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WHO CHRONICLE. 1982; 36(3):87-91.This article summarizes the major findings and recommendations of the Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections, established by the World Health Assembly to advise on posteradication policy. Although smallpox has been eradicated, there remains a need for the monitoring of vaccination practices, investigation of rumored smallpox cases, verification of virus and vaccine storage conditions, and surveillance of the other orthopoxviruses, including monkeypox. Routine vaccination for smallpox has been officially discontinued in 150 of the 158 Member States and Associate Members of the World Health Organization (WHO); Egypt and Kuwait continue to immunize, while the present status of vaccination remains unknown in 6 other countries. WHO is taking further steps to encourage all countries to cease this practice and is contracting laboratories that continue to produce smallpox vaccine to request that they cease commercial vaccine distribution. Since 1979, 124 rumors of smallpox cases from 55 countries have been investigated, most of which were misdiagnosed cases of chickenpox, measles, and other skin diseases; none has been smallpox. At present, variola virus is being stored in 4 laboratories, 3 of which are WHO collaborating centers. WHO will continue to inspect these laboratories to ensure that requirements for containment are being met. Programs for the surveillance of human monkeypox in west and central Africa are being initiated, although present data indicate that this disease is not of public health importance. The total number of known cases of human monkeypox since 1970 stands at 63. Important studies for the postsmallpox surveillance program include the development of simple and reliable screening tests for orthopoxvirus antibody and of reliable tests for antibody specific to monkeypoxvirus. Plans are underway to publish a book dealing with all aspects of the smallpox eradication campaign.