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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO meeting thrashes out R&D strategy against Zika.

    Maurice J

    Lancet. 2016 Mar 19; 387:1147.

    WHO convened a multidisciplinary consultation last week to identify the tools and interventions needed to outsmart the Zika epidemic. Towards the end of the meeting, delegates representing the major regulatory agencies in the USA, Europe, and Brazil, committed to putting Zika-related products on a regulatory fast-track. They also agreed that instead of waiting, as they usually do, for manufacturers to approach them, they would take the initiative and approach companies working on promising products. Their gesture, in a sense, encapsulates the success of the meeting in bringing together so many minds from so many disciplines to focus, for 3 intensive days, on a single issue of vital importance. (Excerpts)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Third meeting of the WHO Collaborating Centres on AIDS: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Collaborating Centres on AIDS


    The 3rd meeting of the WHO Collaborating Centres on AIDS, held 6 June 1987, updated Centre representatives on the activities of WHO's Special Programme on AIDS and discussed technical matters such a definition, testing and diagnosis of AIDS. The special program is concentrating on the African and American regions, visiting countries, and holding workshops on topics such as training, case management and epidemiological surveillance. There will be 20 professional staff at WHO headquarters and 16 in the field. An advisory group on behavioral research met to establish social and behavioral priorities. A protocol for studies of seroprevalence is being developed. The technical topics discussed included widening the definition of AIDS cases to include wasting syndrome and dementia, as well as diagnosis of presumptive AIDS without availability of standardized tests. 3 Consensus statements were adopted, on HIV transmission, HIV infection in health workers, and on present and future status of laboratory tests for HIV. HIV should be continually isolated in various regions of the world to ensure that diagnostic tests reflect local virus strains. An agenda was proposed, including the next meeting to be held in Stockholm in June, 1988.
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  3. 3

    International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991. [2], 64 p.

    The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
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  4. 4

    Report of a technical advisory meeting on research on AIDS and tuberculosis, Geneva, 2-4 August 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. 21 p. (WHO/GPA/BMR/89.3)

    A technical advisory meeting on research on AIDS and tuberculosis was held to review and prioritize ongoing and planned research in the field, suggesting essential studies and study design. Studies in need of international collaboration, as well as subjects not covered by ongoing and planned research were considered, with attention given to recommending frameworks for development. The final major objective of the meeting was to determine key areas of TB programs requiring strengthening to facilitate such research, and to suggest developmental steps for improvement. The report provides opening background information of tuberculosis, AIDS, and the relationship between the 2, then launches into a discussion of urgently needed research. Epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical presentation, prevention, and treatment studies are called for under this section heading, each sub-section providing objectives, justification, and specific research questions. Design examples for selected research studies constitute an annex following the main body of text. When planning for action on suggested research, the report acknowledges the need for resources, organizational structures, detailed plans and timetables, and collaborative arrangements. 7 areas in which WHO could provide assistance are offered, followed by discussion of strengthening tuberculosis control capacity in WHO, and at the country and local levels. Selection of research sites is considered at the close of the text.
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  5. 5

    Report of the Meeting on Strategies for the Evaluation and Implementation of Laboratory Diagnosis of HIV Infection, Geneva, 31 August - 2 September 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. 6 p. (WHO/GPA/BMR/89.2)

    A World Health Organization (WHO) meeting was held to review strategies for WHO activities in the laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection, and to propose feasible, practical ways of implementing recommendations from the Stockholm, 1987, meeting on "criteria for evaluation and standardization of diagnostic tests for detection of HIV antibody." The meeting commended efforts made over the previous 8 months by the WHO global program on AIDS in evaluating new test systems, training laboratory workers, and monitoring test performance. The paper reports recommendations regarding choice of test, training, quality control procedures, and research.
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  6. 6

    Report of the Meeting on Research Priorities Relating to Women and HIV / AIDS, Geneva, 19-20 November 1990.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991. 13 p. (GPA/DIR/91.2)

