Your search found 89 Results

  1. 1

    Situation of human rights in Afghanistan. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2003/77.

    United Nations. Commission on Human Rights

    [Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2003. 4 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2003/77)

    Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights and accepted humanitarian rules, as set forth in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto. Reaffirming that all Member States have an obligation to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and to fulfil the obligations they have freely undertaken under the various international instruments. Recalling that Afghanistan is a party to several international human rights instruments and has obligations to report on their implementation. Recalling also the relevant resolutions and decisions of the Commission on Human Rights, the relevant resolutions and presidential statements of the Security Council, the reports of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict (S/2002/1299) and on women, peace and security (S/2002/1154) and the most recent resolution adopted by the Commission on the Status of Women. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Darfur debated.

    Cohen R

    Forced Migration Review. 2007 Dec; (29):55-57.

    Bruising debates within the human rights and humanitarian communities have centered on the numbers who have died in Darfur, the use of the term genocide, the efficacy of military versus political solutions and the extent to which human rights advocacy can undermine humanitarian programmes on the ground. Essential to effective planning in an emergency is knowing the scope of the disaster, the number of civilians who died, and from what cause. Yet in the Darfur emergency it has proved particularly difficult to affirm with any certainty the number of people who have perished and in what way. The principal obstacle has been the government of Sudan. Itself directly involved in ethnic cleansing, it has prevented compilation of credible mortality statistics. While the loss of life from the Israeli-Hizbollah conflict of 2006 was precisely determined, thus allowing families and communities to mourn, there has been a systematic effort by the regime of Omar Hassan al-Bashir to cover up the death toll in Darfur. The government of Sudan has claimed that only 9,000 have died. The UN, however, says that more than 200,000 have perished whereas Amnesty International estimates 300,000 (95,000 killed and more than 200,000 dead from conflict-related hunger or disease) and the Save Darfur Coalition, an umbrella group of NGOs, places the total at 400,000. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Unsettling experiences: Internal resettlement and international aid agencies in Laos.

    Baird IG; Shoemaker B

    Development and Change. 2007 Sep; 38(5):865-888.

    A number of programmes and policies in Laos are promoting the internal resettlement of mostly indigenous ethnic minorities from remote highlands to lowland areas and along roads. Various justifications are given for this internal resettlement: eradication of opium cultivation, security concerns, access and service delivery, cultural integration and nation building, and the reduction of swidden agriculture. There is compelling evidence that it is having a devastating impact on local livelihoods and cultures, and that international aid agencies are playing important but varied and sometimes conflicting roles with regard to internal resettlement in Laos. While some international aid agencies claim that they are willing to support internal resettlement if it is 'voluntary', it is not easy to separate voluntary from involuntary resettlement in the Lao context. Both state and non-state players often find it convenient to discursively frame non-villager initiated resettlement as 'voluntary'. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Forms and patterns of social discrimination in Nepal: a report.

    Pandey TR; Mishra S; Chemjong D; Pokhrel S; Rawal N

    Kathmandu, Nepal, UNESCO, 2006. [126] p. (UNESCO Kathmandu Series of Monographs and Working Papers No. 8; KAT-SHS-2006/01)

    Socio-cultural diversity is one of the important features of Nepalese society. Its people are categorized into a number of caste groups as well as ethnic communities. They possess different types of cultural traditions and assume different levels of economic standing. In view of these diversities, public debates in Nepal have raised the issue that these different types of social categories share the opportunities and privileges available in this society differentially. Given this, this report aims to: highlight the existing forms and patterns of social discrimination experienced by people of Nepal, as they occur, on the grounds of their caste, ethnicity, gender, and religion-based identities, draw attention to the difference types of social discrimination experienced by people of the aforementioned social categories, and discover the variations of social discrimination among people, as they occur, in terms of their class-based position within these social categories. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Rationale for developing a new international growth reference.

    Garza C; de Onis M

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S5-S14.

    The rationale for developing a new international growth reference derived principally from a Working Group on infant growth established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1990. It recommended an approach that described how children should grow rather than describing how children grow; that an international sampling frame be used to highlight the similarity in early childhood growth among diverse ethnic groups; that modern analytical methods be exploited; and that links among anthropometric assessments and functional outcomes be included to the fullest possible extent. Upgrading international growth references to resemble standards more closely will assist in monitoring and attaining a wide variety of international goals related to health and other aspects of social equity. In addition to providing scientifically robust tools, a new reference based on a global sample of children whose health needs are met will provide a useful advocacy tool to health-care providers and others with interests in promoting child health. (author's)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    Butte NF; Garza C; de Onis M

    Journal of Nutrition. 2007 Jan; 137(1):153-157.

