Your search found 55 Results

  1. 1

    Human Development Report 2011. Sustainability and equity: a better future for all.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    Basingstoke, United Kingdom, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. [185] p.

    This Report explores the integral links between environmental sustainability and equity and shows that these are critical to expanding human freedoms for people today and in generations to come. The point of departure is that the remarkable progress in human development over recent decades that the Human Development Report has documented cannot continue without bold global steps to reduce environmental risks and inequality. We identify pathways for people, communities, countries and the international community to promote environmental sustainability and equity in mutually reinforcing ways.
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  2. 2

    Protecting health from climate change: World Health Day 2008. Summary of issues paper.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2008. 2 p.

    There is now widespread agreement that the earth is warming, due to emissions of greenhouse gases caused by human activity. It is also clear that current trends in energy use development and population growth will lead to continuing - and more severe - climate change. The changing climate will inevitably affect the basic requirements for maintaining health: clean air and water, sufficient food and adequate shelter. Each year, about 800 000 people die from causes attributable to urban air pollution, 1.8 million from diarrhoea resulting from lack of access to clean water supply, sanitation, and poor hygiene, 3.5 million from malnutrition and approximately 60 000 in natural disasters. A warmer and more variable climate threatens to lead to higher levels of some air pollutants, increase transmission of diseases through unclean water and through contaminated food, to compromise agricultural production in some of the least developed countries, and increase the hazards of extreme weather. Climate change also brings new challenges to the control of infectious diseases. Many of the major killers are highly climate sensitive as regards to temperature and rainfall, including cholera, and the diarrhoeal diseases, as well as diseases including malaria, dengue and other infections carried by vectors. In sum, climate change threatens to slow, halt or reverse the progress that the global public health community is now making against many of these diseases. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    DDT: a polluted debate in malaria control.

    Schapira A

    Lancet. 2006 Dec 16; 368(9553):2111-2113.

    A recent press statement from WHO about dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and indoor residual spraying for malaria control caused a considerable stir, despite the fact that, in terms of policy, it merely reiterated WHO's endorsement of DDT as a useful insecticide for malaria control, albeit in a highly promotional way. In this recurring debate, arguments for and against DDT, as before, have been heated and mainly based on considerations far removed from the realities of malaria control. One group that criticised the WHO statement has inferred that my resignation from WHO's Global Malaria Programme in September, 2006, was related to my opposition to its promotion of DDT. This assumption is erroneous. For many years, WHO's malaria-control professionals have fought hard against pressure from various sides to ensure access in malaria-endemic countries to DDT. Hopefully, the statement now issued by the Global Malaria Programme will put an end to this debate, so that all countries that need DDT for malaria control will have unfettered access to use it in accordance with WHO guidelines and with the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, if they are signatories to the latter. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Worldwide water crisis is a "silent emergency," UN agency says.

    Moszynski P

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2006 Nov 11; 333(7576):986.

    Unclean water is an "immeasurably greater threat to human security than violent conflict" across the developing world, says the latest annual report from the United Nations Development Programme. The report says, "'Not having access to clean water' is a euphemism for profound deprivation. It means that people walk more than one kilometre to the nearest source of clean water for drinking, that they collect water from drains, ditches or streams that might be infected with pathogens and bacteria that can cause severe illness and death." Each year 1.8 million children die from diarrhoea that could be prevented; 443 million school days are lost to water related illnesses; and almost 50% of all people in poor countries have at any given time a health problem caused by a lack of water and sanitation. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Emerging voices and actions for world renewal: Quest for Global Healing Conference.

    Welch WH

    UN Chronicle. 2005 Dec; [1] p..

    The call to action was driven in part by the frustration with the priorities and pace at which the current players on the world scene are addressing issues, such as extreme poverty, human rights and the environment. Out of this frustration, however, came a major gift--the gift of hope and possibility. Worldwide participants were inspired and inspiring, and the organizations involved were doing inspiring and effective work. The results were equally impressive. For example, one business leader contributed desperately needed computers to schools in Cambodia; two individuals teamed up to teach conflict resolution in South Africa; another volunteered to fund ongoing dialogues between the Palestinians and Israelis. Participants came away with a new vision of what is possible and realized that global public opinion and individual initiative might indeed become the world's second super-power and help bring about change in global priorities. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Africa and globalization: marginalization and resistance.

