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  1. 1
    312466

    Preventing child maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence.

    Butchart A; Harvey AP; Mian M; Furniss T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. [98] p.

    There is thus an increased awareness of the problem of child maltreatment and growing pressure on governments to take preventive action. At the same time, the paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of interventions raises concerns that scarce resources may be wasted through investment in well-intentioned but unsystematic prevention efforts whose effectiveness is unproven and which may never be proven. For this reason, the main aim of this guide is to provide technical advice for setting up policies and programmes for child maltreatment prevention and victim services that take into full account existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions and that use the scientific principles of the public health approach. This will encourage the implementation of scientifically testable interventions and their evaluation. It is hoped that, in this way, the guide will contribute to a geographical expansion of the evidence base to include more evaluations of interventions from low-income and middle-income countries, and a greater variety of evaluated interventions. The long-term aim is to be able to prepare evidence-based guidelines on interventions for child maltreatment. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    312295

    2005 update on the HIV / AIDS epidemic and response in China.

    China. Ministry of Health; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Beijing, China, National Center for AIDS / STD Prevention and Control, 2006 Jan 24. [19] p.

    Over the past two years, the response to HIV/AIDS across China has intensified, and the Chinese government has strengthened leadership on HIV/AIDS. Effective measures have been launched in each key area of HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care work, and the environment for comprehensive work in these areas has improved considerably. This report was jointly prepared by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to describe the current status of China's HIV/AIDS epidemic, progress made over the past year in China's HIV/AIDS response, and key challenges that need to be addressed to stop the spread of AIDS. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    300923

    AIDS epidemic update. Special report on HIV prevention. December 2005.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Dec. [96] p. (UNAIDS/05.19E)

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. Despite recent, improved access to antiretroviral treatment and care in many regions of the world, the AIDS epidemic claimed 3.1 million [2.8--3.6 million] lives in 2005; more than half a million (570 000) were children. The total number of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reached its highest level: an estimated 40.3 million [36.7--45.3 million] people are now living with HIV. Close to 5 million people were newly infected with the virus in 2005. There is ample evidence that HIV does yield to determined and concerted interventions. Sustained efforts in diverse settings have helped bring about decreases in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in many Western countries, among young people in Uganda, among sex workers and their clients in Thailand and Cambodia, and among injecting drug users in Spain and Brazil. Now there is new evidence that prevention programmes initiated some time ago are finally helping to bring down HIV prevalence in Kenya and Zimbabwe, as well as in urban Haiti. The number of people living with HIV has increased in all but one region in the past two years. In the Caribbean, the second-most affected region in the world, HIV prevalence overall showed no change in 2005, compared with 2003. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    297179

    International public health organizations warn of burgeoning HIV / AIDS epidemic in Eastern Europe and Eurasia.

    Connections. 2003 Aug; [2] p..

    A trio of reports issued by international public health groups last month projects a dire future for Eastern Europe and Central Asia if immediate action is not taken to stem the rising tide of HIV/AIDS. Although the onslaught of HIV hit these nations more than a decade after the disease emerged in many other parts of the world, infection rates have skyrocketed during the past five years and are growing faster than in any other region. Currently, Russia and Ukraine are home to the bulk of the 1.2 million HIV-positive individuals living in the region, but the social conditions that are enabling the epidemic to spread so quickly in these two countries-high incidence of unemployment and poverty, rapid social change, increasing rates of substance abuse, a escalating commercial sex trade, and decreasing levels of healthcare services and educational opportunities, for example-are also shared by other nations in the region. Since 1995, pockets of HIV epidemics have sprung up in communities stretching from the Baltics to Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia. According to World Bank reports, there are indications that the epidemic is making its way from "high-risk core transmitter groups," such as needle-sharing injecting drug users (IDUs) and commercial sex workers, through bridge populations, such as their sex partners, into the population at large. A World Bank study released July 10 uses the Balkan nations of Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania to illustrate this phenomenon, citing high levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sharp increases in risky sexual behavior, and a lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS as key indicators that the deadly disease is poised to make inroads into the general population. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    282171

    Guidelines for the control of tuberculosis through DOTS strategy in Pacific Island countries.

    Blanc L; Ahn DI; Diletto C

    Manila, Philippines, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1999. [43] p.

    Each of the small Pacific island countries has its own characteristics that need specific approaches in the implementation of DOTS strategy. The available tuberculosis guidelines are often too complex and too difficult to adapt. So health managers and health workers of these small countries need to have operational guidelines that are practical and simple to assist them in implementing an effective tuberculosis control programme based on the WHO recommended DOTS strategy. The main objectives of the guidelines are as follows: to guide tuberculosis programme managers in the implementation of DOTS strategy and the control of tuberculosis; to guide health workers and community leaders in identifying and referring suspect cases; and to guide health workers, patients and their families towards achieving a cure. As the guidelines are tested in a variety of different situations in the field, comments would be welcome and will help to improve future editions. Comments can be sent to WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Tuberculosis Programme, Chronic Communicable Disease Unit. (excerpt)
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