Your search found 12 Results
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2011.  p.In June 2010, the UNAIDS Secretariat and WHO launched Treatment 2.0, an initiative designed to achieve and sustain universal access and maximize the preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Treatment 2.0 builds on '3 by 5' and the programmatic and clinical evidence and experience over the last 10 years to expand access to HIV diagnosis, treatment and care through a series of innovations in five priority work areas: drugs, diagnostics, costs, service delivery and community mobilization. The principles and priorities of Treatment 2.0 address the need for innovation and efficiency gains in HIV programmes, in greater effectiveness, intervention coverage and impact in terms of both HIV-specific and broader health outcomes. Since the launch of Treatment 2.0, the UNAIDS Secretariat and WHO have worked with other UNAIDS co-sponsoring organizations, technical experts and global partners to further elaborate and begin implementing Treatment 2.0. The Treatment 2.0 Framework for Action outlines the five priority work areas which comprise the core elements of the initiative and establishes a strategic framework to guide action within each of them over the next decade. The Framework for Action reflects commitments outlined in Getting to Zero: 2011 - 2015 Strategy, UNAIDS and the WHO Global Health-Sector Strategy on HIV, 2011 - 2015, the guiding strategies for the multi-sectoral and health-sector responses to the HIV pandemic. (Excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2004. 19 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADC-611)Misdiagnosis of malaria results in significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid, accurate and accessible detection of malaria parasites has an important role in addressing this, and in promoting more rational use of increasingly costly drugs, in many endemic areas. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the potential to provide accurate diagnosis to all at risk populations for the first time, reaching those unable to access good quality microscopy services. The success of RDTs in malaria control will depend on good quality planning and implementation. This booklet is designed to assist those involved in malaria management in this task. While this new diagnostic tool is finding its place in management of this major global disease, there is a window of opportunity in which good practices can be established by health services and become the norm. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, STI, HIV and AIDS Focus, 2002 Jul.  p.Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infectious diseases that are transmitted from person to person during sexual contact, not necessarily vaginal intercourse. A large number of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other organisms may be sexually transmissible and may result in disease. Most bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections can be cured with antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, most viral infections cannot be cured. Antiviral drugs can sometimes contain the progression or effects of viral infections, although such treatments are often expensive, are inaccessible to many individuals, and may have substantial side effects. Persons with sexually transmitted infections are infectious to their sexual partners even though they may have no symptoms or signs of infection. In fact, many people - men and women - have STIs without symptoms or signs, although they can develop serious complications. STIs are a public health problem because of their potential to cause serious complications such as infertility, chronic disability and death in men, women and children. STIs can affect the foetus, neonate and infant, resulting in eye infection, blindness and pneumonia. The public health importance of STIs has taken on an even greater dimension with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV infection is sexually transmissible, is not curable and leads to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2004 Dec.  p.There is an urgent need to define at country level an essential package of interventions that can be delivered through health services to meet the needs of young people. This document summarizes the evidence for effective action, and encourages policy makers and programmers to turn concern and commitment into effective and sustainable action. It is based on an understanding that HIV infects people when they are young, but AIDS affects and kills people at an age when they would be parents and workers who sustain society and domestic and family life. Helping young people to protect themselves against HIV and AIDS protects people now and in the future. It protects the future of family life and the economic prospects of countries in development. (excerpt)
The global eradication of smallpox. Final report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Geneva, December 1979.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 122 p. (History of International Public Health No. 4)The Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication met in December 1978 to review the program in detail and to advise on subsequent activities and met again in December 1979 to assess progress and to make the final recommendations that are presented in this report. Additionally, the report contains a summary account of the history of smallpox, the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of the disease, the efforts to control and eradicate smallpox prior to 1966, and an account of the intensified program during the 1967-79 period. The report describes the procedures used for the certification of eradication along with the findings of 21 different international commissions that visited and reviewed programs in 61 countries. These findings provide the basis for the Commission's