    Gibson NC

    Journal of Asian and African Studies. 2004; 39(1-2):1-28.

    This chapter is a contribution to the ongoing debate about Africa and globalization and the interrelated issues of capitalism, marginalization, representation, and political leadership. Problematizing the discourse of Africa as "diseased" and "hapless," the World Bank's structural adjustment "cure-all" is presented as being much worse than the "disease" that preceded it. Proposing a critical ethics of globalization--which highlights the gap between globalization's miraculous, self-reflective images and the miserable conditions it creates--there is an attempt to uncover agents of change on the African continent. Social movements such as those fighting for water and electricity in Soweto, for land in Kenya, or against environmental destruction by oil companies in the Niger delta raise questions about the viability of globalization. Often led by women, these movements not only challenge the "male deal" that defines national governments and multinational corporations, but also call for a revaluation of subsistence economies and local democratic polities as alternatives to globalization. In short, this chapter offers important conceptual, as well as practical, challenges to globalization, indeed to the very nature of politics itself. (author's)
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  7. 7

    African crisis: the human dimension special UNICEF report on the future of Africa's children.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Apr; 23:[15] p..

    So begins a special report, Within Human Reach: A Future for Africa's Children, prepared by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). According to UNICEF, neglect of the human costs of the African crisis has obscured a full understanding of the "scenario for disaster' that has been unfolding on that continent over the past two decades. "In its day-to-day work in the continent, UNICEF is faced with the maluntrition and ill health which claim the lives of nearly 4 million African children each and every year--even when there is no drought, no famine, no camps, no epidemics, and no media coverage', states UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant in a preface to the report. "This is the "silent emergency' which, exacerbated by war and drought, has suddenly become the "loud emergency' of which all the world has heard'. However, adds Mr. Grant, "the first priority for action is to protect the lives and the normal growth of children. In times of emergency, the immediate, human argument for "children first' is an obvious one. But there is also a longer-term and more hard-headed case to be made. For there is a profound connection between the mental and physical development of the children and the social and economic development of their nations.' (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Children and environment.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2):[1] p..

    Environmental degradation is killing children. That is the alarming message of the 73-page report--Children and the Environment--published jointly by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and (UNEP) in 1990. The two organizations examined the effect of environmental quality on the child in the womb, on infants and children, as well as the special problems of children at work and those in distress. The study finds that "children are too often the victims of pollution--their young bodies make them far more vulnerable than adults to the poisons we spew into the air, and toxins we sow on Earth". It states that global warming, ozone depletion, loss of genetic resources, desertification and general land degradation are "this generation's legacy to its descendants". Before it is too late, the report urges, "intergenerational equity", which incorporates the welfare of future generations into developmental planning, must be implemented. UNICEF and UNEP warn that achieving it could be "the foremost challenge facing policy makers in the closing years of the twentieth century, and beyond". (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Poverty, infectious disease, and environmental degradation as threats to collective security: a UN Panel Report.

    Population and Development Review. 2005 Sep; 31(3):595-600.

    Among the documents to be considered at the 2005 World Summit at the UN General Assembly in September is the report of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. The Panel, chaired by Anand Panyarachun, former Prime Minister of Thailand, brought together 16 prominent individuals to assess current threats to peace and security and the institutional capacity, especially within the UN, to respond to them. Its report, A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, was issued in December 2004. Most of the publicity surrounding the report focused on its recommendations for UN reform, especially its proposals for expansion of the Security Council. The first two-thirds of the document, however, is concerned with the substance of collective security issues and prevention strategies. Defining a threat to international security as “any event or process that leads to large-scale death or lessening of life chances and undermines States as the basic unit of the international system,” the Panel identified six clusters of existing or anticipated threats: Economic and social threats (in particular, poverty, infectious disease, and environmental degradation); inter-State conflict; internal conflict (civil war, genocide, other large-scale atrocities); nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons; terrorism; and transnational organized crime. The section of the report (paragraphs 44–73) treating economic and social threats, titled “Poverty, infectious disease and environmental degradation,” is reproduced below. Paragraph numbers have been omitted. (author's)
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Environmental degradation and human well-being: report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    Population and Development Review. 2005 Jun; 31(2):389-398.

