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Brussels, Belgium, DSW, 2009. 62 p.In September, DSW and the European Parliamentary Forum (EPF) produced the 2009 edition of our Euromapping report, an annual publication that provides an overview of the comparative ODA and SRH funding contributions and commitments of an individual donor country over time. This year's publication has been produced with the support of the European Commission, which has allowed us to release the publication along with a coordinated advocacy and media campaign in 7 European countries. In addition to being a quick reference guide on European funding levels for family planning and reproductive health, Euromapping is intended as an advocacy tool for NGOs and decision makers to monitor the level and composition of ODA as a means of verifying whether governments are living up to their political and policy commitments.
European Union. Managing migration means potential EU complicity in neighboring states' abuse of migrants and refugees.
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2006 Oct. 22 p. (Human Rights Watch No. 2)Irregular migration into the European Union (EU) poses clear challenges for European governments. Few would question the urgent need for policies to address these challenges. However, the common EU policy in this area is primarily focussed on keeping migrants and asylum seekers out of and away from Europe. The rights of migrants and refugee protection are marginalized. This briefing paper summarizes recent trends in the EU's approach. Through case studies of conditions in, and EU policies toward, Ukraine and Libya, it critiques current EU "externalization" practices. After noting some hopeful signs toward enhanced protection for asylum seekers and migrants, it concludes with recommendations to the EU and its member states. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1): p..The Women’s Commission of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CCRE) in 2004 surveyed municipalities across the European Union to find out whether there were any truly women-friendly cities. No ideal city was found. But they did find many exemplary towns and cities, many with municipal gender policies. The CCRE then asked its national associations to help compile an inventory of best practices. Outlined below are three conditions, which were used for the survey, with examples of towns and cities that are among some 100 on the list of Best Practices. At the pan-European level, the Community programme supporting twinning between towns stipulates respect for gender equality as a prerequisite for financial support from the European Union’s executive arm, the European Commission. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Dec; 6(4):16.UNFPA’s resources were boosted in the closing weeks of 2004 and prospects for 2005 appear brighter than anticipated. That is the upbeat assessment by UNFPA Executive Director Thoraya Ahmed Obaid. The view is to some extent rooted in cross-currency exchange rates but is also based on the latest announcements received from a number of donor countries. At most recent count, core resources for 2004 stood at $325 million with another $80-$100 million in non-core funds. In 2005, the core contributions may reach $ 340 million, while some of the new non-core commitments will be directed to the promotion of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) in developing countries. RHCS is an initiative pursued by UNFPA, a leading player in the effort, in collaboration with other partner organizations. Its aim is to help developing countries institutionalize the capacity to predict and then to meet requirements for supply of stocks of essential drugs and contraceptives. Of greater urgency, however, is the Fund’s concern about filling existing gaps in supplies of these commodities in the least developed countries. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2003 Dec; 6(2):2-5.The opening speeches by Mr. Robert Baldwin, a Counsellor and EC delegate from Thailand, Ms. Imelda Henkin, a Deputy Executive Director from UNFPA and Mr. Shuyun Xu, a Director from UNFPA Asia and the Pacific Division, highlighted the successes of the first phase of the RHIYA and emphasised the importance emphasised the importance of integrated adolescent reproductive and sexual health (ARSH) services. The central objective of the RHIYA is to improve the sexual and reproductive health of young people, particularly the youth from vulnerable and disadvantaged populations, with an emphasis on gender equality. The RHIYA builds on the successful partnerships developed during the first phase (the RHI), which brought together the resources of the EC, UNFPA and local and European NGOs. Concerned with encouraging responsible sexual and reproductive health behaviour among young people, the RHIYA will increase access to and utilisation of adolescent reproductive health information, counselling and services. (excerpt)
In: Health systems confront poverty, edited by Erio Ziglio, Rogerio Barbosa, Yves Charpak, Steve Turner. Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization WHO, Regional Office for Europe, European Office for Investment for Health and Development, 2003. 5-11. (Public Health Case Studies No. 1)The case studies included here are certainly not representative of all the different areas where health care systems can have a positive impact on poverty, but they do constitute relevant examples of actions targeted at real problems. Most importantly, they show concrete examples of specific strategies to overcome them. In Medimurje County in Croatia the Roma (gypsy) community had to be persuaded, contrary to its traditional view, to participate in a vaccination programme. The staff of the local medical team visited village communities and, with the help of village leaders, learned a sufficient Romany vocabulary to communicate with the Roma people in their own language. This became known as the "Communication Initiative", even though the effort involved more than just using language as a bridge. With increased communication, trust in the programme increased. As a result, levels of immunization in Meclimurje County have been reported to be higher than the national average. The newer generation in the Roma community is becoming convinced of the necessity to comply with the full national vaccination programme, including emergency vaccination, regular vaccination and other preventive health care initiatives. