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  1. 1

    Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in infants and children: towards universal access. Recommendations for a public health approach.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of HIV / AIDS

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007. [147] p.

    These stand-alone treatment guidelines serve as a framework for selecting the most potent and feasible first-line and second-line ARV regimens as components of expanded national responses for the care of HIV-infected infants and children. Recommendations are provided on: diagnosing HIV infection in infants and children; when to start ART, including situations where severe HIV disease in children less than 18 months of age has been presumptively diagnosed; clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART; substitution of ARVs for toxicities. The guidelines consider ART in different situations, e.g. where infants and children are coinfected with HIV and TB or have been exposed to ARVs either for the prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) or because of breastfeeding from an HIV-infected mother on ART. They address the importance of nutrition in the HIV-infected child and of severe malnutrition in relation to the provision of ART. Adherence to therapy and viral resistance to ARVs are both discussed with reference to infants and children. A section on ART in adolescents briefly outlines key issues related to treatment in this age group. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Valiadation of a new clinical case definition for paediatric HIV infection, Bloemfontein, South Africa [letter]

    Joubert G; Shoeman CJ; Bester CJ

    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2005 Dec; 51(6):387.

    In 2003 a study was published, evaluating the WHO clinical case definition for paediatric HIV infection in Bloemfontein, South Africa. It was found that the WHO case definition could only detect 14.5 per cent of children who were in fact symptomatic and HIV positive on age-appropriate serology testing. Following logistic regression analysis, a new case definition was proposed, namely that HIV is suspected in a child who has at least two of the following four signs: marasmus, hepatosplenomegaly, oropharyngeal candidiasis, and generalized lymphadenopathy. This new case definition had a sensitivity of 63.2 per cent and a specificity of 96.0 per cent. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    The global eradication of smallpox. Final report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Geneva, December 1979.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 122 p. (History of International Public Health No. 4)

    The Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication met in December 1978 to review the program in detail and to advise on subsequent activities and met again in December 1979 to assess progress and to make the final recommendations that are presented in this report. Additionally, the report contains a summary account of the history of smallpox, the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of the disease, the efforts to control and eradicate smallpox prior to 1966, and an account of the intensified program during the 1967-79 period. The report describes the procedures used for the certification of eradication along with the findings of 21 different international commissions that visited and reviewed programs in 61 countries. These findings provide the basis for the Commission's conclusion that the global eradication of smallpox has been achieved. The Commission also concluded that there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The overall development and coordination of the intensified program were carried out by a smallpox unit established at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, which worked closely with WHO staff at regional offices and, through them, with national staff and WHO advisers at the country level. Earlier programs had been based on a mass vaccination strategy. The intensified campaign called for programs designed to vaccinate at least 80% of the population within a 2-3 year period. During this time, reporting systems and surveillance activities were to be developed that would permit detection and elimination of the remaining foci of the disease. Support was sought and obtained from many different governments and agencies. The progression of the eradication program can be divided into 3 phases: the period between 1967-72 when eradication was achieved in most African countries, Indonesia, and South America; the 1973-75 period when major efforts focused on the countries of the Indian subcontinent; and the 1975-77 period when the goal of eradication was realized in the Horn of Africa. Global Commission recommendations for WHO policy in the post-eradication era include: the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination; continuing surveillance of monkey pox in West and Central Africa; supervision of the stocks and use of variola virus in laboratories; a policy of insurance against the return of the disease that includes thorough investigation of reports of suspected smallpox; the maintenance of an international reserve of freeze-dried vaccine under WHO control; and measures designed to ensure that laboratory and epidemiological expertise in human poxvirus infections should not be dissipated.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluation of the WHO clinical case definition for AIDS in rural Zaire.

    De Cock KM; Colebunders R; Francis H; Nzilambi N; Laga M; Ryder RW; Bondjobo M; McCormick JB; Piot P

    AIDS. 1988 Jun; 2(3):219-21.

    In many areas of Africa where AIDS is endemic, facilities for laboratory diagnosis are too limited to reliably diagnose opportunistic infections. Therefore, the World Health Organization defined a clinical case definition of AIDS in which 2 major signs and at least 1 minor sign must be present to diagnose AIDS. The major signs are: weight loss greater than 10%, diarrhea for more than 1 month, and prolonged fever for more than 1 month. The minor signs are: persistent cough for more than 1 month, generalized pruritic dermatitis, recurrent herpes zoster, oropharyngeal candidiasis, chronic disseminated herpes simplex, and generalized lymphadenopathy. (The presence of Kaposi's sarcoma or cryptococcal meningitis are sufficient by themselves for a diagnosis of AIDS.) 72 patients in 4 hospitals in Equateur Province of Zaire were used to test the reliability of the clinical case definition. 21 (29%) of the patients were HIV seropositive, and 22 (32%) fulfilled the clinical criteria. From these data the sensitivity of the case definition was 52%, specificity was 78%, positive predictive value was 50%, and negative predictive value was 80%. Since positive predictive value rises with prevalence and HIV infection is maximal in the 20-40 age group, restricting the case definition to this age group would increase its predictive value. Exclusion of patients with tuberculosis would reduce the number of false positive results.
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