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, an elaborate international project set up in 2001 under UN auspices, aims “to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human wellbeing and to establish the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being.” It involves over 1,000 experts as panel and working group members, authors, and reviewers. Numerous reports are planned, covering the global and regional situations, scenarios of the future, and options for sustainable management. The first of these, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report, was issued in March 2005. The Report is organized around four main findings. The first two concern the past: what has happened and what it has meant for human welfare. The other two concern the future: what may happen and what might be done to improve matters. The time frame is the last 50 years and the next 50. Ecological change is assessed in terms of ecosystem services— the benefits humans receive from ecosystems. These include: provisioning services (supplying food, fresh water, timber, etc.); regulating services (climate regulation, erosion control, pollination); cultural services (recreation, aesthetic enjoyment); and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling). Of 24 services examined in the assessment, 15 are determined to be in decline or are being drawn on at an unsustainable rate. The welfare costs of these changes are disproportionately borne by the poor. Four world scenarios are developed to explore plausible ecological futures, varying in degrees of regionalism and economic liberalization and in approaches to ecosystem management. Under all of them the outlook is for continued pressure on consumption of ecosystem services and continued loss of biodiversity. In particular, ecosystem degradation “is already a significant barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals agreed to by the international community in September 2000 and the harmful consequences of this degradation could grow significantly worse in the next 50 years.” Remedy will be demanding: “An effective set of responses to ensure the sustainable management of ecosystems requires substantial changes in institutions and governance, economic policies and incentives, social and behavior factors, technology, and knowledge.” Such changes “are not currently under way.” The excerpt below, covering Findings #1 and #2 of the Assessment, is taken from the section of the report titled Summary for Decision-makers. Most of the charts are omitted. Parenthetical levels of certainty correspond to the following probabilities: very certain, = 98%; high certainty, 85–98%; medium, 65–85%; low, 52–65%. (author's)
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  11. 11

    Africa's cities may face a dry and dirty future.

    Sen Y

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Jun; 8(2):15-16.

    Water management and pollution are the most critical issues affecting water access today, as affirmed by UN Secretary- General Kofi Annan, during World Water Day, 22 May, 2002, when he stated that, "Even where supplies are plentiful, they are increasingly at risk from pollution and rising demand". The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), estimates that presently, some 1.1 billion people on earth are without access to clean water and over 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. This concern led the organization to launch the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) campaign. UN-HABITAT, which is also involved in this campaign, is increasing its role in urban water issues. It started with the innovative programme, Water for African Cities in seven demonstration cities: Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire), Accra (Ghana), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Dakar (Senegal), Johannesburg (South Africa), Lusaka (Zambia) and Nairobi (Kenya). UN-HABITAT has also recently been mandated by the third World Water Forum to play a leading role in raising international awareness on water and cities. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    The Millennium Project: the positive health implications of improved environmental sustainability.

    Melnick DJ; Navarro YK; McNeely J; Schmidt-Traub G; Sears RR

    Lancet. 2005 Feb 19; 365:723-725.

    Ensuring environmental sustainability is essential to achieving all the Millennium Development Goals. Longterm solutions to problems of drinking-water shortages, hunger, poverty, gender inequality, emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, maternal and childhood health, extreme local weather and global climate changes, and conflicts over natural resources need systematic strategies to achieve environmental sustainability. For this reason, the UN Millennium Project Task Force on Environmental Sustainability has concluded that protection of the environment is an essential prerequisite and component of human health and well-being. Economic development and good health are not at odds with environmental sustainability: they depend on it. One important dimension of environmental sustainability is the need to maintain ecosystem services critical to the human population. These services include providing food, shelter, and construction materials; regulating the quantity and quality of fresh water; limiting soil erosion and regenerating nutrients; controlling pests and alien invasive species; providing pollination; buffering human, wild plant, and animal populations from interspecific transfer and spread of diseases; and stabilising local weather conditions and sequestering greenhouse gases to contain climate change. A second and equally important dimension of environmental sustainability is the need to control water pollution and air pollution, including the emission of greenhouse gases that drive climate change. These so-called brown issues can have a severe effect on human health and ecosystem function. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    World population monitoring 2001. Population, environment and development.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2001. [89] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/203)