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2004 Feb 28; 363(9410):712.Warnings about an HIV crisis brewing in eastern Europe reached new levels of urgency this week, with public health leaders saying the epidemic could seriously damage economic growth in former Soviet states and threaten the continent’s more westerly residents. At the opening day of a high-level meeting in Dublin on Feb 23, the leaders of international agencies stressed that the most rapidly growing epidemic in the world would soon be on the doorstep of the European Union (EU), following its enlargement to include 10 new countries on May 1. More than 1·5 million people are now HIV positive in eastern Europe and central Asia, compared with just 30 000 in 1995, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan told the conference via a video address. (excerpt)
Brussels, Belgium, European Union, EC / UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia, 2003.  p.The endorsement by the European Commission (EC) of the results of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 provided the spur for the EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia (RHI). Once the goals of the Programme of Action (PoA) for support to population, sexual and reproductive health and rights were adopted, the EC began exploring ways to address these priorities through its own development assistance. In partnership with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the EC decided to mount this unique reproductive health initiative, which was able to draw on the expertise and resources offered by both local and international civil society organisations (CSOs), non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the UN. With large sections of its population facing pressing reproductive health needs, South and Southeast Asia was identified as the Initiative’s region of implementation. As an immediate result of the launch meeting held in Brussels in April 1997, and UNFPA’s in-house assessment, seven countries considered to have among the most challenging reproductive health needs were chosen as focal areas, namely Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam. (excerpt)
Monday Developments. 2003 Aug 11; 21(14):6, 13.In his introductory remarks at the opening of the Global Fund's July 16 meeting in Paris, Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy Thompson, chairman of the Global Fund on AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis, called on the other donor nations to do their fair share and noted the $15 billion AIDS Initiative launched by President Bush and, from this initiative, the U.S. contribution era $1 billion to the Global Fund. Thompson said it was imperative to mobilize more financial contributions to the Fund and that funded programs must be based on research and science. He also called upon the private sector to step up its support of the Global Fund, both through financial resources and in-kind contributions, and advocated for the mobilization of nongovernmental organizations and faith-based responses to the fight against these three diseases. (excerpt)
Bulletin Économique et Social du Maroc. 2000; (159):21-24.According to the 1998 World Human Development Report (HDR), Morocco ranks 125th with a human development indicator (HDI) of 0.557 points. The indicator elements pertaining to life expectancy, adult literacy and schooling levels remain unchanged in the HDI, but the revenue indicator has improved. These important changes have armed this HDI with a more solid methodological base. With an average per capita revenue of 3,310 dollars (PPP), Morocco finds itself in the revenue segment that has undergone the most significant revision of the standardized value. In effect, although it is not found among the principal Arab countries which have successfully reduced deficits in terms of human development during the last two decades, Morocco has, however, successfully reduced them by 27%. The progress made by this country in terms of human development in the last decade can be seen in the struggle against poverty and is reinforced and consolidated by the commitment of the Head of State for the purpose of improving the living conditions of the poor. The struggle against poverty constitutes the fundamental goal of the UNDP, around which are centered most of the programs and projects whose implementation should contribute to promoting the necessary environment for poverty reduction and consequently, to improved human development. The strategy chosen for the UNDP's intervention is broken into two parts: one is to support strategies and policies in the struggle against poverty, and the other lies in local initiatives for validating these same policies. It targets the socio-geographic aspect of action, on the one hand, benefiting the most vulnerable social groups such as women, children, and girls in the poorest areas, and on the other hand, is directed at those geographic areas that are the most ill-favored in the rural world as well as urban outskirts. The process of integrating Morocco into a free trade zone with the European Union has required the implementation of reforms at the legal and institutional level to manage ever stiffer competition in the world market.
