Your search found 276 Results

  1. 1
    374316

    Corporate evaluation on strategic partnerships for gender equality and the empowerment of women: final synthesis report.

    United Nations. UN Women. Independent Evaluation Office

    2017 Jan.; New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Jan. 118 p.

    In its Corporate Evaluation Plan 2014-2017, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) committed to conduct a corporate evaluation of UN Women’s work on fostering strategic partnerships. This Synthesis Report is the final product of the Corporate Evaluation on Strategic Partnerships for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (GEEW). The evaluation was conducted by an external independent team between September 2015 and September 2016 and managed by the UN Women IEO. The evaluation is intended to enhance UN Women’s approach to strategic partnerships for the implementation of the 2014-2017 Strategic Plan with the aim of ensuring that gender equality is reached by 2030. It is also expected to contribute to an understanding of how UN Women’s strategic partnerships can facilitate a strong position for gender equality and women’s empowerment within the current global development context and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Agenda 2030). The objectives of this formative evaluation were to: a. Assess the relevance of UN Women’s approaches to strategic partnerships given the changing global development landscape. b. Assess effectiveness and organizational efficiency in progressing towards the achievement of organizational results within the broader dynamic international context (e.g., Sustainable Development Goals [SDGs], etc.), with attention to achievement of specific organizational effectiveness and efficiency framework (OEEF) results. c. Determine whether or not the human rights approach and gender equality principles are integrated adequately in UN Women’s approach to its strategic partnerships. d. Identify and validate lessons learned, good practice examples and innovations of partnership strategies supported by UN Women. e. Provide actionable recommendations with respect to UN Women strategies and approaches to strategic partnerships.
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  2. 2
    375529

    Normative work in nutrition at WHO: Priority setting for guideline development.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, 2017 May. [28] p.

    Nutrition is a direct contributor and target to Sustainable Development Goal 2 (“End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture”), a foundation and pre-requisite to Sustainable Development Goal 3 (“Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”), and a decisive enabler to the remaining goals of the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports all Member States to achieve “a world free of all forms of malnutrition where all people achieve health and well-being”, a vision supported by our work with Member States and their partners to ensure universal access to effective nutrition actions and to healthy and sustainable diets1, in the context of the overall effort to ensure universal health coverage2. To do this, WHO uses its convening power to help facilitate and align priority setting to mainstream nutrition in the health and development agenda; develop evidence-informed guidance supported by the highest quality science and ethical frameworks; support the adoption of guidance, its implementation and the integration of effective actions into existing or new delivery platforms in the health systems. WHO guidelines are documents developed by WHO containing recommendations for clinical practice or public health policy and programmes. A recommendation tells the intended end-user of the guideline what he or she can or should do in specific situations to achieve the best health and nutrition outcomes possible, individually or at the population level. It offers a choice among different interventions or measures having an anticipated positive impact on health and nutrition, and implications for the use of resources.3 The WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD) develops guidelines in accordance with the procedures established in the WHO Handbook for Guideline Development.2 The WHO guideline development process ensures that WHO guidelines are of high methodological quality and are developed through an independent, transparent, evidence-informed, consensual decision-making process. Though the process with which WHO develops guidelines is highly structured, systematic and transparent, the process for priority setting (i.e. prioritizing topics4 for guideline development) has been a dynamic one, in order to accommodate new and renewed high-level commitments from the WHO Secretariat as well as emerging issues arising from discussions among Member States in the Governing Body fora, such as the World Health Assembly (WHA). The priority issues are determined by their importance (i.e. magnitude, prevalence and distribution of disease or nutrition problems), or the existence of preventable or modifiable biological, behavioural and contextual determinants (risk factors). Updating guidelines is challenging if evidence has to be retrieved to support an increasing number of recommendations. In this situation it is important to give priority to assuring the principle of “primum non nocere” (first do no harm), to address controversial areas, and to set a position on areas in which new evidence has emerged and requires prompt action. Ensuring a well-understood and efficiently communicated prioritization process is therefore crucial as external partners and stakeholders play an important role in the WHO guideline implementation process. Independence and transparency of the prioritization process gives the Organization a means of providing assurance that the process is free of any undue influence that may affect the reputation and objectivity of WHO. Therefore, in an effort to maintain transparency in the normative work of WHO and to enhance the understanding of the process used to prioritize topics for guideline development among Member States and stakeholders, the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD) is leading the work on making the prioritization process more accessible and has developed an online tool to further facilitate the participation of Member States and their stakeholders in the guideline prioritization process. This process aims to complement the decisions of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the decision-making body of WHO. (Excerpts
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  3. 3
    372994

