Your search found 115 Results

  1. 1
    375130

    Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017. From World Development Indicators.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017. 131 p.

    The Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017 uses maps, charts and analysis to illustrate, trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas primarily draws on World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank's compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people's lives Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank's Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN's seventeen Sustainable Development Goals: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships. Between 1990 and 2013, nearly one billion people were raised out of extreme poverty. Its elimination is now a realistic prospect, although this will require both sustained growth and reduced inequality. Even then, gender inequalities continue to hold back human potential. Undernourishment and stunting have nearly halved since 1990, despite increasing food loss, while the burden of infectious disease has also declined. Access to water has expanded, but progress on sanitation has been slower. For too many people, access to healthcare and education still depends on personal financial means. To date the environmental cost of growth has been high. Accumulated damage to oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems is considerable. But hopeful signs exist: while greenhouse gas emissions are at record levels, so too is renewable energy investment. While physical infrastructure continues to expand, so too does population, so that urban housing and rural access to roads remain a challenge, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Meanwhile the institutional infrastructure of development strengthens, with more reliable government budgeting and foreign direct investment recovering from a post-financial crisis decline. Official development assistance, however, continues to fall short of target levels.
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  2. 2
    374221

    Inheriting a sustainable world? Atlas on children’s health and the environment.

    Drisse MN; Goldizen F

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 164 p.

    In 2015, 26% of the deaths of 5.9 million children who died before reaching their fifth birthday could have been prevented through addressing environmental risks – a shocking missed opportunity. The prenatal and early childhood period represents a window of particular vulnerability, where environmental hazards can lead to premature birth and other complications, and increase lifelong disease risk including for respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancers. The environment thus represents a major factor in children’s health, as well as a major opportunity for improvement, with effects seen in every region of the world. Children are at the heart of the Sustainable Development Goals, because it is children who will inherit the legacy of policies and actions taken, and not taken, by leaders today. The third SDG, to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages,” has its foundation in children’s environmental health, and it is incumbent on us to provide a healthy start to our children’s lives. This cannot be achieved, however, without multisectoral cooperation, as seen in the linkages between environmental health risks to children and the other SDGs. This publication is divided by target: SDGs 1, 2 and 10 address equity and nutrition; SDG 6 focuses on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); SDGs 7 and 13 call attention to energy, air pollution and climate change; SDGs 3, 6 and 12 look at chemical exposures; and SDGs 8, 9 and 11 study infrastructure and settings.
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  3. 3
    340258

    World Development Indicators 2016. Highlights: Featuring the Sustainable Development Goals. Extracted from the full version of WDI 2016.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016. [54] p.

    These WDI Highlights are drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) 2016 - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. WDI is regularly updated and new data are added in response to the needs of the development community; the 2016 edition includes new indicators to help measure the Sustainable Development Goals. World Development Indicators is the result of a collaborative partnership of international agencies, statistical offices of more than 200 economies, and many more.
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  4. 4
    340992

    World Development Indicators 2016.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016. [172] p.

    This annual release of a new edition is an opportunity to review the trends we’re seeing in global development and discuss updates we’ve made to our data and methods. The WDI team aims to produce a curated set of indicators relevant to the changing needs of the development community. The new edition includes indicators to help measure the 169 targets of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) -- these build on the 8 goals and 18 targets of the Millennium Development Goals we focused on in previous editions, but are far wider in scope and far more ambitious. A complementary Sustainable Development Goals data dashboard provides an interactive presentation of the indicators we have in the WDI database that are related to each goal. For each of the 17 SDGs the World View section of the publication includes recent trends and baselines against key targets. Data experts in the World Bank’s Data Group and subject specialists in the Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas teamed up to identify new and existing indicators and assess key trends for each goal and for three cross-cutting areas: statistical capacity; fragility, conflict and violence; and financial inclusion.
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  5. 5
    349703
    Peer Reviewed

    Seeing REDD.

    Nature. 2011 Apr 28; 472(7344):390.

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  6. 6
    333075

    Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication. A synthesis for policy makers.

    United Nations Environment Program [UNEP]

    Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 2011. [52] p.