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications. (author's)
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  7. 7

    Exclusion in HIV / AIDS.

    Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Dec; 8(2):4-5.

    UNESCO's birth on 16 November 1945 was the outcome of reflection on the causes of the "great and terrible war which had just ended" and of a desire to remedy those causes by developing "the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind." In commemorating its 60th Anniversary, UNESCO endeavours not so much to celebrate its accomplishments, but to revive the power of the inspiration that guided its founding fathers. This means rekindling their sense of hope and vision with a view to the future. UNESCO Bangkok office began its anniversary activities by hosting a number of events, including honouring Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn as UNESCO's first Goodwill Ambassador for South-East Asia. The ambassadorship seeks to expand on the innovative educational approaches that Her Royal Highness has already undertaken in Thailand. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Chiapas women invest in the future.

    Henriquez Tobar E

    New Courier. 2005 May; 47-49.

    Responsible for half the world's food production, women play a key role in sustainable food security, particularly in developing countries. Yet they have considerably less access to land and investment funds than men. That is why microcredit, celebrated by an International Year in 2005, often seems like the only solution to break poverty's vicious circle. An example: In the province of Chiapas (Mexico) women are taking advantage of both loans and literacy classes, provided by a programme UNESCO supports. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    The transnationalization of gender and reimagining Andean indigenous development.

    Radcliffe SA; Laurie N; Andolina R

    Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 2003 Winter; 29(2):387-416.

    This essay aims to advance feminist debates around globalization in a number of directions. By means of a transnational perspective that takes gender into the heart of the analysis, the essay challenges the erasure of gender from grand theories of globalization, leaving gender difference as merely a local effect of globalization (Freeman 2001). Following path-breaking work, we share the feminist view that globalization is inherently gendered and multiply produced by diverse actors in varied times and spaces and that its theorization has often been implicitly masculine. Our definition of transnationalism owes much to feminist work on globalization, which stresses the complex topographies of political-economic-social and cultural transformations at interconnected scales (the body, the national, and international) that comprise "globalization" (Katz 2001; Nagar et al. 2002; Radcliffe, Laurie, and Andolina 2002). Andean development transnationalism rises to the feminist challenge to move beyond conceptual frameworks that "implicitly construe... global as masculine and local as feminine" (Nagar et al. 2002, 1009). Compared with previous globalization analyses that took a decontextualized and institutional focus (see critique in Adam 2002), our essay delves through the national, local, and bodily scales to trace the impacts of new institutional initiatives such as gender mainstreaming and ethnodevelopment. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Africa and its diaspora: organizing and institutional issues.

    Akukwe C; Jammeh S; Foote M

    Chimera. 2004 Spring; 2(1):26-30.

    The need to organize a durable partnership between Africa and its people in the Diaspora is so obvious as to warrant little discussion. However, every partnership, even among blood relations, requires a clear raison d'etre. Why should a Brazilian-African become interested in South Africa's politics or economy? Why should a Nigerian unemployed university graduate believe that it is in his best interest to nurture a relationship with the Diaspora in the Caribbean? Why should a Senegalese-French citizen pay attention to the status of African-Americans in the United States? Why should a recent immigrant in the United States become involved in Africa-Diaspora partnership issues? Why should an inner city Diaspora family in the United States or Britain show interest in the political reforms in Kenya? These questions are neither rhetorical nor amenable to easy responses. At the core of the organizing issue in Africa-Diaspora partnership is the need to define a clear, unambiguous reason for this relationship. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    The Abuja Statement. "The International Congress on Dialogue of Civilization, Religion and Cultures in West Africa", Abuja, 15-17 December 2003. Final declaration.

    International Congress of Dialogue on Civilizations, Religions and Cultures in West Africa (2003: Abuja)

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, [2004]. 9 p.