    Argentina: can performance payments improve newborn health?

    Berman D

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 Feb. [4] p. (From Evidence to Policy)

    Poor children face barriers to healthy development even before they are born. Their mothers may not have nutritious food or proper prenatal care, which can harm a baby s brain development when it needs it most. Mothers may not deliver in a health facility nor have a skilled birth attendant present, increasing the risk of complications and ultimately putting their life and that of the baby at risk. In Argentina, the World Bank supported a government program, Plan Nacer, to improve maternal-child health outcomes through increased coverage and quality of health services. The program gives provincial authorities financial incentives for enrolling pregnant women and children in the program and for achieving specific primary health care goals. An impact evaluation found that Plan Nacer improved the birth weight of babies and reduced newborn deaths, while improving access to public health facilities and boosting the quality of care. The evidence from this evaluation will equip policy makers in low and middle income countries with additional information when designing health programs aimed at improving specific outcomes. As governments around the world look for ways to create effective programs to help their poorest citizens, the results from this impact evaluation provide an example of how health sector reforms can give children the right start in life.
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  4. 4
    372965

    Maintaining momentum to 2015? an impact evaluation of interventions to improve maternal and child health and nutrition in Bangladesh.

    World Bank. Operations Evaluation Department

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2005 Aug. [248] p. (World Bank Report No. 34462)

    Improving maternal and child health and nutrition is central to development goals. The importance of these objectives is reflected by their inclusion in poverty-reduction targets such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Bangladesh’s Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, supported by major development partners, including the World Bank and the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID). This report addresses the issue of what publicly supported programs and external assistance from the Bank and other agencies can do to accelerate attainment of such targets as reducing infant mortality by two-thirds. The evidence presented here relates to Bangladesh, a country that has made spectacular progress, but needs to maintain momentum in order to achieve its own poverty-reduction goals. The report addresses the following issues: (1) What has happened to child health and nutrition outcomes and fertility in Bangladesh since 1990? Are the poor sharing in the progress being made? (2) What have been the main determinants of maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes in Bangladesh over this period? (3) Given these determinants, what can be said about the impact of publicly and externally supported programs—notably those of the World Bank and DFID—to improve health and nutrition? (4) To the extent that interventions have brought about positive impacts, have they done so in a cost-effective manner? (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    368338

    World Bank support to early childhood development. An independent evaluation.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015. 199 p.

    The sustained benefits of early childhood interventions are well established in developed countries. Early development plays a major role in subsequent school performance, health, socialization, and future earnings. For children born into poverty, the equity enhancing impact of early childhood interventions hold the promise of overcoming social disadvantages and breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty. The World Bank’s support to early childhood development (ECD) is well aligned with the Bank’s twin goals of reducing extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity. This evaluation by the Independent Evaluation Group examines the Bank’s design and implementation of projects across sectors supporting ECD interventions to inform future operations and provide inputs to the new Global Practices and Cross-Cutting Solutions Areas.
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  6. 6
    335932

    WHO Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network: A strategic review of the first 5 years, 2008-2012.

    Agocs MM; Serhan F; Yen C; Mwenda JM; de Oliveira LH; Teleb N; Wasley A; Wijesinghe PR; Fox K; Tate JE; Gentsch JR; Parashar UD; Kang G

    Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2014 Jul 25; 63(29):634-637.