    A meeting of international experts was held to identify gaps in knowledge essential to design and implement AIDS prevention and control programs as they relate to women. Fundamental to successful research efforts are the need for increased access of women to training and participation in research, new consideration of the neglect of gender specificity in existing research, and the need for such research to contribute to the empowerment of women. Specific research needs in epidemiology, behavioral research, and social and economic aspects of HIV/AIDS were identified, ranked according to their potential for contributing to the prevention and control of AIDS, relevance for developing countries, and feasibility. 12 specific research questions are posed in the report, and cover issues such as the determinants of HIV transmission, contraceptive method impact, diagnosis and treatment of STDs in women, social and economic support, women's empowerment, and the risks of female health care provider HIV infection. Additionally, HIV infection natural history differences between men and women are compared, followed by consideration of psychosocial stress, monitoring, HIV and pregnancy, and research protocol development. Background, key issues, reports of the working groups, and recommendations are included in the report.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    [The Collaborating Centers of the World Health Organization and AIDS: report of a meeting of the World Health Organization] Les Centres Collaborateurs de l'OMS et le SIDA: memorandum d'une reunion de l'OMS.

    World Health Organization [WHO]


    The World Health Organization (WHO) meeting on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) held in Geneva in September 1985 stressed the importance of the WHO collaborating centers in the worldwide struggle against AIDS. The network of collaborating centers was established after and April 1985 WHO meeting to facilitate international cooperation in training of laboratory personnel, supplying reference reactives, evaluating diagnostic tests, and organizing activities to establish the natural history of the disease in different parts of the world. The AIDS virus is transmitted during sexual intercourse, by parenteral exposure to blood or contaminated blood products, or from the mother to the infant during the perinatal period. In the US and Western Europe, over 90% of victims are still homosexual and bisexual men, intravenous drug users, and their sexual partners, but in many developing countries heterosexuals with active sex lives are the main victims. There are no indications that the virus is spread by casual contact or by insect vectors. Health authorities of all countries should establish surveillance programs to measure the extent of AIDS infection. A precise case definition including only the most serious manifestations of the disease should be used. The US Centers for Disease Control definition has been approved for countries with appropriate diagnostic capabilities. Only immunological diagnostic methods are practical for large scale routine testing. Radioimmunological and immunoenzymatic titers are the most frequently used routine testing procedures. They are very sensitive, but because of the possibility of false positive results, confirmation using another test is needed for individuals belonging to low risk populations. The Western blot or other immunoblotting tests are most often used for confirmation. Progress in laboratory diagnosis would be furthered if international reference standards, simpler diagnostic tests, and other measures were made avaliable. Until drugs capable of preventing and treating AIDS become available, prevention will depend mainly on reduction of risks based on information and education. Cases of AIDS spread by blood transfusion can be eliminated by excluding donors belonging to high-risk groups and by testing the blood for antibodies before transfusion. Reuse of nonsterile needles and syringes should be absolutely avoided. Despite efforts to identify an effective agent for treatment of AIDS, no substance has been found as yet that supplies more than a transitory arrest of viral replication. Interferon has been shown to be effective against Kaposi's sarcoma. New antiviral agents should be careful studied in conformity with accepted protocols for drug evaluation. Numerous attempts to develop an anti-AIDS vaccine are underway. The heterogeneity of the virus poses a significant problem. Several specific recommendations for its 1986-87 program were made to further the role of the WHO as a centraL clearinghouse for AIDS information.
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    [Record of the second meeting of the WHO Collaborating Centers on AIDS] Deuxieme reunion des centres collaborateurs de l'OMS pour le SIDA: memorandum d'une reunion de l'OMS.