    The International Congress on Dialogue of Civilization, Religion and Cultures in West Africa held in Abuja (Nigeria) from 15-17 December 2003, is the first UNESCO attempt to root dialogue in its diverse forms in Africa. The Congress follows similar initiatives in areas such as the Mediterranean Basin and Central Asia. Dialogue is understood as a unique way to foster peace among different communities belonging to various cultural, ethnical and religious walks of life, that compose the main wealth, cradle to many civilizations which interacted and enriched one another during centuries to present days. This Civilization spread to many parts of the world, mostly the Americas, because of the Slave trade. However, despite this tragedy, which deserves to be better known and taught, the African culture and spirituality blended with other cultures and enriched them profoundly. Personalities present, among them the Secretary to the Government of the Federation who represented the President of Nigeria and the Minister of Culture and Tourism, as well as participants from different countries and agencies of the United Nations system, acknowledged that it is only through dialogue, reconciliation, mediation and reciprocal knowledge and mutual understanding that conflicts can be prevented and resolved. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Gender, age, and ethnicity in HIV vaccine-related research and clinical trials. Report from a WHO-UNAIDS consultation, 26-28 August 2004. Lausanne, Switzerland.

    WHO-UNAIDS Expert Group

    AIDS. 2005 Nov 18; 19(17):w7-w28.

    This report summarizes the presentations and recommendations from a consultation held in Lausanne, Switzerland (26–28 August 2004) organized by the joint World Health Organization (WHO) – United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) HIV Vaccine Initiative. The consultation discussed issues related to gender, ethnicity, and age in HIV vaccine research and clinical trial recruitment. A special focus of the meeting was the participation of women and adolescents in clinical trials. Also discussed were the experiences and lessons from various research programs, trials, and studies in different countries. Implementing the recommendations from this meeting will require prioritization and active participation from the research community, funders of research, local and national governments, non-governmental organizations, and industry, as well as the individuals and communities participating in clinical trials. This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts, and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the WHO. The contribution of the co-chairs (R. Macklin and F. Mhalu) and the rapporteurs (H. Lasher, M. Klein, M. Ackers, N. Barsdorf, A. Smith Rogers, E. Levendal, T. Villafana and M. Warren) during the consultation and in the preparation of this report is much appreciated. S. Labelle and J. Otani are also acknowledged and thanked for their efficient assistance in the preparation of the consultation and the report. (author's)
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  13. 13

    Targeting the Fur: mass killings in Darfur. A Human Rights Watch briefing paper.

    Human Rights Watch

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2005 Jan 21. 22 p.

    Since February 2003, Darfur has been the scene of massive crimes against civilians of particular ethnicities in the context of an internal conflict between the Sudanese government and a rebel insurgency. Almost two million people have been forcibly displaced and stripped of all their property and tens of thousands of people have been killed, raped or assaulted. Even against this backdrop of extreme violence against civilians, several incidents in March 2004 stand out for the extraordinary level of brutality demonstrated by the perpetrators. In one incident, Sudanese government and “Janjaweed” militia forces detained and then conducted mass executions of more than 200 farmers and community leaders of Fur ethnicity in the Wadi Saleh area of West Darfur. In a second incident in neighboring Shattaya locality, government and militia forces attacked Fur civilians, detained them in appalling conditions for weeks, and subjected many to torture. To date, the Sudanese government has neither improved security for civilians nor ended the impunity enjoyed by its own officials and allied militia leaders. Immediate action including an increased international presence in rural areas of Darfur is needed to improve protection of civilians and reverse ethnic cleansing. International prosecutions are also essential to provide accountability for crimes against humanity and ensure justice for the victims in Darfur. The Sudanese government is clearly unwilling and unable to hold perpetrators of atrocities to account: a presidential inquiry into abuses recently disputed evidence of widespread and systematic abuses and instead of prosecutions, recommended the formation of a committee. The United Nations Security Council, following receipt of the January 25th report of the international commission of inquiry’s investigation into violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and allegations of genocide in Darfur, should promptly refer the situation of Darfur to the International Criminal Court for prosecution. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Empty promises? Continuing abuses in Darfur, Sudan. A Human Rights Watch briefing paper.