    We argue in UNEP's forthcoming Green Economy Report, and in this extracted Synthesis for Policy Makers, that the rewards of greening the world's economies are tangible and considerable, that the means are at hand for both governments and the private sector, and that the time to engage the challenge is now. In this report, we explored through a macroeconomic model the impacts of investments in greening the economy as against investments in "business as usual" -- measuring results not only in terms of traditional GDP but also impacts on employment, resource intensity, emissions and ecological impact. We estimated, based on several studies, that the annual financing demand to green the global economy was in the range of US$ 1.05-2.59 trillion. To place this demand in perspective, it is less than one-tenth of the total global investment per year (as measured by global Gross Capital Formation). Taking an annual level of US$ 1.3 trillion (i.e. 2% of global GDP) as a target reallocation from "brown" investment to "green" investment, our macroeconomic model suggests that over time, investing in a green economy enhances long-run economic performance and can increase total global wealth. Significantly, it does so while enhancing stocks of renewable resources, reducing environmental risks, and rebuilding our capacity to generate future prosperity. Our report, Towards a Green Economy, focuses on 10 key economic sectors because we see these sectors as driving the defining trends of the transition to a green economy, including increasing human well-being and social equity, and reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. Across many of these sectors, we have found that greening the economy can generate consistent and positive outcomes for increased wealth, growth in economic output, decent employment, and reduced poverty. (Excerpts)
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  7. 7
    332809

    Influential evaluations: Evaluations that improved performance and impacts of development programs.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2004. [24] p.

    This report’s central message is that well-designed evaluations, conducted at the right time and developed in close consultation with intended users, can be a highly cost-effective way to improve the performance of development interventions. It includes eight case studies of evaluations that were utilized for improving programs and increasing effectiveness.
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  8. 8
    327633

    The Millennium Development Goals report 2007.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2007 Jun. 36 p.

    Since their adoption by all United Nations Member States in 2000, the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals have become a universal framework for development and a means for developing countries and their development partners to work together in pursuit of a shared future for all. The Millennium Declaration set 2015 as the target date for achieving most of the Goals. As we approach the midway point of this 15-year period, data are now becoming available that provide an indication of progress during the first third of this 15-year period. This report presents the most comprehensive global assessment of progress to date, based on a set of data prepared by a large number of international organizations within and outside the United Nations system. The results are, predictably, uneven. The years since 2000, when world leaders endorsed the Millennium Declaration, have seen some visible and widespread gains. Encouragingly, the report suggests that some progress is being made even inthose regions where the challenges are greatest. These accomplishments testify to the unprecedented degree of commitment by developing countries and their development partners to the Millennium Declaration and to some success in building the global partnership embodied in the Declaration. The results achieved in the more successful cases demonstrate that success is possible in most countries, but that the MDGs will be attained only if concerted additional action is taken immediately and sustained until 2015. All stakeholders need to fulfil, in their entirety, the commitments they made in the Millennium Declaration and subsequent pronouncements. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    313671

    State of world population 2007. Unleashing the potential of urban growth.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2007. [105] p.

    In 2008, the world reaches an invisible but momentous milestone: For the first time in history, more than half its human population, 3.3 billion people, will be living in urban areas. By 2030, this is expected to swell to almost 5 billion. Many of the new urbanites will be poor. Their future, the future of cities in developing countries, the future of humanity itself, all depend very much on decisions made now in preparation for this growth. This Report tries to grasp the implications of the imminent doubling of the developing world's urban population and discusses what needs to be done to prepare for this massive increase. It looks more closely at the demographic processes underlying urban growth in developing areas and their policy implications. It specifically examines the consequences of the urban transition for poverty reduction and sustainability. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    296613

    Development planning committee contributes to 1990s strategy - Committee for Development Planning.

    UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3):[3] p..

    The Committee--a group of expert economic advisers to the United Nations serving in their personal capacity-- said that in the 1990s, development efforts in the developing world ought to focus on four interrelated areas-- acceleration of economic growth, human resources development, reduction in the number of people suffering from absolute poverty, and controlling the deterioration of the physical environment. Industrialized countries should place greater emphasis on economic expansion to accelerate world-wide economic growth in the 1990s, the Committee stated. Those countries should also reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, and ensure the developing world access to their markets. The United States must eliminate its massive trade deficit; it must also absorb a significant proportion of the savings of the rest of the world. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    296591

    UNDP seeking blueprint through the year 2000 - United Nations Development Programme.

    UN Chronicle. 1989 Jun; 26(2):[2] p..

    The proposed blueprint for UNDP in the 1990s will be hammered out in a series of informal meetings between March and May, when it is expected to be made public. The go-ahead was given by UNDP's Governing Council at a special three-day session in New York, in February. The high-level plenary will be part of the Council's 36th regular session, scheduled from 5 to 30 June. With some 5,000 projects worth about $7.5 billion in more than 150 developing countries and territories, UNDP is the United Nations main development aid operation. It is also the world's largest multilateral channel for technical and pre-investment assistance. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    296487

    Second LDC conference adopts new Action Programme in Paris - least developed countries.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4):[4] p..

