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  1. 1
    274990

    District guidelines for yellow fever surveillance.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control; World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 1998. 59 p. (WHO/EPI/GEN/98.09)

    Yellow fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever transmitted by mosquitos infected with the yellow fever virus. The disease is untreatable, and case fatality rates in severe cases can exceed 50%. Yellow fever can be prevented through immunization with the 17D yellow fever vaccine. The vaccine is safe, inexpensive and reliable. A single dose provides protection against the disease for at least 10 years and possibly life-long. There is high risk for an explosive outbreak in an unimmunized population—and children are especially vulnerable—if even one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever occurs in the population. Effective activities for disease surveillance remain the best tool for prompt detection and response to an outbreak of yellow fever especially in populations where coverage rates for yellow fever vaccine are not high enough to provide protection against yellow fever. The guidelines in this manual describe how to detect and confirm suspected cases of yellow fever. They also describe how to respond to an outbreak of yellow fever and prevent additional cases from occurring. The guidelines are intended for use at the district level. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    195997
    Peer Reviewed

    Malaria: reemerging disease in Africa.

    Nchinda TC

    Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998 Jul-Sep; 4(3):398-403.

    A recent upsurge of malaria in endemic-disease areas with explosive epidemics in many parts of Africa is probably caused by many factors, including rapidly spreading resistance to antimalarial drugs, climatic changes, and population movements. In Africa, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and is transmitted by Anopheles gambiae complex. Control efforts have been piecemeal and not coordinated. Strategies for control should have a solid research base both for developing antimalarial drugs and vaccines and for better understanding the pathogenesis, vector dynamics, epidemiology, and socioeconomic aspects of the disease. An international collaborative approach is needed to build appropriate research in a national context and to effectively translate research results into practical applications in the field. The Multilateral Initiative for Malaria in Africa can combine all of the above strategies to plan and coordinate partnerships, networking, and innovative approaches between African scientists and their Northern partners. (author's)
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  3. 3
    135588

    Seventh report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Leprosy

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES.. 1998; (874):v-vi, 1-43.

    This book provides an update on the global leprosy situation emphasizing the availability of technology for disease elimination, identification of obstacles, and development of appropriate recommendations for leprosy prevention. Section 1 presents the actions undertaken by the WHO in response to the increasing incidence of leprosy worldwide. Section 2 discusses the current status of leprosy through a presentation of estimated, registered and detected cases, as well as the success of multidrug therapy in disease elimination. Section 3 presents the definition, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and other epidemiologic conditions affecting the disease. Section 4 reviews the current available drugs, which include dapsone, rifampicin, clofazimine, ofloxacin, minocycline, clarithromycin and their adverse reactions. Section 5 discusses management of reactions and neuritis, while section 6 presents the disabilities and rehabilitation associated with the disease. The rest of the chapters present a global strategy on leprosy elimination, monitoring, antiepilepsy activity integration, community action and participation, and research priorities. Based on the field trial and clinical study results, the Committee confirms the cost-efficacy and acceptability of a single dose combination of rifampicin, ofloxacin and minocycline as an alternative regimen. In conclusion, the need for improved reaction and neuritis management, prevention of leprosy-related disabilities and impairments and implementation of antileprosy activities as an integral part of the health services is highlighted.
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