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Your search found 7 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Monitoring linked epidemics: the case of tuberculosis and HIV.

    Sanchez MS; Lloyd-Smith JO; Getz WM

    PloS One. 2010; 5(1):e8796.

    BACKGROUND: The tight epidemiological coupling between HIV and its associated opportunistic infections leads to challenges and opportunities for disease surveillance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We review efforts of WHO and collaborating agencies to track and fight the TB/HIV co-epidemic, and discuss modeling--via mathematical, statistical, and computational approaches--as a means to identify disease indicators designed to integrate data from linked diseases in order to characterize how co-epidemics change in time and space. We present R(TB/HIV), an index comparing changes in TB incidence relative to HIV prevalence, and use it to identify those sub-Saharan African countries with outlier TB/HIV dynamics. R(TB/HIV) can also be used to predict epidemiological trends, investigate the coherency of reported trends, and cross-check the anticipated impact of public health interventions. Identifying the cause(s) responsible for anomalous R(TB/HIV) values can reveal information crucial to the management of public health. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We frame our suggestions for integrating and analyzing co-epidemic data within the context of global disease monitoring. Used routinely, joint disease indicators such as R(TB/HIV) could greatly enhance the monitoring and evaluation of public health programs.
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  2. 2

    Recent experiences in infectious diseases: strengthening public health infrastructure in disease surveillance.

    Cash RA

    Contact. 2005 Jan; (179):29-31.

    In the past century there have been remarkable achievements in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Bacteria and viruses have been identified; laboratory techniques have greatly advanced; the pathogenesis and epidemiology have been defined for most diseases; and antibiotics and vaccines have been developed to treat and prevent a host of discusses. Examples are everywhere. We have eradicated smallpox and come close to doing the same for polio. Inexpensive treatments such as Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) for diarrhoea have greatly reduced mortality and morbidity among children. Improvements in water and sanitation helped to reduce expose to certain pathogens. Yet, despite these great successes in controlling and treating infectious diseases, they remain a serious medical burden in both developing and industrialized in countries. It is estimated that about 15 million of the 57 million annual deaths (about 26%) are directly related to infectious diseases. This estimate does not include deaths due to the consequences of past infections (for example, rheumatic heart disease) or from complications of chronic infections (for example, hepatocellular carcinoma from hepatitis B infection). (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Facilitating the WHO Expanded Program of Immunization: the clinical profile of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.

    Arístegui J; Usonis V; Coovadia H; Riedemann S; Win KM

    International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2003 Jun; 7(2):143-151.

    Background: Vaccines are important weapons in the fight against infectious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has been extended to include recommendations for hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccinations. The WHO has recommended that combined vaccines be used where possible, to reduce the logistic costs of vaccine delivery. This paper reviews the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of Tritanrix-HB/Hib, the only commercially available combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis, hepatitis B and conjugated Hib vaccine. Methods: The immunogenicity and reactogenicity results of five published clinical trials involving Tritanix-HB/Hib in a variety of immunization schedules and countries were reviewed. Based on these data and cost-effectiveness studies, an assessment of its suitability for use in national immunization programs was made. Results: Tritanix-HB/Hib has shown excellent immunogenicity in clinical trials using a variety of schedules, with no reduced immunogenicity observed for any of the components of the combined vaccine. It has similar reactogenicity to DTPw vaccines alone. Pharmacoeconomic analyses have shown combined DTP-HB/Hib vaccines to be cost-effective compared to separate vaccines. Conclusions: Replacement of DTPw vaccination by Tritanrix-HB/Hib can be done without modifying the existing national immunization programs. This should facilitate widespread coverage of hepatitis B and Hib vaccinations and their rapid incorporation into the EPI. (author's)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank loan project (1992-2001).

    Chen X; Wang L; Cai J; Zhou X; Zheng J

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2005; 83(1):43-48.

