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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016.  p.Since the publication of the WHO Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections in 2003, changes in the epidemiology of STIs and advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment necessitate changes in STI management. These guidelines provide updated treatment recommendations for common infections caused by C. trachomatis based on the most recent evidence; they form one of several modules of guidelines for specific STIs. It is strongly recommended that countries take updated global guidance into account as they establish standardized national protocols, adapting this guidance to the local epidemiological situation and antimicrobial susceptibility data. The objectives of these guidelines are: to provide evidence-based guidance on treatment of infection with C. trachomatis; and to support countries to update their national guidelines for treatment of chlamydial infection.
Lancet. 2003 Jul 19; 362(9379):223-229.Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness. It is caused by ocular serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. Transmission is favoured in poor communities, where crowding is common and access to water and sanitation inadequate. Repeated reinfection over many years causes dense scarring of the upper eyelid. The resultant inversion of the lashes abrades the eyeball, and the abrasion leads to corneal opacification and visual impairment. The host immune response is probably at least partly the cause of this process. The “SAFE” strategy is used for the control of trachoma: surgery for inturned lashes, antibiotics for active disease, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement. The demonstration that a single oral dose of the antibiotic azithromycin is as effective as 6 weeks of topical tetracycline was an important advance in trachoma control. By means of the SAFE strategy, WHO and its partners aim to eliminate trachoma as a public-health problem by the year 2020. (author's)