    Since 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, a network of sentinel surveillance hospitals and laboratories that report to ministries of health (MoHs) and WHO clinical features and rotavirus testing data for children aged <5 years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. In 2013, WHO conducted a strategic review to assess surveillance network performance, provide recommendations for strengthening the network, and assess the network’s utility as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. The strategic review team determined that during 2011 and 2012, a total of 79 sites in 37 countries met reporting and testing inclusion criteria for data analysis. Of the 37 countries with sites meeting inclusion criteria, 13 (35%) had introduced rotavirus vaccine nationwide. All 79 sites included in the analysis were meeting 2008 network objectives of documenting presence of disease and describing disease epidemiology, and all countries were using the rotavirus surveillance data for vaccine introduction decisions, disease burden estimates, and advocacy; countries were in the process of assessing the use of this surveillance platform for other vaccine-preventable diseases. However, the review also indicated that the network would benefit from enhanced management, standardized data formats, linkage of clinical data with laboratory data, and additional resources to support network functions. In November 2013, WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) endorsed the findings and recommendations made by the review team and noted potential opportunities for using the network as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. WHO will work to implement the recommendations to improve the network’s functions and to provide higher quality surveillance data for use in decisions related to vaccine introduction and vaccination program sustainability.
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  7. 7
    334776
    Peer Reviewed

    World Health Organization guideline development: an evaluation.

    Sinclair D; Isba R; Kredo T; Zani B; Smith H; Garner P

    PLoS ONE. 2013 May; 8(5):e63715.

    Background: Research in 2007 showed that World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations were largely based on expert opinion, rarely used systematic evidence-based methods, and did not follow the organization’s own “Guidelines for Guidelines”. In response, the WHO established a “Guidelines Review Committee” (GRC) to implement and oversee internationally recognized standards. We examined the impact of these changes on WHO guideline documents and explored senior staff’s perceptions of the new procedures. Methods and Findings: We used the AGREE II guideline appraisal tool to appraise ten GRC-approved guidelines from nine WHO departments, and ten pre-GRC guidelines matched by department and topic. We interviewed 20 senior staff across 16 departments and analyzed the transcripts using the framework approach. Average AGREE II scores for GRC-approved guidelines were higher across all six AGREE domains compared with pre-GRC guidelines. The biggest changes were noted for “Rigour of Development” (up 37.6%, from 30.7% to 68.3%) and “Editorial Independence” (up 52.7%, from 20.9% to 73.6%). Four main themes emerged from the interviews: (1) high standards were widely recognized as essential for WHO credibility, particularly with regard to conflicts of interest; (2) views were mixed on whether WHO needed a single quality assurance mechanism, with some departments purposefully bypassing the procedures; (3) staff expressed some uncertainties in applying the GRADE approach, with departmental staff concentrating on technicalities while the GRC remained concerned the underlying principles were not fully institutionalized; (4) the capacity to implement the new standards varied widely, with many departments looking to an overstretched GRC for technical support. Conclusions: Since 2007, WHO guideline development methods have become more systematic and transparent. However, some departments are bypassing the procedures, and as yet neither the GRC, nor the quality assurance standards they have set, are fully embedded within the organization.
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  8. 8
    357009

    Banking on health: World Bank and African Development Bank spending on reproductive health and HIV / AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Lauterbach C

    Washington, D.C., Gender Action, 2012. [65] p.

    This report reviews the health (2006 - 2012) expenditures of the World Bank and African Development Bank. It challenges their priorities and provides recommendations for increasing their involvement to address reproductive health and HIV / AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries. It suggests that improving health care systems as a whole, particularly reproductive health and HIV / AIDS, will go a long way in ensuring access to reproductive and sexual health for all, especially women.
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  9. 9
    333678

    GLAAS 2012 report. UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water. The challenge of extending and sustaining services.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; UN-Water

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. [112] p.

