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MEASURE Evaluation Bulletin. 2001; (2):1-27.This issue of the MEASURE Evaluation Bulletin includes articles in a number of areas of monitoring and evaluation of AIDS programs. The first four articles are based on a field test of indicators on knowledge, sexual behavior and stigma that was carried out as part of a large international effort to improve monitoring and evaluation of national programs. The field test resulted in revisions of standard indicators for AIDS programs, which were eventually published by UNAIDS, and revisions of the survey tools that are now used to collect AIDS information in many countries. Three subsequent articles deal with different aspects of monitoring and evaluation. The first of these explores estimation of the size of core groups, such as commercial sex workers or bar workers, which is essential but difficult. Capture-recapture techniques can be used to make such estimates, although there are multiple pitfalls. The next article focuses on monitoring trends in HIV prevalence among young antenatal women, which is the most feasible method of monitoring HIV incidence. Modelling shows that using prevalence trends to extrapolate incidence trends has to be done very carefully, but can be done if one takes measures to minimize the various biases. The last article of the Bulletin discusses the use of newspaper clippings as a source of indicators on political will and commitment and stigma. Although newspaper clippings have been cited as an easily accessible source for these indicators, the analysis suggests that an analysis of newspaper clippings may be more suitable for a cross-sectional situation analysis or in-depth qualitative research than for monitoring purposes. (excerpt)
Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS. Guidelines on construction of core indicators. 2008 reporting.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Apr. 139 p. (UNAIDS/07.12E; JC1318E)The primary purpose of this document is to provide key constituents who are actively involved in a country's response to AIDS with essential information on core indicators that measure the effectiveness of the national response. These guidelines will also help ensure the consistency and transparency of the process used by national governments. In addition, this information can be used by UNAIDS to prepare regional and global progress reports on implementation of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Countries are strongly encouraged to integrate the core indicators into their ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities. These indicators are designed to help countries assess the current state of their national response while simultaneously contributing to a better understanding of the global response to the AIDS pandemic, including progress towards meeting the targets in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/ AIDS. Given the dual purposes of the indicators, the guidelines in this document are designed to improve the quality and consistency of data collected at the country level, which will enhance the accuracy of conclusions drawn from the data at both national and global levels. This document also includes an overview of global indicators that will be used by UNAIDS and its partners to assess key components of the response that are best measured on a worldwide basis. (excerpt)
Towards universal access to prevention, treatment and care: experiences and challenges from the Mbeya region in Tanzania -- a case study.
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2007 Mar. 49 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/07.11E; JC1291E)This study takes stock of the situation in Mbeya in 2005, documenting the region's continuing efforts to build on the Regional Programme's strong comprehensive prevention approaches to further increase their coverage while strengthening the new district focus, expanding multisectoral work and making available antiretroviral treatment. In doing so, this study describes Mbeya's progress towards universal access and identifies ongoing challenges. Through its comprehensive, decentralized and multisectoral approaches and the continuing efforts of a variety of actors, the region appears to be in a better position to reach universal access than other parts of Tanzania and Africa in general. The experiences of the Mbeya region to date can serve as lessons learnt to other parts of the country and, more broadly, the continent. This publication is neither a scientific study nor an evaluation of the Regional Programme. It is an analytical description of HIV control activities in the region to date and their status to date. Its focus is mainly on access. The programmes presented here follow national and international recommendations. The quality of the individual programmes, however, has not been assessed for the purpose of this publication. (excerpt)
The level of effort in the national response to HIV / AIDS: the AIDS Program Effort Index (API), 2003 round.
Washington, D.C., USAID, 2003 Dec.  p.The success of HIV/AIDS programs can be affected by many factors, including political commitment, program effort, socio-cultural context, political systems, economic development, extent and duration of the epidemic , and resources available. Many programs track low-level inputs (e.g., training workshops conducted, condoms distributed) or outcomes (e.g., percentage of acts protected by condom use). Measures of program effort are generally confined to the existence or lack of major program elements (e.g., condom social marketing, counseling and testing). To assist countries in such evaluation efforts, several guides have been developed by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and other organizations (see, for example, “Meeting the Behavioural Data Collection Needs of National HIV/AIDS and STD Programmes” and “National AIDS Programs: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Programs”). However, information about the policy environment, level of political support, and other contextual issues affecting the success and failure of national AIDS programs has not been addressed previously. (excerpt)
Measuring the level of effort in the national and international response to HIV / AIDS: The AIDS Programme Effort Index (API). Summary report.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 24 p.UNAIDS, USAID and the POLICY Project have developed the AIDS Programme Effort Index (API) to measure programme effort in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The index is designed to provide a profile that describes national effort and the international contribution to that effort. The API was applied to 40 countries in 2000. The results show that programme effort is relatively high in the areas of legal and regulatory environment, policy formulation and organizational structure. Political support was somewhat lower but increased the most from 1998. Monitoring and evaluation and prevention programmes scored in the middle range, about 50 out of 100 possible points. The lowest rated components were resources and care. The API also measured the availability of key prevention and care services. Overall, essential services are available to about half of the people living in urban areas but to only about one-quarter of the entire population. International efforts to assist country programmes received relatively high rating in all categories except care. The results presented here will be supplemented later in 2001 with a new component on human rights. (excerpt)
Measuring the level of effort in the national and international response to HIV / AIDS: The AIDS Program Effort Index (API).
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2001 Feb. 31 p.UNAIDS, USAID and the POLICY Project have developed the AIDS Program Effort Index (API) to measure program effort in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The index is designed to provide a profile that describes national effort and the international contribution to that effort. The API was applied to 40 countries in 2000. The results show that program effort is relatively high in the areas of legal and regulatory environment, policy formulation and organizational structure. Political support was somewhat lower but increased the most from 1998. Monitoring and evaluation and prevention programs scored in the middle range, about 50 out of 100 possible points. The lowest rated components were resources and care. The API also measured the availability of key prevention and care services. Overall, essential services are available to about half of the people living in urban areas but to only about one-quarter of the entire population. International efforts to assist country programs received relatively high rating in all categories except care. The results presented here will be supplemented later this year with a new component on human rights and a score that compares countries on program effort. (excerpt)
Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS. Guidelines on construction of core indicators. Revised.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 Dec. 72 p. (UNAIDS/02.51E)The purpose of the current guidelines is to provide countries with technical guidance on the detailed specification of the indicators, on the information required and the basis of their construction, and on their interpretation. These guidelines aim to maximize the validity, internal consistency and comparability across countries and over time of the indicator estimates obtained, and to ensure consistency in the types of data and methods of calculation employed. (excerpt)