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Journal of the European Economic Association. 2012 Oct; 10(5):1025-1058.This paper estimates whether exports affect the incidence of HIV in Africa. This relationship has implications for HIV prevention policy as well as for the consequences of trade increases in Africa. I estimate this impact using two sources of data on HIV incidence, one generated based on UNAIDS estimates and the other based on observed HIV mortality. These data are combined with data on export value and volume. I find a fairly consistent positive relationship between exports and new HIV infections: doubling exports leads to a 10%-70% increase in new HIV infections. Consistent with theory, this relationship is larger in areas with higher baseline HIV prevalence. I interpret the result as suggesting that increased exports increase the movement of people (trucking), which increases sexual contacts. Consistent with this interpretation, the effect is larger for export growth than for income growth per se and is larger in areas with more extensive road networks.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007.  p. (UNAIDS/07.07E; JC1274E)These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention. In 2006, governments committed themselves to scaling up HIV prevention and treatment responses to ensure universal access by 2010. While in the past five years treatment access has expanded rapidly, the number of new HIV infections has not decreased - estimated at 4.3 (3.6-6.6) million in 2006 - with many people unable to access prevention services to prevent HIV infection. These Guidelines recognize that to sustain the advances in antiretroviral treatment and to ensure true universal access requires that prevention services be scaled up simultaneously with treatment. (excerpt)
Reaching regional consensus on improved behavioural and serosurveillance for HIV: report from a regional conference in East Africa.
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 1998. 12 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/98.9)This report documents a regional workshop on surveillance systems for HIV held in Nairobi, Kenya, on 10.13 February 1997. The UNAIDS-funded workshop gathered government epidemiologists, AIDS programme managers, and social scientists from Kenya, Malawi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe as well as specialists from UNAIDS and other partner institutions. The group aimed to present current data and to work together to suggest practical guidelines for improving HIV surveillance systems in a maturing epidemic. (excerpt)
Harare, Zimbabwe, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 2003 Sep. xi, 56 p.A detailed review of the HIV/AIDS situation and surveillance practices in the 46 countries of the WHO African Region was published in 20001. The current report presents an update of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the WHO African Region based predominantly on data from country surveillance reports produced for 2001 and 2002. Additional data included in the report are from population-based surveys and selected research studies. The report does not provide HIV/AIDS estimates, but presents a synthesis and analysis of data generated by existing surveillance systems. The focus of the report is on the assessment of trends in HIV prevalence within countries and sub-regions. In addition, data are presented on the current situation and trends in sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour, which are both part of comprehensive HIV surveillance systems. The report is comprised of two parts. Part I presents a comprehensive review of the most recent data in the WHO African Region as a whole. It also provides data by sub-region with the exception of the Indian Ocean sub-region where no data for the last two years were available. Part II is published separately and consists of country profiles that include brief descriptions of the most recent data and trends, with a focus on young people. (excerpt)
Promoting behavior change in Botswana: an assessment of the Peer Education HIV / AIDS Prevention Program at the workplace.
Journal of Health Communication. 2003 May-Jun; 8(3):267-281.Botswana has the highest rate of HIV prevalence in the world and AIDS has now reached crisis proportions in the country. Among the initiatives implemented as a response, to promote sexual behavior change, is the Peer Education HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (PEHAPP) at the workplace. This paper assesses the impact and outcome of the PEHAPP. It concludes that the PEHAPP is having a measurable positive impact in the key areas of improving knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to risky sexual behavior which, in turn, should reduce the incidence of transmission of HIV/AIDS and other STDs over the long-term. (author's)