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Sep. 61 p. (Croatia Vol. 15, No. 6(D))Between 300,000 and 350,000 Serbs left their homes in Croatia during the 1991-95 war. This report describes the continued plight of displacement suffered by the Serbs of Croatia and identifies the principal remaining impediments to their return. The most significant problem is the difficulty Serbs face in returning to their pre-war homes. Despite repeated promises, the Croatian government has been unwilling and unable to solve this problem for the vast majority of displaced Serbs. In addition, fear of arbitrary arrest on war-crimes charges and discrimination in employment and pension benefits also deter return. Human Rights Watch believes that these problems are a result of a practice of ethnic discrimination against Serbs by the Croatian government. The report concludes with a list of recommendations to the government of Croatia and the international community to deal with these persistent problems and finally make good on the promise of return. (author's)
[Estimation of the rate of mother-to-child HIV transmission: methodological problems and current estimates. Report of 2 study workshops (Ghent, Belgium, 17-20 February 1992 and 3-5 September 1993)] Estimation du taux de transmission du VIH de la mere a l'enfant: problemes methodologiques et estimations actuelles. Rapport de deux ateliers de travail (Gand, Belgique, 17-20 fevrier 1992 et 3-5 septembre 1993).
SANTE. 1994 Mar-Apr; 4(2):73-86.Many cohort studies since 1985-1989 have estimated the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Data collection and analysis problems in many of these studies made it hard to compare transmission rates between studies. The AIDS Task Force/European Community and WHO/Global Program on AIDS held workshops on methodological problems and actual estimations of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in February 1992 and September 1993 in Belgium. Researchers who have conducted studies in Central and Eastern Africa, Europe, Haiti, and the US participated. They examined enrollment and follow-up methods, diagnostic criteria and case definitions, measurement and comparison of mother-to-child transmission rates, and determinants of transmission. The reported transmission ranges varied from 13% to 32% in developed countries and from 25% to 48% in developing countries. Since the estimation methods differed, the participants could not make direct comparisons, so they developed a common methodology at the 1992 workshop. They agreed on definitions of HIV-related signs and symptoms, AIDS in children, and HIV-related deaths. They developed a classification system of children born to HIV-1 infected women based on probable HIV infection status during the first 15 months of life. This system let them define a direct method of computation of the transmission rate and an indirect method for studies with a comparison group of children born to HIV negative women. At the 1993 workshop, participants applied some data sets to these standardized methods to revise earlier estimates and to compare mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission rates in 13 different locations. The transmission rates, determined by the direct and indirect methods, ranged from 12.7% to 42.1% and from 20.7% to 42.8%, respectively. Using the direct method, those in industrialized countries and developed countries ranged from 14% to 25% and from 13% to 42%, respectively. Both methods attain a reasonable estimate of the true rate. Application of these methods to all studies would help researchers design and implement trials assessing interventions trying to reduce or prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
European Commission, WHO, and UNAIDS take united stand against killer diseases. Global health issues.