    A new Programme of Action aimed at advancing the world's poorest countries offers a "menu approach" for donors to increase their official aid to the least developed countries (LDCs), stressing bilateral assistance in the form of grants or highly concessional loans and calling on donors to help reduce LDC debt. The Programme was adopted by consensus at the conclusion of the Second United Nations Conference on the LDCs (Paris, 3- 14 September). The UN recognizes more than 40 developing countries as "least developed". Although individual nation's indicators vary, in general LDCs have a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately $200 a year, a low life expectancy, literacy rates under 20 per cent and a low contribution of manufacturing industries to GDP. Reflecting the emergence during the 1980s of new priorities in development strategy, the Programme of Action for the LDCs for the 1990s differs from the Action Programme adopted at the first UN Conference on LDCs held in 1981 in Paris. The new Programme emphasizes respect for human rights, the need for democratization and privatization, the potential role of women in development and the new regard for population policy as a fundamental factor in promoting development. Greater recognition of the role of non-governmental organizations in LDC development is also emphasized. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    292176

    When a woman shouts from the trees.

    Maathai W

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[3] p..

    I stand before you and the world humbled by this recognition and uplifted by the honour of being the 2004 Nobel Peace Laureate. As the first African woman to receive this prize, I accept it on behalf of the people of Kenya and Africa, and indeed the world. I am especially mindful of women and the girl child. I hope it will encourage them to raise their voices and take more space for leadership. I know the honour also gives a deep sense of pride to our men, both old and young. As a mother, I appreciate the inspiration this brings to the youth and urge them to use it to pursue their dreams. Although this prize comes to me, it acknowledges the work of countless individuals and groups across the globe. This honour is also for my family, friends, partners and supporters throughout the world. I am also grateful to the people of Kenya—who remained stubbornly hopeful that democracy could be realized and their environment managed sustainably. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    290790

    Advocacy news.

    Hesse C

    Pathways. 2004 Oct; 4.

    The past few months in the Advocacy unit have been busy! We’ve held public forums in Seattle, Washington and Portland, Oregon, organized Advocacy Day on Capitol Hill with the Pathfinder Board of Directors, and continue to expand our newly revamped Advocacy E-Center. As always, our goal is to inform and educate the public debate on international family planning and reproductive health policies and programs. Two of our Pathfinder country representatives — Milka Dinev from Peru and Charles Thube from Kenya — were big hits as the keynote speakers at several public forums in Seattle and Portland. Through unique partnerships with the Sierra Club and Planned Parenthood Federation of America, environmental and domestic reproductive rights activists learned about our programs in Peru and Kenya, and the impact that U.S. policies are having on the delivery of services there. The forums focused on our recent research and participation in “Access Denied: U.S. Restrictions on International Family Planning,” a study of the impact of the global gag rule in several countries around the world. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    281927
    Peer Reviewed

    The Millennium Project: the positive health implications of improved environmental sustainability.

    Melnick DJ; Navarro YK; McNeely J; Schmidt-Traub G; Sears RR

    Lancet. 2005 Feb 19; 365:723-725.

    Ensuring environmental sustainability is essential to achieving all the Millennium Development Goals. Longterm solutions to problems of drinking-water shortages, hunger, poverty, gender inequality, emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, maternal and childhood health, extreme local weather and global climate changes, and conflicts over natural resources need systematic strategies to achieve environmental sustainability. For this reason, the UN Millennium Project Task Force on Environmental Sustainability has concluded that protection of the environment is an essential prerequisite and component of human health and well-being. Economic development and good health are not at odds with environmental sustainability: they depend on it. One important dimension of environmental sustainability is the need to maintain ecosystem services critical to the human population. These services include providing food, shelter, and construction materials; regulating the quantity and quality of fresh water; limiting soil erosion and regenerating nutrients; controlling pests and alien invasive species; providing pollination; buffering human, wild plant, and animal populations from interspecific transfer and spread of diseases; and stabilising local weather conditions and sequestering greenhouse gases to contain climate change. A second and equally important dimension of environmental sustainability is the need to control water pollution and air pollution, including the emission of greenhouse gases that drive climate change. These so-called brown issues can have a severe effect on human health and ecosystem function. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    281206

    UNFPA annual report 2003.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2004. [35] p.