conclusion that the global eradication of smallpox has been achieved. The Commission also concluded that there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The overall development and coordination of the intensified program were carried out by a smallpox unit established at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, which worked closely with WHO staff at regional offices and, through them, with national staff and WHO advisers at the country level. Earlier programs had been based on a mass vaccination strategy. The intensified campaign called for programs designed to vaccinate at least 80% of the population within a 2-3 year period. During this time, reporting systems and surveillance activities were to be developed that would permit detection and elimination of the remaining foci of the disease. Support was sought and obtained from many different governments and agencies. The progression of the eradication program can be divided into 3 phases: the period between 1967-72 when eradication was achieved in most African countries, Indonesia, and South America; the 1973-75 period when major efforts focused on the countries of the Indian subcontinent; and the 1975-77 period when the goal of eradication was realized in the Horn of Africa. Global Commission recommendations for WHO policy in the post-eradication era include: the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination; continuing surveillance of monkey pox in West and Central Africa; supervision of the stocks and use of variola virus in laboratories; a policy of insurance against the return of the disease that includes thorough investigation of reports of suspected smallpox; the maintenance of an international reserve of freeze-dried vaccine under WHO control; and measures designed to ensure that laboratory and epidemiological expertise in human poxvirus infections should not be dissipated.
International Planned Parenthood Federation medical and service delivery guidelines for family planning.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992. xviii, 169 p.The International Planned Parenthood Federation has developed these guidelines to help persons working in family planning services and education ensure adequate levels of quality of care. The guidelines conform to the three dimensions of technology assessment needed for any project: it must be scientifically, socially, and operationally sound. Providers should adapt the service delivery guidelines to local realities. They should consider the needs and resources of the various sites in which the guidelines will be applied. The guidelines can also be developed into educational and training materials. They serve as a guide to the delivery of family planning services, a reference document for assessing quality of care, a training instrument, and a tool for supervision. The first chapter addresses the rights of the client, ranging from the right to information to the right of opinion. The second chapter is dedicated to contraceptive counseling, while chapter 3 is dedicated to family planning training. Chapter 4 discusses hormonal contraception (combined oral contraceptives, progestagen-only pills, service management, progestagen-only injectables, and the subdermal implants, Norplant). IUDs are covered in detail in chapter 5. The barrier methods addressed in chapter 6 include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and spermicides. Chapter 7 covers both male and female voluntary surgical contraception. Natural family planning methods are addressed in chapter 8 entitled Periodic Abstinence. These methods include the basal body temperature method, the cervical mucus method (Billings method), the calendar or rhythm method, and the sympto-thermal method. The guidelines conclude with a detailed statement on diagnosis of pregnancy and a list of suggested reading material.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1987; 65(4):425-34.Since May 1980 when the 33rd World Health Assembly declared the global eradication of smallpox, WHO has been developing a comprehensive system of surveillance aimed at maintaining the world permanently free from this disease. By 1984, all countries had ceased vaccinating the general public against smallpox, and had withdrawn the requirement for smallpox vaccination certificates from international travellers. A number of countries had also discontinued the vaccinating of military personnel. Until now WHO has maintained a stock of smallpox vaccine sufficient to vaccinate 300 million persons, but considering that 10 years have elapsed since the last endemic case of smallpox, maintenance of this reserve is no longer indicated. WHO continues to monitor rumors and coordinate the investigation of suspected cases, all of which have actually been misdiagnosed chickenpox or some other skin disease, or other errors in recording or reporting. Variola virus is now kept in only 2 WHO Collaborating Centers which possess high security containment laboratories. Since the variola virus gene pool has been cloned in bacterial plasmids which provide sufficient material to solve future research and diagnostic problems, there is no need to retain stocks of viable variola virus any longer. The results of a special program for the surveillance of human monkeypox have confirmed that the disease does not pose any significant health problem. In addition to testing human and animal specimens, WHO collaborating laboratories have made progress in the analysis of DNA of orthopoxviruses and in the development of reliable serological tests. (author's modified)