    Human Rights Watch

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2004 Aug 11. 35 p. (Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper)

    The government of Sudan is hardly a credible actor when it comes to protecting its citizens given its record of human rights abuses against Sudanese civilians in other areas of Sudan and its responsibility for the campaign of terror in Darfur. Khartoum seeks to have it both ways—it claims it cannot control or disarm the Janjaweed militias but at the same time refuses to permit international forces to be deployed to protect civilians and bring the situation under control. If the Sudanese government were serious about protecting civilians, it would welcome an increased international presence to help it stop the violence and put in place the conditions necessary for the voluntary and safe return of civilians to their home villages. This report documents and analyzes the ongoing violence and the government’s claims of progress to address the human rights crisis in Darfur in more detail based on recent Human Rights Watch research in Chad and Darfur. In some cases, the precise locations of incidents and other identifying details have been withheld to protect the security of the victims and witnesses. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Human development report 2004. Cultural liberty in today’s diverse world.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, UNDP, 2004. [299] p.

    The overarching message of this Report is to highlight the vast potential of building a more peaceful, prosperous world by bringing issues of culture to the mainstream of development thinking and practice. Not to substitute for more traditional priorities that will remain our bread and butter—but to complement and strengthen them. The flip side of the development divide is that developing countries are often able to draw on richer, more diverse cultural traditions—whether captured in language, art, music or other forms— than their wealthier counterparts in the North. The globalization of mass culture—from books to films to television—clearly poses some significant threats to these traditional cultures. But it also opens up opportunities, from the narrow sense of disadvantaged groups like Australian Aborigines or Arctic Inuit tapping global art markets, to the broader one of creating more vibrant, creative, exciting societies. Like all Human Development Reports, this is an independent study intended to stimulate debate and discussion around an important issue, not a statement of United Nations or UNDP policy. However, by taking up an issue often neglected by development economists and putting it firmly within the spectrum of priorities in building better, more fulfilled lives, it presents important arguments for UNDP and its partners to consider and act on in their broader work. This year, I would also like to pay particular tribute to Sakiko Fukuda-Parr, who is stepping down after 10 successful years leading our Human Development Report Office. I would also like to extend special thanks to Amartya Sen, one of the godfathers of human development, who has not only contributed the first chapter but been an enormous influence in shaping our thinking on this important issue. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    The rape of Dinah: human rights, civil war in Liberia, and evil triumphant.

    Cain KL

    Human Rights Quarterly. 1999; 21:265-307.

    Human rights advocates and UN officials offered themselves fulsome praise and congratulations at the World Conference on Human Rights in 1993 for including in the final Vienna Declaration the assertion that "[t]he universal nature of these [human] rights and freedoms is beyond question." Specific controversy at the conference over "universalism" arose out of an important but abstruse debate between the human rights community and leaders of a few authoritarian Asian states who argue that collectivist "Asian values" somehow supercede the specific tenets of the human rights doctrine. The principle at stake, however, is profound. One overly fecund laboratory for inquiry into the international community's sincerity in undertaking to act upon the principle of the universality of human rights is the oldest republic on the African continent. Liberia has no strategic importance. It enjoys no diplomatic or political cachet in international circles. Liberia's immediate environs are bereft of the intercontinental air facilities, luxury hotels, and exotic "rest and recreation" destinations that tend to attract journalists and itinerant young human rights activists. Liberia and its human rights catastrophe have, therefore, been ignored by the media, scholars, the human rights community, the United States, and the United Nations. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Ethnicity, gender and violence in Kenya.

    Kagwanja PM

    Forced Migration Review. 2000 Dec; (9):[4] p..

    This article examines the ethnically-discriminatory nature of Kenya's refugee policy, its influence on the administration and practice of refugee affairs, especially by relief agencies, and its role in encouraging sexual violence against women refugees. The sexual violence against refugees in Kenya in the 1990s occurred against the backdrop of a huge increase in the refugee population, a shift in its ethnic composition and the rise of ethnicity as the dominant ideological force in Kenya's refugee administration. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Croatia. Broken promises: impediments to refugee return to Croatia.

    Ivanisevic B

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Sep. 61 p. (Croatia Vol. 15, No. 6(D))

    Between 300,000 and 350,000 Serbs left their homes in Croatia during the 1991-95 war. This report describes the continued plight of displacement suffered by the Serbs of Croatia and identifies the principal remaining impediments to their return. The most significant problem is the difficulty Serbs face in returning to their pre-war homes. Despite repeated promises, the Croatian government has been unwilling and unable to solve this problem for the vast majority of displaced Serbs. In addition, fear of arbitrary arrest on war-crimes charges and discrimination in employment and pension benefits also deter return. Human Rights Watch believes that these problems are a result of a practice of ethnic discrimination against Serbs by the Croatian government. The report concludes with a list of recommendations to the government of Croatia and the international community to deal with these persistent problems and finally make good on the promise of return. (author's)
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  19. 19

    A qualitative evaluation of the impact of the Stepping Stones sexual health programme on domestic violence and relationship power in rural Gambia.