    Gaps in reproductive health care account for nearly one fifth of the worldwide burden of illness and premature death, and one third of the illness and death among women of reproductive age. These gaps could be closed and millions of lives saved with highly cost-effective investments in this area, including contraceptive services and supplies now in severe global shortage. Reproductive health yields a high return on investment. Reproductive health services, especially for the poorest with the greatest need, not only improve quality of life for individuals and families but also contribute to economic growth, societal and gender equity, and democratic governance. In particular, adequate funding of programmes enabling young people to avoid unwanted pregnancy, unsafe childbirth and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) would produce a significant benefit to development and slow the spread of HIV/AIDS. Key areas of UNFPA support are featured below in examples of action in family planning, safe motherhood, obstetric fistula, adolescent reproductive health, gender violence, commodity security and access and quality. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    278445

    Indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: definitions, rationale, concepts and sources.

    United Nations Development Group

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2003 Oct. [111] p.

    This handbook contains basic metadata on the agreed list of quantitative indicators for monitoring progress towards the 8 goals and 18 targets derived from the Millennium Declaration. The list of indicators, developed using several criteria, is not intended to be prescriptive but to take into account the country setting and the views of various stakeholders in preparing country-level reports. Five main criteria guided the selection of indicators. They should: Provide relevant and robust measures of progress towards the targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Be clear and straightforward to interpret and provide a basis for international comparison. Be broadly consistent with other global lists and avoid imposing an unnecessary burden on country teams, governments and other partners. Be based to the greatest extent possible on international standards, recommendations and best practices. Be constructed from well-established data sources, be quantifiable and be consistent to enable measurement over time. The handbook is designed to provide the United Nations country teams and national and international stakeholders with guidance on the definitions, rationale, concepts and sources of the data for the indicators that are being used to monitor the Millennium Development Goals. Just as the indicator list is dynamic and will necessarily evolve in response to changing national situations, so will the metadata change over time as concepts, definitions and methodologies change. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    192288

    Aid in community based poverty-environment projects.

    Sullivan M

    Development Bulletin. 2002 Jul; (58):16-19.

    It is commonly accepted among development agencies that poverty and environmental degradation are intricately linked. All donor or development agencies have recently made that link explicit, and accepted a concept of poverty that is more than simply cash-based or economically defined. Like other development banks and development assistance agencies, the World Bank and AusAID have a policy focus on reducing poverty, which they define in terms of income generation, vulnerability and other aspects of livelihood or well-being. Marjorie Sullivan (2001) undertook a brief analysis of how the links between poverty and environment can be addressed through development assistance. She concluded that it is not possible to undertake an adequate poverty analysis as a basis for identifying project interventions without considering long term (post project) sustainability, nor without fully considering resource use. That analysis must include the explicit links between poverty and environment, and the more contentious issue of ecological sustainability (to address ecosystem services concepts), and how these can be incorporated into the management of development assistance programs. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    189345

    Achieving the millennium development goals. Population and reproductive health as critical determinants.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. ix, 24 p. (Population and Development Strategies No. 10)

    The ICPD goal of universal access to quality reproductive health services by 2015 is not one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Yet, as this publication demonstrates, the attainment of reproductive health and reproductive rights are fundamental for development, for fighting poverty, and for meeting the MDG targets. Conversely, reproductive ill-health undermines development by, inter alia, diminishing the quality of women’s lives, weakening and, in extreme cases, killing poor women of prime ages, and placing heavy burdens on families and communities. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    184564

    Population, resources and the environment: struggling towards sustainability.

    Hinrichsen D

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 175-188.

    This analysis looks at the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA's) work in the area of population-environment-development linkages. It then analyses the collective effects of 6 billion people, their consumption patterns, and resource use trends, in six different critical resource areas. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    184745

    Learning from experience: water and environmental sanitation in India.

    UNICEF

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002. 19 p.

    To capture some of the lessons learned in India, UNICEF commissioned an independent evaluation of its WES programme in India over the past 30 years. The evaluation, which took place in 1998 and 1999, was conducted by a team of independent sector specialists, using literature reviews, interviews, surveys and other methods. The conclusions were published in a report. This publication, which presents the team’s findings in a format accessible to a wider audience, explores lessons learned that can help other nations in their efforts to provide universal WES coverage for their citizens. (author's)
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  22. 22
    182047

    Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.

    The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    083674
    Peer Reviewed

    [Health and environment: a global challenge] Sante et environnement: un defi mondial.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Commission on Health and Environment

    BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1992; 70(5):567-72.