    The present report has been prepared in response to Economic and Social Council resolution 1995/55 of 28 July 1995, in which the Council endorsed the terms of reference and the topic-oriented and prioritized multi-year work programme proposed by the Commission on Population and Development at its twenty-eight session. According to the multi-year work programme, which was to serve as a framework for the assessment of the progress achieved in the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, a new series of reports on a special set of the themes would be prepared annually. The Commission, in its decisions 1999/1 and 2000/1, decided that the special theme for the year 2001 should be population, environment and development, which is the topic of the present report. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Portfolio review of USAID / El Salvador health office. [Reseña de las funciones de la Oficina de Salud de USAID El Salvador]

    Cobb L; Austin J; Cavanaugh K; Jordan M; Weinger M

    [Unpublished] 2002 Dec 20. [112] p.

    This report presents a review of the portfolio of the Health Office of USAID/El Salvador (USAID/PHN). The review was undertaken by a team of six persons, led by an independent consultant for POPTECH, with one senior public health specialist retired from USAID and four current USAID staff from Global Health on the Review Team. The USAID/PHN designed its portfolio within the strategic context of the Mission’s plan, Sustainable Development & Democracy in El Salvador 1997-2002, with a customer focus on the rural poor. The Office has revised, adapted and implemented the portfolio within the context of Hurricane Mitch in 1998, two earthquakes in 2001 and a dengue epidemic in 2002, all in a country recovering from a devastating civil war. On July 30, 1998, USAID and the government of El Salvador (GOES) signed the strategic objective grant agreement (SOAG) for the Strategic Objective (SO) “Sustainable Improvements in the Health of Women and Children Achieved.” In August 2002, the SO name was amended to read “Health of Salvadorans, primarily Women, Youth and Children, Improved” and the agreement was extended to June 2005. The purpose of the SO is to improve the quality and access to child survival services and reproductive health care for Salvadorans, primarily the rural poor, and to improve the policy framework and strengthen the institutions that support and sustain these interventions. There are two Intermediate Results (IRs): 1) Access to Quality Health-Related Services Increased and 2) Use of Health-related Services/Practices Increased. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Aid in community based poverty-environment projects.

    Sullivan M

    Development Bulletin. 2002 Jul; (58):16-19.

    It is commonly accepted among development agencies that poverty and environmental degradation are intricately linked. All donor or development agencies have recently made that link explicit, and accepted a concept of poverty that is more than simply cash-based or economically defined. Like other development banks and development assistance agencies, the World Bank and AusAID have a policy focus on reducing poverty, which they define in terms of income generation, vulnerability and other aspects of livelihood or well-being. Marjorie Sullivan (2001) undertook a brief analysis of how the links between poverty and environment can be addressed through development assistance. She concluded that it is not possible to undertake an adequate poverty analysis as a basis for identifying project interventions without considering long term (post project) sustainability, nor without fully considering resource use. That analysis must include the explicit links between poverty and environment, and the more contentious issue of ecological sustainability (to address ecosystem services concepts), and how these can be incorporated into the management of development assistance programs. (excerpt)
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  16. 16


    Sadik N

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. xv-xxii.

    The 21st century will present the international community and the United Nations with a unique opportunity to dramatically expand the economic and social progress of the past thirty years. The challenge before us is to have the courage and the vision to create an environment that is conducive to the equal participation of both women and men in society. The fundamental concern here is the depth of our commitment to this issue; we must firmly resolve that our children and grandchildren will live in a more equitable world. We must have the will to actively pursue and to achieve this goal. Through our desire to understand and grasp the issues and through stronger political and personal commitment, we can be agents of positive change. In the last analysis, only an integrated, comprehensive approach to development can achieve the required results. In formulating and implementing population policies, we should be mindful that there must be changes in all areas of societies. Equal responsibility, equal participation, equal opportunity, and mutual respect of individual rights are imperative to meet the goals of ICPD and to lay the foundations for sustained and sustainable development. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Population, resources and the environment: struggling towards sustainability.

    Hinrichsen D

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 175-188.