    Shaw M

    [Unpublished] 2002. Presented at the 6th Global Forum for Health Research, Arusha, Tanzania, November, 2002. [6] p.

    The work presented here came from a preliminary evaluation and was followed up by several applications for funding to carry out a prospective community randomised trial. So far none have been accepted. This may be partly due to the fact that such an evaluation runs against current funding culture. Because of it's holistic approach and focus on core skills in couple communication, the Stepping Stones programme is neither just an HIV prevention or just a domestic violence prevention programme, but has something to contribute to both (and would see the two problems as inter-related). Funding on the other hand is often organised 'vertically' by problem, and evaluation criteria may differ from one problem to another. For example donors who fund evaluation of HIV prevention activities usually require a biological outcome, and hence concentrate on geographical areas with high HIV incidence where the epidemic is seen as most severe. Where sociological outcomes are used this tends to be either the use of quantitative tools to assist in risk factor analysis, or qualitative tools which can assist in replication of the intervention. As such they are usually considered secondary to the primary (biological) outcomes. The hope here is that these interventions may provide a 'blueprint' which can subsequently be applied in low prevalence areas. However by concentrating on proximal rather than distal determinants of infection these blueprints may only capture 'half the story', leading to locally inappropriate assumptions about which groups or behaviours HIV prevention programmes should target. An example would be the demand by some donors that interventions should have an exclusive focus on adolescents, when in a polygamous society adolescent's risk is often mediated by the older generation. On the other hand community interventions against domestic violence are forced to rely on self reported behaviour (perhaps backed up by participant observation) as an outcome. If the intervention is also a reflexive process then qualitative studies become essential to describe a process of change which contains empowerment, group dynamic and normative dimensions. The locally appropriate nature of such interventions is used to justify participatory interventions as being more effective than didactic approaches, but at the same time in the epidemiological-evaluation paradigm it can be seen as problematic, because (I would argue incorrectly) a participatory process is assumed to generate a wide spectrum of outcomes (low replicability), which mitigates against quantitative evaluation. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    Public health and the Persian Gulf War.

    Hoskins E

    In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 254-278.

    War has always been disastrous for civilians, and the Persian Gulf War was no exception. Yet the image that has been perpetuated in the West is that the Gulf War was somehow "clean" and fought with "surgical precision" in a manner that minimized civilian casualties. However, massive wartime damage to Iraq's civilian infrastructure led to a breakdown in virtually all sectors of society. Economic sanctions further paralyzed Iraq's economy and made any meaningful post-war reconstruction all but impossible. Furthermore, the invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent Gulf War unleashed internal political events that have been responsible for further suffering and countless human fights violations. The human impact of these events is incalculable. In 1996, more than five years after the end of the war, the vast majority of Iraqi civilians still subsist in a state of extreme hardship, in which health care, nutrition, education, water, sanitation, and other basic services are minimal. As many as 500,000 children are believed to have died since the beginning of the Persian Gulf War, largely due to malnutrition and a resurgence of diarrheal and vaccine- preventable diseases. Health services are barely functioning due to shortages of supplies and equipment. Medicines, including insulin, antibiotics, and anesthetics, are in short supply. The psychological impact of the war has had a damaging and lasting effect on many of Iraq's estimated eight million children. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Medical assistance and refugee safety in contemporary conflicts.

    Skidmore M

    Lancet. 2003 Jul 5; 362(9377):75.

    Health workers do not want to appear to sanction or legitimise the use of violence by any groups, but they require access to civilians in war zones and the non-interference by warring parties of their treatment of noncombatants and internally displaced people. The nature of contemporary conflicts is such that they can best promote the safety and wellbeing of civilians by being politically engaged and witnessing, documenting, and treating war-related injuries. Political engagement involves a willingness to negotiate for access to civilians with camp authorities and stake-holders in war zones and refugee settlements, and international activism to push for more countries to become signatories to international humanitarian agreements, for internally displaced persons to be recognised as refugees in international law, and to enforce security and unfettered access to civilians in conflict zones. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    Cyprus: hands across the divide. A case study in bi-communal, cross-border activism.

    Loizou G

    Women and Environments International. 2003 Spring; (58-59):43-47.