    WHO's Commission on Health and Environment states that a healthy environment is not only a necessity: the right to live and to work in an environment favorable to physical and mental health is recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is for everyone to see to it that this right be respected. It is the duty of individuals and businesses to act and of public powers to supply a strategic and institutional framework necessary for action. Three major objectives can be defined at the global level: establish a sustainable base for health for all, assure a favorable environment for health (i.e., reduce physical, chemical, and biological risks and furnish all the means to acquire the necessary resources for health), and make all individuals and organizations aware of their responsibilities in regard to health and environmental conditions which are necessary to all. To achieve a sustainable base for all, it will be necessary to slow down and finally stop population growth as fast as possible and to promote ways of life and plans of consumption conforming to requirements of ecological sustainability in developed countries. Two principles are at the center of all actions aiming to guarantee a healthier and more stable environment: more equitable access to resources between individuals on the national level and between countries, and full participation of citizens in planning. Participation contributes to the promotion of health and the quality of the environment because it serves as a means to organize action and to motivate individuals and communities while allowing them to work out policies and projects based on their own priorities. It also allows individuals to influence the choices of the means to reap the best part of limited resources. Participation policy structures offer the means to fight against environmental degradation.
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  24. 24
    080183

    Integration of population education in APPEAL. Volume Two. Population education in universal primary education.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific [PROAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, PROAP, 1992. [3], 100 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    As part of the goal to integrate population education into primary school curriculum and literacy programs, workshops were held in 1989 and 1991. The noteworthy teaching materials for primary education included in this document were generated from the experiences in Indonesia and Pakistan. Workshop participants completed questionnaires on various aspects of population education and then visits were made to 3 primary schools in SD Jayagiri, SD Negeri Lembang V, and SD Negeri Cibodas, Indonesia; observations were made and teachers and principals identified their needs. A similar process led to the production of materials for Pakistan after visits to a Muslim community about 4 km from Islamabad and to Saidpur, Pakistan. The materials from Indonesia focused on core messages and submessages on small family size for family welfare, delayed marriage, responsible parenthood, population planning for environmental and resource conservation and development, reorientation of beliefs, and improved status for women. Each core unit had a submessage, objective, content, method or format, target audience, and learning activity. For example, the core message on small family size for family welfare contains the message that a family needs a budget. The objective is to develop an awareness of the relationship between family needs and family income. The content is to stress the limits to expenditures within family resources and a comparison of sharing available resources in a large family. The method or format is a script for radio directed to out-of-school children and class VI. Dialogue is presented in a scene about purchasing food at a local market. The noteworthy curriculum materials from Pakistan focuses on their problems, their population, family, teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, implications of population growth, living things and their environment, and Shimim's story. Each issue has a class time, subject, core message, and instructional objective. In Shimim's story, the social studies class is devoted for 45 minutes to the core message about elders as an asset to the family and society. Reading material is provided and the teacher directs questions about the material and tests students with true/false questions.
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  25. 25
    074890

    The global possible: resources, development, and the new century.

    Global Possible Conference (1984: Wye Plantation)

    In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 491-519. (World Resources Institute Book)

    Participants at the Global Possible Conference in 1984 concluded that, despite the dismal predictions about the earth, we can still fashion a more secure, prosperous, and sustainable world environmentally and economically. The tools to bring about such a world already exist. The international community and nations must implement new policies, however. Government, science, business, and concerned groups must reach new levels of cooperation. Developed and developing countries must form new partnerships to implement sustained improvements in living standards of the world's poor. Peaceful cooperation is needed to eliminate the threat of nuclear war--the greatest threat to life and the environment. Conference working groups prepared an agenda for action which, even though it is organized along sectoral disciplines, illustrates the complex linkages that unite issues in 1 area with those in several others. For example, problems existing in forests tie in with biological diversity, energy and fuelwood, and management of agricultural lands and watersheds. The agenda emphasizes policies and initiatives that synergistically influence serious problems in several sectors. It also tries to not present solutions that generate as many problems as it tries to solve. The 1st section of the agenda covers population, poverty, and development issues. it provides recommendations for developing and developed countries. It discusses urbanization and issues facing cities. The 3rd section embodies freshwater issues and has 1 list of recommendations for all sectors. The agenda addresses biological diversity, tropical forests, agricultural land, living marine resources, energy, and nonfuel minerals in their own separate sections. It discusses international assistance and the environment in 1 section. Another section highlights the need to assess conditions, trends, and capabilities. The last section comprises business, science, an citizens.
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