Your search found 182 Results

  1. 1

    Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018: From World Development Indicators.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2018. 91 p.

    he Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 is a visual guide to the trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas features maps and data visualizations, primarily drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN’s seventeen Sustainable Development Goals related to: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships.
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  2. 2

    The state of the world's children 2011. Adolescence: an age of opportunity.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2011. [148] p.

    This report catalogues, in heart-wrenching detail, the array of dangers adolescents face: the injuries that kill 400,000 of them each year; early pregnancy and childbirth, a primary cause of death for teenage girls; the pressures that keep 70 million adolescents out of school; exploitation, violent conflict and the worst kind of abuse at the hands of adults. It also examines the dangers posed by emerging trends like climate change, whose intensifying effects in many developing countries already undermine so many adolescents' well-being, and by labour trends, which reveal a profound lack of employment opportunities for young people, especially those in poor countries. Adolescence is not only a time of vulnerability, it is also an age of opportunity. This is especially true when it comes to adolescent girls. We know that the more education a girl receives, the more likely she is to postpone marriage and motherhood -- and the more likely it is that her children will be healthier and better educated. By giving all young people the tools they need to improve their own lives, and by engaging them in efforts to improve their communities, we are investing in the strength of their societies. Through a wealth of concrete examples, The State of the World's Children 2011 makes clear that sustainable progress is possible. It also draws on recent research to show that we can achieve that progress more quickly and cost-effectively by focusing first on the poorest children in the hardest-to-reach places. Such a focus on equity will help all children, including adolescents. (Excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Priorities for research on equity and health: Implications for global and national priority setting and the role of WHO to take the health equity research agenda forward.

    Ostlin P; Schrecker T; Sadana R; Bonnefoy J; Gilson L

    [Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO], 2009 Sep 9. 36 p. (Discussion Paper)

    The report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health was released in August, 2008. Subsequently, a group led by Sweden’s Piroska Östlin, comprising 14 researchers who were actively involved with the Knowledge Networks that supported the Commission, was commissioned by WHO to update an earlier (2005) report on priorities for health equity research. The new (September 9, 2009) discussion paper observes that: "The bulk of global health research has focused on biological disciplines, to develop medical solutions, to be provided through clinical, individual patient care. The past two decades have witnessed a rise in a new public health paradigm, enlarging disciplinary perspectives, stakeholder analysis, and recognition that health systems can be designed more effectively through new knowledge. This paradigm shift represents a second wave of global health research. With the 10/90 gap embraced by many organisations as an objective to be reversed and the CSDH's report widely distributed, among other contemporary efforts, this paper argues that we are on the cusp of a third wave in global health research, one that explicitly links broader social, political and economic determinants with improvements in equity in health, within and across countries".
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  4. 4

    Growing together: Youth and the work of the United Nations.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs [DESA]

    New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2008. 101 p.

    This publication shows how various parts of the United Nations system support youth development with a diverse range of programs covering all 15 priority areas of the World Programme of Action for Youth. Several of these priority areas relate to reproductive health and HIV, and numerous UN agencies include activities on these topics in their programming. This document includes illustrative activities for each agency, key publications, and contact information.
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  5. 5

    Rural population, development and the environment 2007. [Wallchart].

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar. [2] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/275)

    The wall chart on Rural Population, Development and the Environment 2007 displays information on various aspects of population, environment and development, including changes in rural populations and their relationship with development and the environment. The wall chart include information for 228 countries or areas as well as data at the regional and sub-regional levels. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Urban population, development and the environment 2007 [Wallchart].

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar. [2] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/274)

    The wall chart on Urban Population, Development and the Environment 2007 displays information on various aspects of population, environment and development, including changes in urban populations and their relationship with development and the environment. The wall chart include information for 228 countries or areas as well as data at the regional and sub-regional levels. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Bixby symposium on population and conservation: Key note address.

    Goodall J

    Population and Environment. 2007 May; 28(4-5):274-282.

    Full transcript of Dr. Goodall's keynote address at the Bixby symposium on Population and Conservation, held at the University of California, Berkeley on May 6, 2006. Dr. Goodall contrasts population growth amongst chimpanzees and human beings and discusses current conservation efforts of the Jane Goodall Institute in the Gombe region of Tanzania and the development of the TACARE (take care) program. (author's)
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    Butte NF; Garza C; de Onis M

    Journal of Nutrition. 2007 Jan; 137(1):153-157.