    The objective of the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) is to monitor the inputs required to extend and sustain water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) systems and services. This includes the components of the “enabling environment”: documenting government policy and institutional frameworks; the volume, sources and targeting of investment; the sufficiency of human resources; priorities and gaps with respect to external assistance; and the influence of these factors on performance. A more challenging secondary goal is to analyse the factors associated with progress, or lack thereof, in order to identify drivers and bottlenecks, to identify knowledge gaps, to assess strengths and weaknesses, to identify challenges, priorities and successes, and to facilitate benchmarking across countries. This second UN-Water GLAAS report presents data received from 74 developing countries, covering all the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) regions, and from 24 external support agencies (ESAs), representing approximately 90% of official development assistance (ODA) for sanitation and drinking-water. There have been remarkable gains in WASH. The 2012 progress report of the World Health Organization (WHO) / United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) announced that the MDG target for drinking-water was met in 2010: the proportion of people without access to improved drinking water sources had been more than halved (from 24% to 11%) since 1990. However, the progress report also noted that the benefits are very unevenly distributed.
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  10. 10
    331891

    Improving effectiveness and outcomes for the poor in health, nutrition, and population: an evaluation of World Bank Group support since 1997.

    World Bank. Independent Evaluation Group

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Independent Evaluation Group, 2009. [220] p.

    The World Bank Group’s support for health, nutrition, and population (HNP) has been sustained since 1997 -- totaling $17 billion in country-level support by the World Bank and $873 million in private health and pharmaceutical investments by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) through mid-2008. This report evaluates the efficacy of the Bank Group’s direct support for HNP to developing countries since 1997 and draws lessons to help improve the effectiveness of this support.
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  11. 11
    331672

    Bangladesh: Government of Bangladesh Contraceptive Procurement Bottleneck Study. Full report.

    Dickens T

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2008 Aug. 81 p. (USAID Contract No. GPO-I-01-06-00007-00)

    In August 2008, Todd Dickens (PATH), with assistance from the USAID | DELIVER PROJECT, Task Order 1, conducted a review of the IDA-funded procurement of health care commodities under the Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector Program in Bangladesh. The study’s overall objective was to identify bottlenecks and problems that have lead to recent stockouts of contraceptives, and recommend possible actions that the Government of Bangladesh, USAID and development partners can take to address these problems that will improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the procurement process and support contraceptive security in Bangladesh.
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  12. 12
    326029

    Implementation process review of the "Training of Teachers Manual on Preventive Education against HIV / AIDS in the School Setting".

    Girault P

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, Internal Oversight Service, Evaluation Section, 2003 Aug. 50 p. (IOS/EVS/PI/33)

    At a recent review workshop in Uzbekistan and elsewhere concerns have been raised that the manual is too strictly focused on transferring biomedical knowledge and does not pay enough attention to reducing vulnerability to HIV/AIDS by promoting lifeskills. It is also believed that the HIV information in the manual needs to be updated, and that the inclusion of teaching of more participatory training techniques could be considered. In addition, in some countries, a strict focus on HIV/AIDS is not realistic - embedding HIV/AIDS in a wider school-health approach should be considered. Before expanding to other countries, UNESCO decided then to do a review of the progress implementation of the "Preventive Education against HIV/AIDS in the School Setting" project and a review of the manual. The particular interest of this review is to look at the way that the project was implemented and to review the manual based on the comments generated by the targeted countries. Its overall aim is to generate recommendations both on the content of the manual and the implementation process, before expanding to other countries covered by UNESCO Bangkok. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    325658

    Abortions averted through contraception.

    Population Resource Center

    [Washington, D.C.], Population Resource Center, [2008]. [4] p.

    An estimated 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide. The resulting overall abortion rate was 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the sub regions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). In response to the findings of surveys, the United Nations Population Fund, the UNFPA, and USAID launched targeted family planning programs in Eastern Europe, as well as other high risk regions like Asia and Latin America. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    323483

    Supplementary report. Case studies: Getting Research into Policy and Practice (GRIPP).

