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  1. 1

    Good practices in combating and eliminating violence against women. Expert group meeting. Organized by: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women in collaboration with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 17 to 20 May 2005, Vienna, Austria. Report of the expert group meeting.

    United Nations. Division for the Advancement of Women; United Nations. Office on Drugs and Crime

    [New York, New York], United Nations, Division for the Advancement of Women, 2005. [52] p.

    Comprehensive multidisciplinary strategies are necessary to combat violence against women. Governments, non-governmental organizations and women's rights activists all over the world have used different approaches in dealing with violence against women, with varying degrees of success. To gain an understanding of what makes an approach to combat violence against women effective, the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, in collaboration with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, convened a group of experts in Vienna from 17 to 20 May 2005. The purpose of the meeting was to identify the factors which make a specific initiative, or type of initiative, a good practice example, evaluate the determinants or indicators of the effectiveness of strategies in various areas and identify legislation, plans, policies and other approaches that have been effective in combating violence against women. The aim of the expert group meeting was to arrive at a set of recommendations on 'good practice examples' in combating and eliminating violence against women. This report lays out the expert group's recommendations for elements of effective practices in combating violence against women in the areas of law, prevention, and provision of services. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    The conceptual framework for estimating food energy requirement.

    Ferro-Luzzi A

    Public Health Nutrition. 2005 Oct; 8(7A):940-952.

    In anticipation of the revision of the 1985 Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/ WHO/UNU) Expert Consultation Report on 'Energy and Protein Requirements', recent scientific knowledge on the principles underlying the estimation of energy requirement is reviewed. This paper carries out a historical review of the scientific rationale adopted by previous FAO/WHO technical reports on energy requirement, discusses the concepts used in assessing basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy expenditure, physical activity level (PAL), and examines current controversial areas. Recommendations and areas of future research are presented. The database of the BMR predictive equations developed by the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation Report on Energy and Protein Requirements needs updating and expansion, applying strict and transparent selection criteria. The existence of an ethnic/tropical factor capable of affecting BMR is not supported by the available evidence. The factorial approach for the calculation of energy requirement, as set out in the 1985 report, should be retained. The estimate should have a normative rather than a prescriptive nature, except for the allowance provided for extra physical activity for sedentary populations, and for the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. The estimate of energy requirement of children below the age of 10 years should be made on the basis of energy expenditure rather than energy intake. The evidence of the existence of an ethnic/tropical factor is conflicting and no plausible mechanism has as yet been put forward. (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients: the impact of a checklist in three countries.

    Stanback J; Diabate F; Dieng T; de Morales TD; Cummings S

    Studies in Family Planning. 2005 Dec; 36(4):311-315.

    Women in many countries are often denied vital family planning services if they are not menstruating when they present at clinics, for fear that they might be pregnant. A simple checklist based on criteria approved by the World Health Organization has been developed to help providers rule out pregnancy among such clients, but its use is not yet widespread. Researchers in Guatemala, Mali, and Senegal conducted operations research to determine whether a simple, replicable introduction of this checklist improved access to contraceptive services by reducing the proportion of clients denied services. From 2001 to 2003, sociodemographic and service data were collected from 4,823 women from 16 clinics in three countries. In each clinic, data were collected prior to introduction of the checklist and again three to six weeks after the intervention. Among new family planning clients, denial of the desired method due to menstrual status decreased significantly from 16 percent to 2 percent in Guatemala and from 11 percent to 6 percent in Senegal. Multivariate analyses and bivariate analyses of changes within subgroups of nonmenstruating clients confirmed and reinforced these statistically significant findings. In Mali, denial rates were essentially unchanged, but they were low from the start. Where denial of services to nonmenstruating family planning clients was a problem, introduction of the pregnancy checklist significantly reduced denial rates. This simple, inexpensive job aid improves women's access to essential family planning services. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Gender equality and empowerment: a statistical profile of the ESCAP region.

    Mikkelsen L; Roach B; Muxito A; Han CO; Liu C

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], [2005]. [36] p

    The purpose of this paper was originally to assist the deliberation of the High-Level Intergovernmental Meeting, Beijing +10, (Bangkok 7-10 September, 2004) by presenting a summary of the current situation of women in relation to men in a number of key areas in the Asia-Pacific region. This revised version forms the first volume in a series of two papers, all aimed at addressing major developments in the situation of women in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia- Pacific region as defined by ESCAP’s membership includes some 50 countries in the region and some 9 territories covering East and North-East Asia, North and Central Asia, South and South-West Asia, South-East Asia and the Pacific. It has repeatedly been demonstrated that data are key to catalyzing and monitoring progress, as well as supporting country-level planning and local accountability. Gender statistics has therefore been a priority area in ESCAP’s statistical capacity building work for many years. As a result, considerable statistical progress has been achieved in the region since the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in 1995 adopted the strategic objective “to generate and disseminate sex-disaggregated data and information for planning and evaluation”. (excerpt)
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