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Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Oct. 7 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Point of View)The TB germ, a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is highly prevalent in much of the developing world and in poor urban "pockets" of industrialized countries. In these communities, people typically become infected in childhood. But a healthy immune system usually keeps the infection in check. People can remain infected for life with dormant, uninfectious TB. Such people are called TB carriers. In the past, most TB- infected people remained healthy carriers. Only 5-10% ever developed active tuberculosis. Those few kept the TB epidemic alive by transmitting the TB germ to their close contacts. TB germs can be spread through the air from patients with active pulmonary (lung) tuberculosis. Today, as TB carriers increasingly become infected with HIV, many more are developing active tuberculosis because the virus is destroying their immune system. For these dually infected people, the risk of developing active tuberculosis is 30-50-fold higher than for people infected with TB alone. (excerpt)
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi / Chinese Journal of Epidemiology. 1997 Oct; 18(5):309-311.Global HIV infection and AIDS: according to WHO estimates, by mid 1996 there were 7 million cumulative AIDS cases. Today the number of people infected with HIV is even more alarming: roughly 21.8 million, of those 42% are women. By the year 2000 there will be between 40 and 50 million cases. Each day about 8,500 additional people are infected with AIDS; one can say the situation is grim. Currently, the AIDS and HIV epidemic regions are shifting, they have gradually moved from the original sites of North America and West Europe toward the mass populations of developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In the Asian region which contains about 60% of the world's population, beginning in 1988, with Thailand and India at the center, an exploding epidemic has taken shape. Recent materials indicate, those infected with HIV in Thailand exceed 700,000, over 2 million in India, and the HIV epidemic has already spread to the near neighbors Burma, southern China, Cambodia, Malaysia and Vietnam. With the accumulation of molecular epidemiology research materials, the complete picture of the causes and characteristics of this massive epidemic happening in the Asian region is gradually becoming clear. (excerpt)
[90 percent cases of HIV transmission are due to perinatal contagion or breastfeeding. One million children were HIV positive in 1977] El 90 por ciento de casos por contagio perinatal o lactancia. Un millon de niños/as portan VIH en 1977.
RedAda. 1997 Dec; (26):22-24.A million children under 15 years of age will have contracted HIV worldwide by 1997, while in 1996, of the one and a half million people who died of this disease, 350,000 were under 15, according to UNAID numbers released on the occasion of the world AIDS campaign (December 1), whose theme this year is "Children in a World with AIDS." Approximately 90 percent of children with HIV were infected by their mothers, during pregnancy or childbirth or through mother's milk, according to the UN organization. (excerpt)