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Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Aug.  p. (UNAIDS/ JC2112E)This report shows that these global commitments will be achieved only if the unique needs of young women and men are acknowledged, and their human rights fulfilled, respected, and protected. In order to reduce new HIV infections among young people, achieve the broader equity goals set out in the MDGs, and begin to reverse the overall HIV epidemic, HIV prevention and treatment efforts must be tailored to the specific needs of young people.
[Alexandria, Egypt], World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, 1993. , 33 p. (WHO-EM/GPA/014/E/L/93)This booklet discusses the epidemiology of AIDS, which, with over 600,000 cases reported to WHO from 1981 to 1992, is a worldwide concern. The three basic modes of HIV (causative agent) transmission are 1) sexual intercourse, 2) transmission by contaminated blood, blood products, and contaminated skin-piercing instruments, and 3) mother-to-child and perinatal transmission. The period between infection to the appearance of definite signs and symptoms ranges from 6 months to several years. Mean incubation period is 1 year for children and more than 5 years in adults. The stages of infection are acute illness, a latency phase, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, AIDS-related complex, and AIDS. Methods of diagnosis include 1) serologic testing for antibodies to HIV, 2) detection of viral antigens, and 3) isolation and characterization of the HIV virus. The three main therapeutic approaches are antiviral drugs, passive protection, and drugs that treat AIDS-related infections and malignancies. Presently, there are more than 10 vaccines in phase 1 testing for immunogenicity and safety. In the absence of an effective treatment, prevention and control strategies such as prevention of sexual and blood-borne transmission, public health education, and case management, are necessary. In addition, the WHO Global Programme on AIDS has organized and sponsored various scientific meetings and consultations on research and policy issues. Country-based programs are also supported by WHO, which allocates at least 70% of its AIDS budget to this field.