    Nath S

    [New York, New York], Population Council, Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 2007 Jul. 117 p.

    Population Council approached by Head and Deputy Head of OB/GYN Dept at Dantec Hospital and Burkina Maternity Hospital in Senegal and Burkina Faso, respectively. Study designed by Population Council, CRESAR, CEFOREP, MoH in both countries. Ethical standards assessed by ethical review committee in each country followed by Population Council's Internal Review Board. Operations research to introduce and test improved model of PAC. Research team included representatives from CRESAR/CEFOREP, MoH, donors, other stakeholders and service providers. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    323482

    Final report: Getting Research into Policy and Practice (GRIPP).

    Nath S

    [New York, New York], Population Council, Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 2007 Jul. [35] p.

    Progress in the initial stages of the documentation process can be slow, though it gathers momentum over time. Successful communication channels such as email are important for maintaining the momentum. Familiarity with applying the GRIPP framework and process and having existing networks in the field adds value to the product. An initial lack of knowledge about stakeholders can slow down the documentation process. However, the documentation process can help discover who these stakeholders are and the usefulness of the study to them. Case study information is much easier to recall and richer when the research is still current or only recently concluded. A snowballing effect, which results in getting more stakeholder perspectives than originally thought, can occur during the process. A study may have clinical and social and other dimensions, which have very different processes and outcomes with relation to a given research study. Each needs to be followed up in order to fully understand the utilisation and effectiveness of the research. A well-positioned facilitator may be the best placed to assume a neutral position and document the research process. Many of the obstacles in relation to the documentation process that were encountered could be overcome if researchers built the documentation process into their research schedule. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    322277

    Vendor-to-vendor education to improve malaria treatment by drug outlets in Kenya.

    Tavrow P; Shabahang J; Makama S

    Bethesda, Maryland, Center for Human Services, Quality Assurance Project, 2002 Feb. 16 p. (Operations Research Results; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-96-90013)

    Private drug outlets have grown increasingly important as the main source of malaria treatment for residents of malaria endemic areas. Unfortunately, the quality of information and the quantity and quality of drugs provided is often deficient. The World Health Organization has included the private sector in its Roll Back Malaria strategy, but has noted that it is notoriously difficult to change private sector practices without burdening the governments of developing countries. In the Bungoma district of Kenya, the Quality Assurance Project (USA) teamed up with the Bungoma District Health Management Team and African Medical and Research Foundation to test an innovative, low-cost approach for improving the prescribing practices of private drug outlets. The intervention, called Vendor-to-Vendor Education, involved training and equipping wholesale counter attendants and mobile vendors with customized job aids for distribution to small rural and peri-urban retailers. The job aids consisted of: (a) a shopkeeper poster that described the new malaria guidelines, provided a treatment schedule, and gave advice on the appropriate actions to take in various scenarios; and (b) a client poster that depicted the five approved malaria drugs and advised clients to ask for them. The training of wholesalers began in April 2000. (author's)
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  17. 17
    320908

    Review and appraisal of the progress made in achieving the goals and objectives of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: the 2004 report.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2004. [58] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/235)

    This report is divided into an introduction and seven sections. The first two sections provide an overview of population levels and trends, and population growth, structure and distribution in the world and its major regions. These are followed by four sections focusing on clusters of issues: reproductive rights and reproductive health, health and mortality, international migration, and population programmes. The final section summarizes the major conclusions of the report. Reflected in the discussions in all the sections, both explicitly and implicitly, are three interrelated factors that affect implementation of all the recommendations of the Programme of Action, namely, availability of financial and human resources, institutional capacities, and partnerships among Governments, the international community, non-governmental organizations and the civil society. The full implementation of the Programme of Action requires concerted action on these three fronts. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    320226

    HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean region: a multi-organization review. Final report.

    United Kingdom. Department for International Development [DFID]; Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]; Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Department, Latin America Region, 2005 Nov. 42 p.

