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Malaria treatment policy: technical support needs assessment. Malaria Action Coalition (MAC) Senegal Mission report, March 14-21, 2005.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005. 18 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADF-437)African countries are undergoing a period of dramatic change in their national malaria treatment policies as more of these countries adopt artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Successful implementation of the new ACT policies presents many challenges and most countries will require technical assistance from a variety of sources, both internal and external. The Malaria Action Coalition (MAC) partnership brings together three partners that have considerable expertise in many of the areas related to ACT implementation, which complements expertise brought by other Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has made a commitment to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) to provide technical assistance through MAC. This mission was therefore designed to assess the progress of Senegal toward implementing the new ACT policy and to determine what, if any, additional technical support it may need to successfully complete the implementation. It is expected that the successful implementation of the ACT policy will contribute to the attainment of the RBM goals for the prevention, treatment, and control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through coordinated technical support. (excerpt)
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2003 Jan 15; 36 Suppl 1:S24-S30.Resistance to antituberculosis drugs has been a problem since the era of chemotherapy began. After dramatic outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the early 1990s, resistance became recognized as a global problem. MDR-TB now threatens the inhabitants of countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. An understanding of the molecular basis of drug resistance may contribute to the development of new drugs. Management of MDR-TB relies on prompt recognition and treatment with at least 3 drugs to which an isolate is susceptible. (author's)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2003 Feb; 3(2):65.A 30-year campaign has successfully ended the blight of river blindness in west Africa. This monumental achievement is the result of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP), established in 1974 under the joint auspices of the United Nations Development Programme, World Bank, WHO, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. (author's)
Transmission intensity index to monitor filariasis infection pressure in vectors for the evaluation of filariasis elimination programmes.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2003 Sep; 8(9):812-819.We conducted longitudinal studies on filariasis control in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu, south India, between 1995 and 2000. Overall, 23 entomological (yearly) data sets were available from seven villages, on indoor resting collections [per man hour (PMH) density and transmission intensity index (TII)] and landing collections on human volunteers [PMH and annual transmission potential (ATP)]. All four indices decreased or increased hand-in-hand with interventions or withdrawal of inputs and remained at high levels without interventions under varied circumstances of experimental design. The correlation coefficients between parameters [PMH: resting vs. landing (r = 0.77); and TII vs. ATP (r = 0.81)] were highly significant (P < 0.001). The former indices from resting collections stand a chance of replacing the latter from landing collections in the evaluation of global filariasis elimination efforts. The TII would appear to serve the purpose of a parameter that can measure infection pressure per unit time in the immediate household surroundings of human beings and can reflect the success or otherwise of control/elimination efforts along with human infection parameters. Moreover, it will not pose any additional risk of new infection(s) and avoids infringement of human rights concerns by the experimental procedures of investigators, unlike ATP that poses such a risk to volunteers. (author's)
SANTE-SALUD. 1993 Summer; (2):5-6.The World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated and supported the eradication of malaria in various countries of the world since 1957. Unlike some countries in the temperate zone which have been successful in eradicating the disease, malaria remains endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. In 1969 WHO recommended that, although eradication should remain an ultimate goal, malaria control operations may form a transitional phase in countries where eradication does not appear feasible. Malaria control, however, remains an impossible goal in many countries where the disease is endemic. Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant malaria pathogen responsible for severe disease and death. It is estimated that 90% of all malaria cases worldwide occur in Africa, where the majority of people live in highly endemic or endemic prone areas. Only about 12% of the population lives in risk-free or low-risk areas. Between one-third and two-thirds of all cases of fever among children are associated with malaria, and in some parts of Africa the case-fatality rate is as high 31.9% for infants and 20.4% for children. The malaria situation in the African continent is rapidly changing due to variants of P. falciparum that are resistant to chloroquine; mosquitoes that are resistant to insecticides; movement of nonimmune individuals to endemic areas; increasing short-term travel patterns; and ecological reasons. Malaria is also appearing in previously free areas because of technological (agricultural) advances. Adult and pediatric dosages of antimalarial drugs are suggested for the treatment and prevention of P. falciparum malaria.