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy primarily -- to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals and advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Transmission intensity index to monitor filariasis infection pressure in vectors for the evaluation of filariasis elimination programmes.

    Sunish IP; Rajendran R; Mani TR; Munirathinam A; Tewari SC

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2003 Sep; 8(9):812-819.

    We conducted longitudinal studies on filariasis control in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu, south India, between 1995 and 2000. Overall, 23 entomological (yearly) data sets were available from seven villages, on indoor resting collections [per man hour (PMH) density and transmission intensity index (TII)] and landing collections on human volunteers [PMH and annual transmission potential (ATP)]. All four indices decreased or increased hand-in-hand with interventions or withdrawal of inputs and remained at high levels without interventions under varied circumstances of experimental design. The correlation coefficients between parameters [PMH: resting vs. landing (r = 0.77); and TII vs. ATP (r = 0.81)] were highly significant (P < 0.001). The former indices from resting collections stand a chance of replacing the latter from landing collections in the evaluation of global filariasis elimination efforts. The TII would appear to serve the purpose of a parameter that can measure infection pressure per unit time in the immediate household surroundings of human beings and can reflect the success or otherwise of control/elimination efforts along with human infection parameters. Moreover, it will not pose any additional risk of new infection(s) and avoids infringement of human rights concerns by the experimental procedures of investigators, unlike ATP that poses such a risk to volunteers. (author's)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed


    Mabey DC; Solomon AW; Foster A

    Lancet. 2003 Jul 19; 362(9379):223-229.

    Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness. It is caused by ocular serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. Transmission is favoured in poor communities, where crowding is common and access to water and sanitation inadequate. Repeated reinfection over many years causes dense scarring of the upper eyelid. The resultant inversion of the lashes abrades the eyeball, and the abrasion leads to corneal opacification and visual impairment. The host immune response is probably at least partly the cause of this process. The “SAFE” strategy is used for the control of trachoma: surgery for inturned lashes, antibiotics for active disease, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement. The demonstration that a single oral dose of the antibiotic azithromycin is as effective as 6 weeks of topical tetracycline was an important advance in trachoma control. By means of the SAFE strategy, WHO and its partners aim to eliminate trachoma as a public-health problem by the year 2020. (author's)
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  7. 7

    Hepatitis B in St Petersburg, Russia (1994-1999): incidence, prevalence and force of infection.

    Beutels P; Shkedy Z; Mukomolov S; Aerts M; Shargorodskaya E

    Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2003 Mar; 10(2):141-149.

    Hepatitis B (HB) is thought to be an expanding health problem in Russia. The incidence of infection was estimated from mandatorily reported HB cases in St Petersburg. The two-sided t-test for independent samples and the LOESS (locally-weighted regression) smoother were used to compare the age at infection for symptomatic, asymptomatic and chronic infections, by gender. The force of infection was estimated from seroprevalence data (907 sera taken in 1999) using a newly developed nonparametric method based on local polynomials, as well as an earlier method based on isotonic regression and kernel smoothers. With the local polynomial method, pointwise confidence intervals (95%) were constructed by bootstrapping. On average, men contracted HB infection at a significantly younger age than women (in 1999, 21.8 vs 22.7 years, respectively). The overall male to female ratio was 1.92. In 1999 the overall incidence almost doubled compared with the preceding years and tripled among the age groups with highest incidence (15–29-year olds: 85% of cases in 1999). The incidence increase was associated with a lower average age at infection (24.1 years in 1994 vs 22.1 years in 1999). The age and gender-specific force of infection estimates generally confirmed the incidence estimates and emphasized the usefulness of local polynomials to do this. Hence HB transmission in St Petersburg occurs mainly in young adults. The dramatic increase of infections in 1999 was probably due to injecting drug use. Without intervention, HB virus is expected to continue to spread rapidly with a greater proportion of female infections caused by sexual transmission. These trends may also provide an indication for HIV transmission. (author's)
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