    The goals of the Caribbean HIV/AIDS Review were to (i) assess the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at the national, regional and international levels, and (ii) recommend measures to enhance the effectiveness of the response at all levels. Prompted initially by the World Bank's concern about the slow implementation of its portfolio of ten projects, the Review examined both the World Bank-funded projects and also the international support in the Caribbean Region and collaboration among partners. The recommendations of this report relate not only to the World Bank program but to the overall response to the epidemic by national programs and by regional and international partners. The Terms of Reference for the Review are attached. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    319486
    Peer Reviewed

    Antiretroviral treatment and prevention of peripartum and postnatal HIV transmission in West Africa: Evaluation of a two-tiered approach.

    Tonwe-Gold B; Ekouevi DK; Viho I; Amani-Bosse C; Toure S

    PLoS Medicine. 2007 Aug; 4(8):e257.

    Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has only been recently recommended for HIV-infected pregnant women requiring treatment for their own health in resource-limited settings. However, there are few documented experiences from African countries. We evaluated the short-term (4 wk) and long-term (12 mo) effectiveness of a two-tiered strategy of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in Africa: women meeting the eligibility criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO) received HAART, and women with less advanced HIV disease received short-course antiretroviral (scARV) PMTCT regimens. The MTCT-Plus Initiative is a multi-country, family-centred HIV care and treatment program for pregnant and postpartum women and their families. Pregnant women enrolled in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire received either HAART for their own health or short-course antiretroviral (scARV) PMTCT regimens according to their clinical and immunological status. Plasma HIV-RNA viral load (VL) was measured to diagnose peripartum infection when infants were 4 wk of age, and HIV final status was documented either by rapid antibody testing when infants were aged >/= 12 mo or by plasma VL earlier. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the rate of HIV transmission and HIV-free survival. Between August 2003 and June 2005, 107 women began HAART at a median of 30 wk of gestation, 102 of them with zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP) and they continued treatment postpartum; 143 other women received scARV for PMTCT, 103 of them with sc(ZDV+3TC) with single-dose NVP during labour. Most (75%) of the infants were breast-fed for a median of 5 mo. Overall, the rate of peripartum HIV transmission was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3%-4.2%) and the cumulative rate at 12 mo was 5.7% (95% CI 2.5%-9.0%). The overall probability of infant death or infection with HIV was 4.3% (95% CI 1.7%-7.0%) at age week 4 wk and 11.7% (95% CI 7.5%-15.9%) at 12 mo. This two-tiered strategy appears to be safe and highly effective for short- and long-term PMTCT in resource-constrained settings. These results indicate a further benefit of access to HAART for pregnant women who need treatment for their own health. (author's)
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  20. 20
    316716
    Peer Reviewed

    [Implementation of World Health Organization guidelines for management of severe malnutrition in a hospital in Northeast Brazil] Implementacao do protocolo da Organizacao Mundial da Saude para manejo da desnutricao grave em hospital no Nordeste do Brasil.

    Falbo AR; Alves JG; Batista Filho M; Cabral-Filho JE

    Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2006 Mar; 22(3):561-570.

    To assess the implementation of WHO guidelines for managing severely malnourished hospitalized children, a case-series study was performed with 117 children from 1 to 60 months of age. A checklist was prepared according to steps in the guidelines and applied to each patient at discharge, thus assessing the procedures adopted during hospitalization. Daily spreadsheets on food and liquid intake, clinical data, prescribed treatment, and laboratory results were also used. 36 steps were evaluated, 24 of which were followed correctly in more than 80% of cases; the proportion was 50 to 80% for seven steps and less than 50% for five steps. Monitoring that required frequent physician and nursing staff bedside presence was associated with difficulties. With some minor adjustments, the guidelines can be followed without great difficulty and without compromising the more important objective of reducing case-fatality. (author's)
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  21. 21
    315371
    Peer Reviewed

    Do health sector reforms have their intended impacts? The World Bank's Health VIII project in Gansu province, China.

    Wagstaff A; Yu S

    Journal of Health Economics. 2007 May; 26(3):505-535.

