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  1. 1
    361727
    Peer Reviewed

    Multilateral, regional, and national determinants of policy adoption: the case of HIV/AIDS legislative action.

    Clark BY

    International Journal of Public Health. 2013 Apr; 58(2):285-93.

    OBJECTIVES: This article examines the global legislative response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic with a particular focus on how policies were diffused internationally or regionally, or facilitated internally. METHODS: This article uses event history analysis combined with multinomial logit regression to model the legislative response of 133 countries. RESULTS: First, the results demonstrate that the WHO positively influenced the likelihood of a legislative response. Second, the article demonstrates that development bank aid helped to spur earlier legislative action. Third, the results demonstrate that developed countries acted earlier than developing countries. And finally, the onset and severity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic was a significant influence on the legislative response. CONCLUSION: Multilateral organizations have a positive influence in global policy diffusion through informational advocacy, technical assistance, and financial aid. It is also clear that internal stressors play key roles in legislative action seen clearly through earlier action being taken in countries where the shock of the onset of HIV/AIDS occurred earlier and earlier responses taken where the epidemic was more severe.
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  2. 2
    320935

    UNESCO and HIV / AIDS: ten lessons.

    Hernes G

    In: The HIV challenge to education: a collection of essays, edited by Carol Coombe. Paris, France, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, 2004. 253-263. (Education in the Context of HIV / AIDS)

    Twenty years after the identification of AIDS, some 60 million people have been infected by HIV, a number corresponding to the entire population of France, the United Kingdom or Thailand. Those who have died equal the population of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark combined. Those currently infected - more than 40 million - number more than the entire population of Canada. The number of children thought to be orphaned by HIV/AIDS - some 14 million - is already more than the total population of Ecuador. Over the coming decade their numbers may rise to a staggering 50 million worldwide. In other words, the extent of this pandemic is unprecedented in human history. And the worst is yet to come, for many millions more will be infected, many millions more will die, many millions more will be orphaned. On September 11 2001, more than 3,000 people died in the New York bombings. Every day, around the world, HIV infects at least five times that number. But it is not only individuals who are at risk. The social fabric of whole communities, societies and cultures is threatened. The disease is certain to be a scourge throughout our lifetime. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    276777

    Guide to the UN Convention of 2 December 1949 for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others.

    Marcovich M

    [Unpublished] [2002]. 36 p.

    The Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others was adopted by the United Nations on December 2, 1949, one year after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in a climate of humanistic hope following the Second World War. The 1949 Convention was the result of an abolitionist and feminist struggle in England, begun and led by Josephine Butler in 1866. Whereas slavery had just been abolished in most of the European countries, Josephine Butler considered the system of prostitution to be a contemporary form of slavery that oppressed women and was injurious to humanity in general. The system of the regulation of prostitution, set up under Napoleon III in France, and soon called the “French system,” was established in many European countries in the name of public health and under the hygienist pretext of combating venereal diseases. French physician, Parent-Duchatelet, 19th century promoter of hygienism and regulation of prostitution, considered prostitution as a “sewerage system” and compared ejaculation to “organic drainage.” In reality, however, the regulationist system was based on a vision of society and human sexuality in which women were reduced to instruments of male pleasure. A vice squad was created to oversee the smooth working of the system. Not only could procurers and traffickers develop their operations with impunity, but the municipalities could also make money by levying taxes on the brothels. Women in prostitution were liable to violence, constraints, and health controls that were described as sexual tortures. Decrees against venereal diseases, particularly in England, permitted certain authorities to force women who were simply suspected of being prostitutes to undergo medical examinations, or even to be imprisoned. (excerpt)
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