    Hands Across the Divide (HAD) is a newly formed NGO linking women of northern Turkish-speaking Cyprus and southern Greek-speaking Cyprus. It is unique, the first of its kind in Cyprus, and the first bi-communal Cypriot organization to gain international recognition. So total is the Cypriot partition, that it is legally impossible to register a bi-communal organization in Cyprus as a single organization. So the women of HAD went to London to register. Despite all the barriers to communication across the Green Line, the women of HAD are carrying out joint actions for peace. While the northern HAD women are sharing in the massive demonstrations in the north, the Greek Cypriot members of Hands Across the Divide have started their own action in the south. Cyprus now faces entry to the European Union bringing new urgency to the question of reunification and peace. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    Trauma and resilience during war: a look at the children and humanitarian aid workers of Bosnia.

    Berk JH

    Psychoanalytic Review. 1998 Aug; 85(4):639-658.

    This article will explore some of the issues of resilience in the child population of Bosnia during the recent war there. It will also look at similar issues in the humanitarian aid workers who came from outside the country as representatives of relief agencies. I, myself, worked for UNICEF, and it was my job to train members of the local population to work with Bosnian children in an attempt to increase their resilience under intense wartime stress and to reduce the traumatic impact to those children already harmed. (author's)
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  24. 24

    1993 demographic yearbook. 45th. 1993 annuaire demographique.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division

    New York, New York, United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division, 1995. x, 1,032 p. (No. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/24)

    This is a comprehensive collection of international demographic statistics published annually by the United Nations. "The tables in this issue of the Yearbook are presented in two parts, the basic tables followed by the tables devoted to population censuses, the special topic in this issue. The first part contains tables giving a world summary of basic demographic statistics, followed by tables presenting statistics on the size, distribution and trends in population, natality, foetal mortality, infant and maternal mortality, general mortality, nuptiality and divorce. In the second part, this issue of the Yearbook serves to update the census information featured in the 1988 issue. Census data on demographic and social characteristics include population by single years of age and sex, national and/or ethnic composition, language and religion. Tables showing data on geographical characteristics include information on major civil divisions and localities by size-class. Educational characteristics include population data on literacy, educational attainment and school attendance. In many of the tables, data are shown by urban/rural residence."
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  25. 25

    International notes: surveillance of health status of Bhutanese refugees -- Nepal, 1992.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Program and Technical Support Section; Save the Children Fund; World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]; United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC]. National Center for Infectious Diseases. Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases. Arbovirus Diseases Branch; United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC]. International Health Program Office

    JAMA. 1993 Feb 17; 269(7):846, 850.

    From February 1991 through July 1992, 67,000 Bhutanese of Nepalese ethnic origin entered southeastern Nepal because of ethnic persecution in Bhutan, and were established in 6 refugee camps. In July 1992, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the Save the Children Fund, and CDC established a surveillance system to monitor morbidity and mortality of these refugees. Mortality surveillance was established for diarrhea, acute respiratory infections (ARI), measles, malaria, injuries, maternal deaths, and other/unknown. Data were collected from March through July 1992 by a single designated health worker at each camp by interviewing the families. From March 25 through June 30, daily mortality rates for children under 5 years, of age (<5MR) averaged over each week were 2.3-8.8 deaths/10,000 persons/day, a rate 2-8 times greater than in Nepal. Daily crude mortality rates (CMRs) for the entire camp population were 1.5 deaths/10,000/day. Based on verbal autopsies of 89 deaths during July 3-19, 49 (55%) deaths were caused by ARI and 25 (28%) by diarrhea. The ARI-specific <5MR (1.6 deaths/10,000/day) was more than 5 times greater than the ARI-specific mortality rate for persons aged =or> 5 years (0.3 deaths/10,000/day). From March 1 through April 30, 549 cases of measles were recorded at camp health centers. Following this outbreak, <5MRs increased to 4.4-8.8 deaths/10,000/day during April 1-May 16. Nearly 12% of patients with diarrhea during July 3-19 had bloody diarrhea. Shigella flexneri types 1, 2, and 3 were cultured from 5 of 13 (38%) patients. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but sensitive to nalidixic acid. From June 15 through July 19, in one camp 38 (3.4%) of 1129 refugees with suspected malaria had blood smears slide-positive for Plasmodium falciparum and 37 (3.3%) had blood smears positive for P. vivax.
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