AIDS WEEKLY. 2000 Oct 30; 21-2.The European Commission, the WHO, and the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS announced a common stand against the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis in the developing world. The Round Table held in Brussels, Belgium, represents a first step in designing a new program of action for the European Union to assist developing nations to confront the growing epidemic of these diseases. Recognizing that these three diseases are themselves major causes of poverty, the Commission adopted a new policy framework on accelerated action targeted at these communicable diseases in the context of poverty reduction. The framework contains approaches to improve the impact of the existing interventions, increase the affordability of drugs and products for the prevention and treatment of these diseases, and improve investment in research. Within this context, the Commission, while continuing its support for national health systems, will seek to expand access by the poor to the means of protecting themselves from infection with HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, improve affordability of diagnosis and care for these diseases, and move investment priority in research increasingly towards long-term solutions, such as a vaccines to prevent HIV/AIDS. Prevention among the youth and information are also prioritized.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999  p.This document presents the reactions of the European Union (EU) delegation to the 1999 World Population Monitoring Report. According to the EU delegation, the Monitoring Report contains valuable information on past and present trends of demographic change. It presents major demographic trends covering the period from the World Population Conference 1974 in Bucharest to the present and through the year 2050. Furthermore, the report offers some comments on the determinants of fertility and mortality changes, highlights the issue of urbanization, and discusses the socioeconomic implications and challenges of population aging. The EU believes that population aging and intergenerational solidarity are essential issues in the review of progress made toward the Cairo Program of Action for 2004. The report commends the quality of work of the Population Division and hopes that concerns about population growth, poverty, food provision and the environment will be addressed consistently over coming years. Concerning the future work program of the Population Division, the EU hopes that the 2000 monitoring report addresses issues of education, male identity and responsible fatherhood. In addition, they agree with the recommendations regarding topics for the years 2001-04. Lastly, the EU suggests that a thorough discussion of the quinquennial review and appraisal presented by the Population Division should be conducted.
INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):11-2.National security, poverty alleviation, and refugees are global issues which all urgently need to be addressed. However, no major issue will be resolved until the population problem is solved. Humankind needs to find a way to live in harmony with the earth and its natural environment. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) adopted a program of action outlining practical measures to be taken with regard to population and development. The concepts of reproductive health and women's empowerment were also adopted. The ICPD was in many ways an historic conference which set the future direction for the issues of population and development. The conference program of action must be fully implemented to ensure a healthy future for humankind and the earth. Elected officials must do their best to ensure that the ICPD program of action is successfully implemented.
INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):13-4.Collaborating closely with nongovernmental organizations, the author has been involved in social and human sustainable development since 1989. Since 1994, she has also been a member of the bureau of the European Parliament Working Group on Population, Sustainable Development and Reproductive Health. Established in 1991, the Working Group represents a cross-section of the European Unions' 15 member states and political groups. Membership is open to all interested members of Parliament. With 89 members, the group currently represents almost 14% of the European Parliament. The group is assisted by the UK nongovernmental organizational Marie Stopes International, which has provided the secretariat to the group since its inception. The author describes how the European parliamentary group has contributed to the implementation of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action.
Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):33-7.This article on the European response to the challenge of implementing the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) opens by acknowledging that the European Commission (EC) is placing gender and reproductive health on its agenda but that progress has been slow. Next, the article introduces the advocacy groups that seek to promote an enhanced understanding of the population, development, reproductive health paradigm in the EC. The third section considers whether the "new" alliance called for by the ICPD between governments at all levels and nongovernmental organizations is working. One positive example given is the dialogue established between NGOs and the UK All Parliamentary Group on Population, Development, and Reproductive Health. It is noted, however, that more national-level agenda-setting and mobilization are needed to implement the ICPD goals. Next, the article reviews the "old" population/development tension and concerns about the continued existence of demographically-driven, coercive family planning programs and a dearth of development NGOs working with population NGOs. The article explores this problem in the next section and asserts that the population/development tension was not magically dissolved by the ICPD and that neither population nor development NGOs have all the answers but should share resources and engage in more dialogue. The article concludes that continued progress in implementing the ICPD goals will require a careful look at successful partnerships; finding ways to support an exchange of knowledge, views, and experiences; and fostering a working climate of openness.
