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  1. 1
    312474

    Strategic and technical meeting on intensified control of neglected tropical diseases: a renewed effort to combat entrenched communicable diseases of the poor. Report of an international workshop, Berlin, 18-20 April 2005.

    Daumerie D; Kindhauser MK

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2006. [53] p. (WHO/CDS/NTD/2006.1)

    Throughout the developing world, socioeconomic progress is impeded by ancient and entrenched infectious diseases that permanently diminish human potential in very large populations. These diseases have largely vanished from affluent nations but continue to flourish in tropical and subtropical climates under the living conditions that surround impoverished populations -- the people left behind by socioeconomic development. These neglected tropical diseases thrive in areas where water supply, housing and sanitation are inadequate, nutrition is poor, literacy rates are low, health systems are rudimentary and insects and other disease vectors are constant household and occupational companions. Neglected tropical diseases continue to permanently maim or otherwise impair the lives of millions of people every year, frequently with adverse effects starting early in life. They anchor affected populations in poverty and also compromise the effectiveness of efforts made by other sectors to improve socioeconomic development. For example, there is ample evidence that children heavily infected with intestinal worms will not fully benefit from educational opportunities and are more likely to suffer poor nutritional status. Adults permanently disabled by blindness or limb deformities may be a burden in rural agricultural communities that eke out a living from subsistence farming. In addition, the stigma attached to many of these diseases closes options for a normal family and social life, especially for women. Efforts to control these diseases thus free people to develop their potential unimpeded by disabling disease and, in so doing, increase the chances that efforts in other sectors, such as education and agriculture, will be successful. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    283996

    Economic analysis of HIV / AIDS. Background paper.

    Bonnel R

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, AIDS Campaign Team for Africa, 2000 Sep. 16 p.

    HIV/AIDS is a major development crisis. Not since the Black Death devastated medieval Europe has humankind observed infectious disease deaths on such a scale. Life expectancies, which rose steadily before the onset of the HIV epidemic, are decreasing in nearly all the 25 countries where the adult prevalence rate exceeds 5 percent. In the countries most heavily affected by HIV/AIDS, life expectancy is projected to fall to about 30 years by 2010– a level not seen since the beginning of the 20th century. Various factors related to poverty, inequality, gender inequality, sexually transmitted infections, social norms, political and social changes, including labor migration, conflicts and ethnic factions have facilitated the rapid spread of HIV. But what has enabled HIV/AIDS to undermine economic and social development is its unprecedented erosion of some of the main determinants of economic growth such as social capital, domestic savings and human capital. For these reasons, the HIV epidemic has been transformed from a health issue into a much wider issue impairing economic and social development. Because it prevents an increasing share of the population from participating in economic growth, the HIV/AIDS epidemic increases poverty. The result is a vicious circle whereby HIV/AIDS reduces economic growth and increases poverty, which in turn accelerates the spread of HIV. Preventing further spread of HIV/AIDS, in addition to providing care and support programs to those both affected and infected by this epidemic, requires early intervention and the mobilization of external resources. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and quantify the economic rationale that underlies such an effort. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    283992

    HIV / AIDS: implications for poverty reduction.

    Loewenson R

    New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Bureau for Development Policy [BDP], Special Initiative on HIV / AIDS, 2001. 27 p.

    The devastation caused by HIV/AIDS is unique because it is depriving families, communities and entire nations of their young and most productive people. The epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development achievements, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the ability of governments to maintain essential services, reducing labour productivity and supply, and putting a brake on economic growth. These worsening conditions in turn make people and households even more at risk of, or vulnerable to, the epidemic, and sabotages global and national efforts to improve access to treatment and care. This cycle must be broken to ensure a sustainable solution to the HIV/AIDS crisis. The response to HIV/AIDS so far has focused, rightly so, on the challenge of containing the epidemic and preventing new infections through advocacy, information and education campaigns, behaviour change communication, condom distribution, programmes targeting groups that are particularly vulnerable to infection, and other key interventions. The other part of the response is focusing on treatment and care for people living with HIV and AIDS — efforts that are expected to intensify as new treatments become more accessible and affordable. Both prevention and treatment are top priorities in not only saving lives and reducing human suffering, but also in limiting the future impact on human development and poverty reduction efforts. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    182033

    The impact of HIV / AIDS on Southern Africa's children: poverty of planning and planning of poverty.

    Whiteside A; Erskine S

    Pretoria, South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council, Southern African Regional Poverty Network, 2002. [4], 26 p. (Save the Children UK: Southern Africa Scenario Planning Paper)

    In the initial discussion of this paper the terms of reference began: “Save the Children has not been adept at managing its programme planning processes in the region. Country based strategic planning has often been a tortuous business which has alienated our staff because of the abstract language used. It has been a time consuming and often disjointed process leaving most participants dissatisfied with the final planning document”. Save the Children (SCF) is not alone in this. HIV/AIDS is changing the environment in which we operate. It will have effects as serious as the plague in medieval Europe and we do not know how to deal with it. In effect there is a complete poverty in planning which will result in considerable impoverishment and misery in much of Southern Africa. One new way to assess the situation would be to through developing scenarios. HEARD has some experience in this having been part of a team working with Shell South Africa on developing scenarios for their Southern African region. We therefore agreed to prepare a draft paper, and this was discussed with SCF staff. We did not agree to follow the terms of reference exactly but rather to prepare the paper with scenarios. The first draft was completed and sent for comment on 21st June with a deadline for comment of 27th June (Alan Whiteside was away from 27th June). The first draft showed up one major problem. SCF must be part of the brainstorming. We know what HIV/AIDS means in broad terms, we have some ability at developing broad scenarios but we do not know what SCF does or what these will mean for them. In effect while HEARD’s work is nearly complete that of SCF is only just beginning. (excerpt)
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