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Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2001 Dec; 95(8):741-754.Owing to the breakdown of health systems, mass population displacements, and resettlement of vulnerable refugees in camps or locations prone to vector breeding, malaria is often a major health problem during war and the aftermath of war. During the initial acute phase of the emergency, before health services become properly established, mortality rates may rise to alarming levels. Establishing good case management and effective malaria prevention are important priorities for international agencies responsible for emergency health services. The operational strategies and control methods used in peacetime must be adapted to emergency conditions, and should be regularly re-assessed as social, political and epidemiological conditions evolve. During the last decade, research on malaria in refugee camps on the Pakistan± Afghanistan and Thailand± Burma borders has led to new methods and strategies for malaria prevention and case management, and these are now being taken up by international health agencies. This experience has shown that integration of research within control programmes is an efficient and dynamic mode of working that can lead to innovation and hopefully sustainable malaria control. United Nations' humanitarian and non-governmental agencies can play a significant part in resolving the outstanding research issues in malaria control. (author's)
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998 Jul-Sep; 4(3):398-403.A recent upsurge of malaria in endemic-disease areas with explosive epidemics in many parts of Africa is probably caused by many factors, including rapidly spreading resistance to antimalarial drugs, climatic changes, and population movements. In Africa, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and is transmitted by Anopheles gambiae complex. Control efforts have been piecemeal and not coordinated. Strategies for control should have a solid research base both for developing antimalarial drugs and vaccines and for better understanding the pathogenesis, vector dynamics, epidemiology, and socioeconomic aspects of the disease. An international collaborative approach is needed to build appropriate research in a national context and to effectively translate research results into practical applications in the field. The Multilateral Initiative for Malaria in Africa can combine all of the above strategies to plan and coordinate partnerships, networking, and innovative approaches between African scientists and their Northern partners. (author's)
SANTE-SALUD. 1993 Summer; (2):5-6.The World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated and supported the eradication of malaria in various countries of the world since 1957. Unlike some countries in the temperate zone which have been successful in eradicating the disease, malaria remains endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. In 1969 WHO recommended that, although eradication should remain an ultimate goal, malaria control operations may form a transitional phase in countries where eradication does not appear feasible. Malaria control, however, remains an impossible goal in many countries where the disease is endemic. Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant malaria pathogen responsible for severe disease and death. It is estimated that 90% of all malaria cases worldwide occur in Africa, where the majority of people live in highly endemic or endemic prone areas. Only about 12% of the population lives in risk-free or low-risk areas. Between one-third and two-thirds of all cases of fever among children are associated with malaria, and in some parts of Africa the case-fatality rate is as high 31.9% for infants and 20.4% for children. The malaria situation in the African continent is rapidly changing due to variants of P. falciparum that are resistant to chloroquine; mosquitoes that are resistant to insecticides; movement of nonimmune individuals to endemic areas; increasing short-term travel patterns; and ecological reasons. Malaria is also appearing in previously free areas because of technological (agricultural) advances. Adult and pediatric dosages of antimalarial drugs are suggested for the treatment and prevention of P. falciparum malaria.