    This paper combines differences-in-differences with propensity score matching to estimate the impacts of a health reform project in China that combined supply-side interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness and quality of care with demand-side measures aimed at expanding health insurance and providing financial support to the very poor. Data from household, village and facility surveys suggest the project reduced out-of-pocket spending, and the incidence of catastrophic spending and impoverishment through health expenses. Little impact is detected on the use of services, and while the evidence points to the project reducing sickness days, the evidence on health outcomes is mixed. (author's)
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  22. 22
    308260

    Learning by inquiry: sexual and reproductive health field experiences from CARE in Asia.

    Fletcher G; Magar V; Noij F

    Atlanta, Georgia, CARE, 2005 Jun. 32 p. (Sexual and Reproductive Health Working Paper Series No. 1)

    In other words, keep digging below the surface. Getting rid of a thorny plant means digging right to the roots; it is not enough to just cut back the branches! But sometimes, fears of "getting it wrong" and other work pressures can leave staff unsure of how to deal with questions like: What do we really know about what is happening at field level? Do our project designs really achieve their intended effect? Why are we implementing projects this way? How do social and personal relationships in and around the project work? Who holds what power? Are we contributing enough to the creation of positive change in people's lives? How could we do more? These are not easy questions - and there are no simple answers. But by asking such questions throughout the project cycle, and looking for answers and amending work as a result, staff can increase project impact. Making one set of changes, however, is not enough. Staff must keep asking questions. Do the changes work? If so, who do they benefit? How? Where is the power now? Have inequities changed? And what else can be done to create greater change in people's lives? This approach is often referred to as "reflective learning," or learning by inquiry. It is closely linked with organizational learning. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    312467

    Sexual and reproductive health -- laying the foundation for a more just world through research and action: biennial report, 2004-2005.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. [66] p.

    This report presents an overview of RHR's work over the biennium 2004--2005. For the first time, we have produced a consolidated report, covering both the Department's research activities -- coordinated by the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/ World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP) -- and its technical support initiatives. HRP activities are presented on white sheets and those relating to technical programme support to countries (Programme Development in Reproductive Health -- PDRH) are presented on blue pages. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    311138

    The Millennium Development Goals and Africa: a response to Ian Taylor.

    Wickstead MA

    Round Table. 2006 Jul; 95(385):383-386.

    The author, formerly Head of Secretariat at the Commission for Africa, responds to the criticisms of the Commission's report and process made by Ian Taylor. While the latter is right to emphasize the need for sound governance and for addressing the issue of looted assets, he appears to have overlooked sections of the report which do just that. He is also wrong to assert that aid does not work; the CfA believes that, when combined with other mechanisms, it is effective. (author's)
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  25. 25
    309248

    Global reach: how trade unions are responding to AIDS. Case studies of union action.

    Perman S

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2006 Jul. 67 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/06.23E)

    Global Reach: how trade unions are responding to AIDS is a set of 11 case studies which illustrate the wide range of responses by trade unions to the HIV epidemic. It is now well known that the workplace has vast potential for limiting the damaging effects of the HIV epidemic. Workplace programmes that protect rights, support prevention, and provide access to care and treatment can help mitigate the impact of the virus. Yet though the importance of the workplace and the role of employers is generally recognized, the contribution of working people and their organizations has often been overlooked. This report shows that trade unions, assisted by global union federations, have adopted a wide range of workplace responses to AIDS. These include challenging stigma and discrimination, addressing the factors that facilitate the spread of HIV, providing care and treatment, educating their members on prevention, and building worldwide coalitions that campaign for more to be done to tackle the disease. The case studies, based on the experiences of working people in Africa, Asia, Central America and the Caribbean, show that the massive memberships and well-structured networks of trade unions are a powerful tool in the response to HIV. Extensive networks of working people in different countries have been spurred into action by the crisis, and are involved in the development of national policy, global framework agreements, community projects, sectoral alliances and worldwide collaboration between governments, employers and trade unions. (excerpt)
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