    Participants at the 2nd meeting of World Health Organization (WHO) collaborating centers on AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) held in Geneva in December 1985 reported on progress since the 1st meeting in September 1985 and made a number of recommendations for future action in the areas of information, education, and prevention; reference reactants and tests of anti-HTLV-III antibodies; epidemiologic evaluation; and research on vaccines and antiviral agents. It was recommended that ministries of health, education, and social services provide the public with timely and accurate information on AIDS, that physicians, nurses, and similar personnel inform the ill and the public about AIDS and its prevention, and that school age children and young people be informed about AIDS and how to avoid infection. Systems of registration of AIDS cases should be implemented in order to provide the WHO and member states with data on the international level. Standardization and availability of serologic tests is also required. Instructions for avoiding infection should be provided for health personnel and others caring for AIDS patients, for individuals providing personal services to the public, and to ensure adequate methods of disinfection. Instructions for preventing AIDS should discuss sexual and parenteral transmission as well as perinatal transmission. Specific recommendations for education and family placement for children with AIDS have already been published. Instructions should be provided for prisons and similar estabilshments. Requiring international travellers to provide certificates attesting to their AIDS-free status is not justified as a preventive measure. The significant existing demand for reference reactants including human serums with anit-HTLV-III antibodies and controls is being addressed by several institutes in different countries, but it would be premature to furnish reference reactants other than serums. The WHO collaborating centers should furnish materials for purposes of training in diagnostic techniques. Existing tests for diagnosis and confirmation should be imporved and new tests should be developed, with particular attention to simple methods appropriate for use in developing countries. It will be necessary to establish international biological standards for the HTLV-III virus, but the required specifications are not yet known. Technical cooperation and epidemiological evaluation must be planned separately, based on the different prevalence of infections and technical expertise of different countries. A clinical definition of AIDS is needed for countries lacking resources needed to apply the Centers for Disease Control/WHO definition. Surveillance methods and laboratories can be installed with WHO assistance, to help evaluate the extent of AIDS infection in different countries. Later technical cooperation in the areas of continued surveillance and laboratory capacities will depend on results of the initial evaluation in each country. Research is currently underway in several countries of possible vaccines and drugs. Careful preclinical studies should be done to evaluate the toxicity of an agent before clinical studies are conducted. Convenient animal models should be sought for future research. 3 annexes to this report specify methods of disinfection; general principles of preventing transmission of the AIDS virus through parenteral exposure or following donation of organs, sperm, or other tissue; and a proposed definition of clinical cases of AIDS.
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  9. 9

    Design of studies for the assessment of drugs and hormones used in the treatment of endocrine forms of female infertility.


    In: Diczfalusy, E., ed. Regulation of human fertility. (Proceedings of the WHO Symposium on Advances in Fertility Regulation, Moscow, USSR, November 16-19, 1976) Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1977. p. 135-154

    The lack of uniformity in diagnostic selection of women for treatment of infertility, in choice of therapy, in monitoring of therapy, and in follow-up, frequently does not allow a meaningful comparison of results reported from different centers. To design studies assessing effectiveness of therapy of endocrine forms of female infertility, it is essential to consider: 1) mechanism controlling reproductive functions (e.g., process of ovulation); 2) cause(s) responsible for infertility (mechanical factors, ovarian failure, and pituitary failure); and 3) the mechanism of action of agents used for therapy (e.g., gonadotropins stimulate gonadal function, clomiphene stimulates gonadotropin secretion, and ergoline derivatives inhibit prolactin secretion). Patients selected for therapy should be grouped according to etiology: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary failure; 2) hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction; 3) ovarian failure; 4) congenital or acquired genital tract disorder; 5) hyperprolactinemic patients with a space-occupying lesion in the hypothalamic-pituitary region; 6) hyperprolactinemic patients with no space-occupying lesion; and 7) amenorrheic women with space-occupying lesion. Ideally, an infertile couple should be diagnosed and treated as a unit.
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  10. 10

    The investigation of the infertile couple: a critique of the currently available diagnostic tests.


    In: Diczfalusy, E., ed. Regulation of human fertility. (Proceedings of the WHO Symposium on Advances in Fertility Regulation, Moscow, USSR, November 16-19, 1976) Copenhagan, Denmark, Scriptor, 1977. p. 111-134

    A 6-month regimen for managing infertile men and/or women ideally forms 4 stages: 1) history and examination of the couple; 2) confirmation of ovulation, compatibility of sperm and mucus, and seminology; 3) tests for tubal patency; and 4) detailed endocrine tests for abnormalities found in Stages 1-3. Medical history should include emotional stress and work pressures, if any. Ovulation confirmation requires 2 tests combined from these 4: 1) basal body temperature; 2) endometrial biopsy; 3) blood progesterone levels; and 4) urinary pregnanediol. These procedures are outlined in detail, and figures chart body temperature variations and expected progesterone and pregnanediol levels. Assessment of cervical mucus and measurement of sperm penetration combine in vitro and in vivo tests. The Sims-Huhner test (postcoital test), though not standardized, is used to analyze sperm-mucus interaction by quantitative scoring of sperm count and motility. Other in vitro tests are the sperm-mucus match test and the fractional postcoital test (both described). Tubal patency is investigated by tubal insufflation with CO2, hysterosalpingography, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. Additional Stage 4 tests include vaginal cytology and assessment of estrogen and progesterone effects.
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