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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Malaria: reemerging disease in Africa.

    Nchinda TC

    Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998 Jul-Sep; 4(3):398-403.

    A recent upsurge of malaria in endemic-disease areas with explosive epidemics in many parts of Africa is probably caused by many factors, including rapidly spreading resistance to antimalarial drugs, climatic changes, and population movements. In Africa, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and is transmitted by Anopheles gambiae complex. Control efforts have been piecemeal and not coordinated. Strategies for control should have a solid research base both for developing antimalarial drugs and vaccines and for better understanding the pathogenesis, vector dynamics, epidemiology, and socioeconomic aspects of the disease. An international collaborative approach is needed to build appropriate research in a national context and to effectively translate research results into practical applications in the field. The Multilateral Initiative for Malaria in Africa can combine all of the above strategies to plan and coordinate partnerships, networking, and innovative approaches between African scientists and their Northern partners. (author's)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Polio eradication-rethinking the endpoint of the end game.

    Khuri-Bulos N

    Lancet. 2004 May; 4(5):262-263.

    In May 1988, the WHO decided to embark on the eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Due to changing epidemiology, polio was causing large outbreaks in many developing countries such as Jordan, and the infectious agent causing the disease fulfilled the criteria for an eradicable agent. Polio was believed to be eradicable because the poliovirus infects only human beings in nature causing a recognisable, although not diagnostic, clinical entity—namely acute flaccid paralysis (AFP)—it does not lead to a chronic carrier state, it is readily identifiable as a causative agent of the disease by simple laboratory tests, and, most importantly, it is easily controlled in endemic and epidemic situations by a widely available and affordable vaccine that leads to lifelong immunity. (excerpt)
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