[Unpublished] 1986 May.  p. (WHO/CDS/AIDS/86.1)These guidelines, prepared by WHO, address the prevention and control of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection with lymphadenopathy associated virus/human T-lymphotropic virus Type III (LAV/HTLV-III) and are suitable for international application. The Introduction sets forth case definitions of AIDS and discusses the virus, its transmission and clinical features, laboratory methods for detection, and notification and confidentiality. The chapter on recommendations for health care workers proposes precautions for specific personnel such as laboratory staff, providers of home care, dental care personnel, and eye examiners. Also included are considerations relevant to non-health-care workers such as personal service workers and food service workers. Procedures for the handling of blood and blood products and disinfection and sterilization are set forth, and means of avoiding sexual and parenteral transmission of LAV/HTLV-III infection are suggested. Another chapter focuses on screening, diagnostic testing, and counseling of seropositive individuals. The strategies outlined are anchored in fundamental public health concepts and utilize the best available knowledge on the laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic aspects of LAV/HTLV-III infection. The guidelines are directed toward public health authorities and health professionals who have the responsibility of adapting the general guidelines to meet the diverse requirements of different populations and settings. The document is not complete at this time; several sections are currently under development and will be made available as soon as they are finished.
IPPF MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1986 Jun; 20(3):3-4.This statement was prepared by the IPPF Medical Department in response to requests from family planning associations for clear and accurate information about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the precautions needed to avoid AIDS infection. It summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, symptoms, and prevention of AIDS. Transmission of human lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) occurs through sexual contact with an infected person, transfusion of infected blood or blood products, injection with a needle contaminated with the virus, or artificial insemination with infected semen. Transmission also can occur perinatally from an infected mother to her infant. At present, persons who have antibody to HTLV-III/LAV are believed to harbor the virus and are considered infectious. Recommendations for the prevention of sexually acquired AIDS include avoidance of casual sex, especially with those from high risk groups (homosexual or bisexual men, intravenous drug users, prostitutes), and condom use. Transmission by nonsexual means can be controlled by refusing to accept blood, semen, organ, or tissue donations from persons in high risk groups; avoidance of illicit use of intravenous drugs or use of nonsterile needles; awareness on the part of health workers involved in providing artificial insemination services or blood and blood products of the risk of HTLV-III/LAV infection; and screening of semen donors for antibody at the time of donation and after 3 months. In terms of prevention of perinatal transmission, it should be noted that women with HTLV-III/LAV infection who become pregnant are at increased risk of developing AIDS and have a 50% chance of transmitting infection to their infant. Women with HTLV-III/LAV infection should be advised of the need for a highly efficient type of contraception to prevent pregnancy. Since AIDS is an uncommon disease of low infectivity, family planning workers are not considered to be at greater risk than the broader population.
Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1984.  p.This 1983-84 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong lists council and executive members as well as subcommittee members and volunteers for 1983 and provides information on the following: administration of the Association; clinical services; education; information; International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) activities; laboratory services; library service; motivation; personnel resource development and production; the Sexually Assualted Victims Service; studies and evaluation; subfertility service; surgical service; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; women's clubs; the Youth Advisory Service; and youth volunteer development. In 1983, there was a total of 45,384 new cases; total attendance at clinics was 261,992. A series of thirteen 5-minute segments on sex education was produced as part of a weekly television youth program. An 8-session sexual awareness seminar continued to receive a very good response. To meet the increasing demand of young couples for better preparation towards satisfactory sexual adjustment in marriage, a 3-session seminar on marriage was regularly conducted every month during 1983. 13 seminars were held, reaching a total of 374 participants. Other education efforts included a family planning talk, the Kwun Tong Population and Family Life Education Week, and 39 sessions of talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. The year-long information campaign was organized in response to the 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, Practice findings that many couples still fail to recognize the concept of shared responsibility in family planning. Laboratory services include hepatitis screening, premarital check-up examinations, pap smear, the venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), and seminal fluid examinations. Throughout the year, 256 interviews were given to sexually assaulted victims. To arouse the awareness of the public with regard to preventing rape through education, counselors conducted talks and gave radio and television interviews on the Sexually Assaulted Victims Service. The records of the 3 sub-fertility clinics showed that altogether in 1983 there were 1355 new cases and 561 old cases, with a total attendance of 6682. 144 pregnancies also were recorded. Training programs included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for teachers and social workers.
Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1983.  p.This 1982-83 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association (FPA) of Hong Kong reports on the following: program administration; activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); personnel; clinical services; surgical services; laboratory services; affiliated volunteer groups; education; information; library services; motivation and promotion; statistics and evaluation; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; and the Youth Advisory Service. The Association's services are managed by 133 full-time and 21 part-time staff. The clinic attendance figures quoted are for the 1982 calendar year; otherwise, the report refers to the current financial year. There were 43,818 new cases and 51,031 old cases making a total clinic attendance figure of 257,185. Of the 772 female applicants for sterilization, 599 female clients were treated for sterilization in 1982, 502 having mini-laparotomy and 97 having culdoscopic sterilization. 367 vasectomies were performed, representing an increase of 8.6% over the previous year. Educational efforts took the form of Working Youth's Programs, Sexual Awareness Seminars, Sex in Marriage Seminars, Family Planning Talks, and talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. Information activities included exhibitions, columns in newspapers and magazines, media coverage and advertisements, and talks by Association staff to various service clubs and community organizations and universities. Resource development efforts took the form of the production of new family life education resources as well as other resource materials; film, slide, and video production; and audiovisual services. The 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey revealed that 59.2% of the 1403 currently married women interviewed approved, with or without reservation, of the provision of a contraceptive services to the unmarried. 30.5% disapproved of it, and 10.4% had no idea or gave no answer. Studies of the termination of pregnancy and a family life education survey also were conducted. Training efforts included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for social workers and teachers. Total clinic attendance recorded for the Vietnamese Refugees project was 2680; 580 were new cases. The Youth Advisory Service recorded a big increase in the number of new clients (1723), old clients (270), with a total attendance of 3901.
WHO CHRONICLE. 1982; 36(3):87-91.This article summarizes the major findings and recommendations of the Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections, established by the World Health Assembly to advise on posteradication policy. Although smallpox has been eradicated, there remains a need for the monitoring of vaccination practices, investigation of rumored smallpox cases, verification of virus and vaccine storage conditions, and surveillance of the other orthopoxviruses, including monkeypox. Routine vaccination for smallpox has been officially discontinued in 150 of the 158 Member States and Associate Members of the World Health Organization (WHO); Egypt and Kuwait continue to immunize, while the present status of vaccination remains unknown in 6 other countries. WHO is taking further steps to encourage all countries to cease this practice and is contracting laboratories that continue to produce smallpox vaccine to request that they cease commercial vaccine distribution. Since 1979, 124 rumors of smallpox cases from 55 countries have been investigated, most of which were misdiagnosed cases of chickenpox, measles, and other skin diseases; none has been smallpox. At present, variola virus is being stored in 4 laboratories, 3 of which are WHO collaborating centers. WHO will continue to inspect these laboratories to ensure that requirements for containment are being met. Programs for the surveillance of human monkeypox in west and central Africa are being initiated, although present data indicate that this disease is not of public health importance. The total number of known cases of human monkeypox since 1970 stands at 63. Important studies for the postsmallpox surveillance program include the development of simple and reliable screening tests for orthopoxvirus antibody and of reliable tests for antibody specific to monkeypoxvirus. Plans are underway to publish a book dealing with all aspects of the smallpox eradication campaign.