AIDS ANALYSIS AFRICA. 1998 Aug; 8(4):1.A coordinated effort by the World Bank, the European Commission, and UNAIDS, and drawing from a number of academic disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and public economics, the recently published book "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" argues that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic can be overcome and that national governments have a major role in preventing the spread of AIDS and tempering its impact. Considerable evidence is presented in support of the argument. The original idea for the book came out of collaboration between individuals in the European Commission and the World Bank. The World Bank's recognition of the importance of AIDS is a milestone in the course of the pandemic. Confronting AIDS highlights the potential and actual impact of AIDS upon households, communities, and countries; argues the case for interventions in both HIV prevention and care; and generally considers some of the difficult choices which need to be made about how scarce resources will be allocated, especially in developing countries.
[The year of the World AIDS Day: children in a world of AIDS] Arets varldsaidsdag: barn v en varld med aids.
LAKARTIDNINGEN. 1997 Nov 26; 94(48):4501-2.Children living in a world with AIDS was the theme of a UNAIDS campaign launched because 1 million children are infected with HIV and 9 million children have become orphans due to AIDS (90% in sub-Saharan Africa). During 1996 alone, 400,000 children were infected: 90% were infected during pregnancy, delivery, or while breast feeding; the remaining 10% were infected sexually or via blood or blood products. In Africa, only one-third of HIV-infected children survive their 3rd birthday, and 8% of all children in Zimbabwe have lost their mothers to AIDS. A similar situation is rapidly evolving in Asia and South America. In Spain and Italy, more than 600 children have AIDS; most of them were infected through drug-abusing mothers. In France the figure is comparable, but here a large segment is represented by children of mothers from African countries. The total number of children with AIDS in the European Community is 2800: 86% were infected through their mothers. Romania has 4000 children with AIDS, who were predominantly infected via nonsterile syringes and blood transfusion. The European Commission has a specific AIDS prevention program, which addresses the measurement of disease spread, counteracting the disease, information and education, support for persons with HIV/AIDS, and countering discrimination. The risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission can be reduced from 25% to 8% by zidovudine (AZT) treatment during pregnancy and delivery.
ASIAN FORUM NEWSLETTER. 1997 Oct-Dec; 7.The European Commission (EC) has provided 25 million ECU to support reproductive health (RH) programs in Cambodia, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Laos, and Vietnam. The funds are being provided to support the joint EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia, a direct result of the International Conference on Population and Development's Program of Action. The initiative will enlist the collaboration of nonprofit organizations, associations, institutions, and foundations to address RH issues such as family planning and sexual health in the selected countries. Preparatory activities have commenced in each of the countries. Focus will be upon strengthening the ability of national nongovernmental organizations and community-based organizations to deliver sustainable RH services, improving access to quality services for unserved and vulnerable population groups, and gender issues and reproductive rights.
EUROPEAN LAW REVIEW. 1995; 20(1):20-36.The author discusses the emergence of an immigration policy for the European Union as a whole, the need for which is demonstrated by the high number of individuals desiring to migrate to its constituent countries. He notes that the Union has been slow to develop such a policy, and suggests that the price of abolishing internal controls might be the establishment of external controls. He suggests that the Schengen Convention may serve as a model for the development of a suitable policy, which will have to take into account human rights issues. It will also need to be coordinated with other international bodies concerned with migration issues in Europe.
["Population, Sustainable Development and Reproductive Health," First International Seminar (Madrid, February 13, 1996)] Poblacion, Desarrollo Sostenible y Salud Reproductiva, Primer Seminario Internacional (Madrid, 13 de febrero de 1996).
DIALOGOS. 1996 Jan-Mar; (26):7.The International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in September 1994, recognized some basic reproductive rights which were confirmed at the International Conference on Women in September 1995 in Beijing. The Federation of Family Planning of Spain initiated concrete actions to put these accepted principles in practice within Spain by creating a working group consisting of parliamentarians, institutional representatives, nongovernmental agencies, and media experts and professionals. The Federation organized the first international seminar on population, sustainable development, and reproductive health, which was held in Madrid in February 1996 with the collaboration of the International Federation of Family Planning and the Marie Stopes International Foundation. The seminar was attended by parliamentary deputies, members of the central and autonomous administrations, and population and development experts. Some of the lectures concerned the public platform of action of the World Conference on Women and its perspectives. A number of programs on reproductive health and sustainable development and the intervention of parliamentarians in development initiated legislative actions as related by a parliamentary representative from Denmark. It was stressed that forces should be concentrated on reducing undesired fertility and unwanted family size with respect to population and its consequences. Population and development on an international level were also outlined as affecting environment, family planning education, the relationships between NGOs and the private sector, as well as the financing of programs. At a roundtable discussion, the European IPPF project director related her experience about the working group in the European Parliament regarding the previous topics and the pertinent resolutions of the parliament with respect to resources assigned to population programs.