    This analysis looks at the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA's) work in the area of population-environment-development linkages. It then analyses the collective effects of 6 billion people, their consumption patterns, and resource use trends, in six different critical resource areas. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    Inequity in child health as a global issue.

    Waterston T

    Pediatrics. 2003 Sep; 112(3):739-774.

    The Issue: Poverty, violence, lack of education, abuse and exploitation, and refugee status are among the primary determinants of the health of children worldwide. There are 1.3 billion people living on less than US $1 per day. Half the world’s population, 3 billion people, live on less than US $1.30 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people who live in developing countries, 60% lack access to sanitation, 33% lack clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein.1 The world’s 225 richest people have a combined wealth equivalent to the annual income of the poorest 2.5 billion people, nearly half of the world’s population. This article describes a number of the social, political, and environmental factors impacting children in the developing (southern hemisphere) world and how these are affected by actions taken in the developed (northern hemisphere) world. (author's)
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  19. 19

    Fornos says curbing growth is challenge for 'our generation'.

    Burdett H

    POPLINE. 2003 May-Jun; 25:1, 2.

    If we are serious about a more equitable balance between population, environment and resources, Fornos said, " the industrialized world must commit itself to the provision of the necessary population assistance to the developing world." He stressed that solving the problem of rapid population growth is "a burden sharing exercise, with all of us - governments, multilateral agencies, the private sector, non-governmental organizations - working together for the common goal of improving the human condition." Fornos pointed out that throughout the world forests are declining, topsoil is eroding, deserts are expanding, temperatures are rising, and there remains the constant threat of unprecedented food and water shortages. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    Environmentally-Induced Population Displacements and Environmental Impacts Resulting from Mass Migrations, International Symposium, Geneva, 21-24 April 1996.

    United Nations. High Commissioner for Refugees; International Organization for Migration; Refugee Policy Group

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Organization for Migration, 1996. 128 p.

    This report provides a summary of proceedings and papers presented at the 1996 UN Conference on the Interactions between Mass Migrations and Environmental Impacts. The conference was organized and funded by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Organization for Migration, and the Refugee Policy Group. The conference aimed to determine how to break the mutually reinforcing cycle of environmental damage and mass migration. The discussions focused on the development of policy guidelines that would minimize detrimental impacts and designation of responsible entities for initiating and coordinating action. There was a consensus on a Statement of Principles for preventing and mitigating environmentally induced population displacement and for addressing the negative environmental consequences of mass migration. The Statement of Principles focused on descriptions of the problems and a framework for action for environmentally induced population displacements, environmental impacts of mass migrations, and breaking the cycle. The Summary of Proceedings included the warning in the closure statement that environmental degradation was an international and not a local problem that was linked to political strife, conflict over natural resources, and international political arrangements. The 13 background papers are summarized. Background papers focused on issues such as satellite monitoring and aerial photography, assorted case studies, failures in settlement planning and shelter management, remote sensing and geographic information systems technology, and approaches that mitigate the environmental impact of refugees. Environmental changes are charted for natural causes and man-made causes by time frame of the impact, scale and intensity of impact, predictability, reversibility, and main organizations involved. These two charts help match policy options to the problem.
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  21. 21

    Population, environment and development linkages.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Regional Clearing House on Population Education

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Regional Clearing House on Population Education, 1996. [5], 154 p. (Abstract-Bibliography Series 13)

    This book provides a bibliography and abstracts of publications on the linkages between environmental degradation, population growth, and sustainable development in the Asia and Pacific region. The seven sections are titled: Environmental Problems, Population Problems, Sustainable Development, Policy Statements and World Meetings, Linkages, Population and Environmental Programs for Special Interest Groups (such as women and children), and Curriculum Materials. Each section includes a review and synthesis of information on the topic and lengthy and substantive abstracts of the selected referenced materials. The book cites 73 recent publications, including research studies, monographs, technical papers, reports, and journal articles. Cross referencing is made possible by the use of author and subject indexes included in the appendix. This volume is directed to population program planners, managers, and educators. The aim is to provide an overview of how problems of population and sustainable development are inseparably linked and interrelated to problems of poverty, income disparities, and wasteful consumption. Some potential solutions are provided. To date, the information indicates that economic tools must be combined with political change and policy implementation.
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    [Health and environment: a global challenge] Sante et environnement: un defi mondial.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Commission on Health and Environment


