproductive age should be tested for HIV infection should be based on laboratory testing and counseling resources, the availability of medical and social services for women and children, and the overall prevalence of HIV infection in the locality or country.
Report of a technical advisory meeting on research on AIDS and tuberculosis, Geneva, 2-4 August 1988.
[Unpublished] 1989. 21 p. (WHO/GPA/BMR/89.3)A technical advisory meeting on research on AIDS and tuberculosis was held to review and prioritize ongoing and planned research in the field, suggesting essential studies and study design. Studies in need of international collaboration, as well as subjects not covered by ongoing and planned research were considered, with attention given to recommending frameworks for development. The final major objective of the meeting was to determine key areas of TB programs requiring strengthening to facilitate such research, and to suggest developmental steps for improvement. The report provides opening background information of tuberculosis, AIDS, and the relationship between the 2, then launches into a discussion of urgently needed research. Epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical presentation, prevention, and treatment studies are called for under this section heading, each sub-section providing objectives, justification, and specific research questions. Design examples for selected research studies constitute an annex following the main body of text. When planning for action on suggested research, the report acknowledges the need for resources, organizational structures, detailed plans and timetables, and collaborative arrangements. 7 areas in which WHO could provide assistance are offered, followed by discussion of strengthening tuberculosis control capacity in WHO, and at the country and local levels. Selection of research sites is considered at the close of the text.