AIDS / STD HEALTH PROMOTION EXCHANGE. 1996; (4):8-9.The European Commission (EC) supports programs using radio to inform and educate about HIV and AIDS in developing countries, particularly with regard to illiterate or rural populations. In 1992, in Comoros (where 80% of adults and 65% of persons aged 15-25 listen to radio and there is no national television and only one printed medium--a French magazine), as part of a National AIDS Programme initiative aimed at mobilizing youth and women leaders, two journalists of the national radio channel produced an EC-supported series of 20 radio programs that were broadcast twice weekly every other week as part of the popular program "Sante" (Health). A series of 11 programs were broadcast in 1994-95 by Radio Comoros and by two private stations that were popular with youth. Surveys showed the following: 1) the popular shows were the main source of information on HIV/AIDS and were particularly successful in rural communities when broadcast in the local language; 2) the majority of villagers wanted this and other health information to continue; and 3) public information regarding sexuality was accepted by a large majority. The radio series caused Islamic religious leaders to discuss HIV prevention and condoms. An EC-supported project in Morocco occurred in 1993. The 3-month national information campaign about HIV/AIDS covered myths and rumors, infection risks, prevention measures, the disease and women and youth, the epidemic's socioeconomic impact, the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the role of the media. A 1-hour program in Arabic was broadcast twice a week for 24 weeks, 12 30-minute programs were broadcast in three Berber dialects, and several short spots were aired daily. The program format included presentations and discussions by health staff, psychologists, sociologists, and NGO staff; listener participation was allowed. 1000 men and 700 women were surveyed using a questionnaire. Roadside interviews were conducted in some cities. These showed that the information was understood. Many listeners criticized the lack of information on television and wanted more information broadcast.
FORUM. 1996 Dec; 12(2):15-6.Family planning associations (FPAs) are the primary agencies focused upon issues of sexuality. In some countries FPAs are the only agencies addressing the issue. FPAs are therefore being sought by a growing number of clients, forcing an expansion of associations' mandates on sexual and reproductive health. In the Caribbean, this move toward a broader view of sexual and reproductive health and the provision of appropriate services is being led with European Community financial support by the FPAs in Belize, Guyana, and St. Lucia. These FPAs were chosen because of their strong relationships with the public sector and the need for expanded services in those countries. Public sector collaboration is important for the project because one of the main goals is to eventually develop broad-based national programs which address sexual and reproductive health needs. Target communities are expected to help define and voice their service needs as well as the best way they should be met. Training and deploying community members to involve their neighborhoods are therefore major elements of the project. Special program focus will be given to adolescents largely through a peer counseling service and referral system.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. , 11,  p. (Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 008-GU-01-015; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-Q-08-3032)As part of a series of activities designed to reduce morbidity and mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 in Guatemala, a consultant from the BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) program visited Guatemala in 1995 to analyze, modify, and field test the protocol developed by the USAID Mission to document the degree to which drugs prescribed for pneumonia are available in the community through the private sector. This field report provides background information and describes the current situation in Guatemala in terms of availability of drugs in the public sector through the Ministry of Health, the Drogueria Nacional, municipalities, and the Pan American Health Organization. Relevant activities in the private sector are also described, including the for-profit businesses as well as services provided by UNICEF, the European Union, and nongovernmental organizations. A brief overview of one health area gives an example of the current situation. The result of this consultancy visit was the determination that the situation merited adjustment of the originally requested study and that the survey as designed would likely require modification and application within target communities. Included among the appendices is the original protocol developed for assessing community drug availability.