    WHO's Commission on Health and Environment states that a healthy environment is not only a necessity: the right to live and to work in an environment favorable to physical and mental health is recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is for everyone to see to it that this right be respected. It is the duty of individuals and businesses to act and of public powers to supply a strategic and institutional framework necessary for action. Three major objectives can be defined at the global level: establish a sustainable base for health for all, assure a favorable environment for health (i.e., reduce physical, chemical, and biological risks and furnish all the means to acquire the necessary resources for health), and make all individuals and organizations aware of their responsibilities in regard to health and environmental conditions which are necessary to all. To achieve a sustainable base for all, it will be necessary to slow down and finally stop population growth as fast as possible and to promote ways of life and plans of consumption conforming to requirements of ecological sustainability in developed countries. Two principles are at the center of all actions aiming to guarantee a healthier and more stable environment: more equitable access to resources between individuals on the national level and between countries, and full participation of citizens in planning. Participation contributes to the promotion of health and the quality of the environment because it serves as a means to organize action and to motivate individuals and communities while allowing them to work out policies and projects based on their own priorities. It also allows individuals to influence the choices of the means to reap the best part of limited resources. Participation policy structures offer the means to fight against environmental degradation.
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  23. 23

    Science Summit on world population: a joint statement by 58 of the world's scientific academies.

    Science Summit on World Population (1993: New Delhi)


    In October 1993, representatives of 15 national academies of science worldwide convened a Science Summit on world population in New Delhi. The summit resulted in a joint statement by representatives of 58 academies which discusses population issues relating to development and sets forth policy propositions which emphasize the contributions that scientists, engineers, and health professionals can make to solve population problems. The statement (presented in this article in its entirety) opens with an assessment of the current state of population growth and the presentation of 3 hypothetical scenarios for levels of population in the future. After a review of the key determinants of population growth, the statement links population growth with resource consumption, the environment, and quality of life and emphasizes that the resources of the earth are finite. After delineating what must be done and why, the statement continues with a discussion of how to do it starting with a consideration of human reproductive health which emphasizes maternal mortality, access to contraception, contraceptive research and development, the status of women, and the integration of reproductive health services into broader strategies to improve the quality of human life. Sustainability of the natural world is described as everyone's responsibility, and scientists, engineers, and health professionals are asked to enhance the prospects for humanity by studying and providing advice on 1) factors that affect reproductive behavior; 2) conditions for human development (including the impediments resulting from economic inefficiencies and social inequalities and biases); 3) global and local environmental change; 4) ways to improve education and human resource development; 5) improved family planning programs, reproductive health services, and primary health care; 6) transitions to economies that provide increased human welfare with less consumption of energy and materials; 7) improved mechanisms for building indigenous capacity in the fields of science and technology in developing countries; 8) sustainable development; 9) protection of the global commons; and 10) strengthened international cooperation of scientists. The statement ends with a call for immediate action in these areas not only in the field of science and technology but also by governments and international decision-makers.
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    Over half the world will face water shortages by 2032.

    Vass A

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2002 Jun 1; 324:1293.

    This news article states that a UN report warns that more than half of the world's population will be affected by water shortages by 2032, causing severe health consequences. The UN document is designed to set the framework for the world summit on sustainable development in Johannesburg in 2002, where key issues for discussion are expected to be access to water and sanitation, energy supply, and food security in the developing world. The report warns that over- exploitation of natural resources, increasing pollution, habitat destruction, the extinction of species, and global warming are continuing with increasing intensity as a "markets first" approach spreads around the world.
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  25. 25

    U.N. predicts more harm to environment by 2032.

    Revkin AC

    New York Times on the Web. 2002 May 23; [2] p..

    A UN report claims that although the world has seen significant environmental progress in recent years, expansion of cities, destruction of forest, erosion of fields and rising demand for water are likely to threaten human and ecological health in many countries for at least a generation. Even under scenarios in which environmental protection becomes a high priority, the report says, most regions of the world will still see their biological diversity and coastal ecosystems badly damaged by 2032. An important cause is noted to be the accelerating growth of vast, poor, and largely unplanned cities in developing countries, most of them near coastlines.
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