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications. (author's)
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  9. 9

    En route to equality: a gender review of national MDG reports.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. Bureau of Development Policy

    New York, New York, UNDP, 2005. [87] p.

    Gender equality and empowerment of women' -- Goal 3 of the Millennium Development Goals - is at the core of all the MDGs, from improving health and fighting disease, to reducing poverty and mitigating hunger, expanding education and lowering child mortality, increasing access to safe water, and ensuring environmental sustainability. Attempting to achieve the MDGs without promoting gender equality will both raise the costs and decrease the likelihood of achieving the other goals. The reverse is equally true -- achievement of Goal 3 depends on progress made on each of the other goals. Tracking gender gaps and inequalities in relation to each of the other MDG targets and indicators is therefore as critical as accurate reporting against Goal 3. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Five priority areas highlighted in report on Africa crisis.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[4] p..

    Five priority areas for national and international action are highlighted in a 53-page report of the Secretary-General on the critical economic situation in Africa (A/S-13/2) placed before the General Assembly's thirteenth special session. The priority areas include: national and collective self-sufficiency in food production and agricultural development in general; efforts to meet drought and desertification; rehabilitation and development of transport and other structures; development of human resources and social services, with attention to the role of women and the need to protect vulnerable groups; and external financial resources and the problem of external debt. The report states that droughts and famines suffered by many African countries from 1983 through 1985 attracted the world's attention to the plight of Africa. Emergency aid and good rains brought some relief, and although the food situation remains "precarious' and in some areas "quite serious', the immediate threat of mass starvation has subsided. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    A message from the Executive Director.

    Tibaijuka AK

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):2.

    Each year we celebrate World Habitat Day on the first Monday in October. The theme of the event being spearheaded from Jakarta, Indonesia this year and marked in cities around the world is The Millennium Development Goals and the City. It is my intention to use this theme and World Habitat Day as an occasion to launch a new integrated slum upgrading and disaster mitigation programme in Indonesia. We chose this theme because the year 2005 marks the fifth anniversary of the Millennium Declaration in which world leaders agreed on a set of eight ambitious goals. These goals are aimed at eradicating poverty, achieving universal primary education, empowering women, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, fighting AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and forging a new partnership for development. These goals are people-centred, timebound and measurable. They are simple but powerful objectives that every woman, man, and young person in the street from Washington to Monrovia, Jakarta to Nairobi and Oslo to Cape Town can understand. They have the political support because they mark the first time our leaders have held themselves accountable to such a covenant. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Human settlements -- a concern for women in the coming decade.

    Kiwala L

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[4] p..

    Cities, towns and villages have not been a priority for women’s action in the last decade. Is this because the Beijing Platform for Action was weak in addressing problems that women face daily where they live and work in human settlements? In the next 10 years, women activists and decision-makers should focus more on the living environment as it affects urban poor women, especially the homeless and slum dwellers. Promoting gender equality, the advancement of women and improving the living environment has never been easy. Moreover, there is some misunderstanding of what the terms human settlements and gender mainstreaming are all about. But this has been addressed in the Habitat Agenda, Beijing Platform for Action, the Declaration of Cities in the New Millennium and other UN documents respectively. Nevertheless, Ms. Jan Peterson, Chair of Huairou Commission, a leading umbrella organisation for grassroots women’s organizations working at community level to improve homes and communities, has on a number of occasions stated that gender mainstreaming as a strategy has in fact hidden women and their concerns and that we should go back to emphasize women. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Ghanaian infant growth study.

    Whitehead RG

    Acta Paediatrica. 2004 Aug; 93(8):1031-1032.

    The future revised WHO growth references for infancy and early childhood will have an international basis rather than just an American one, as is the case with the current NCHS/WHO ones. The anthropometric data for analysis will be collected from babies breastfed in accordance with WHO guidelines. An important stipulation, however, is that their growth must have been unrestricted by environmental factors. A paper from Ghana describes a quantitative provisional study that has revealed how such a condition can be satisfied within a developing country. Family income and especially the higher education of the father up to university level can still be important variables in the achievement of optimal growth of babies, even those brought up in situations of relative affluence. (author's)
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  14. 14

    Social mobilization for health promotion.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, [2001]. [15] p.

    Social mobilization can propel people to act, redirect or create human and material resources for the achievement of a social goal. Central to social mobilization is the concept of "social capital" defined as the interaction among people through systems that enhance and support that interaction. Social capital is created from a myriad of everyday interactions between people and is embodied in such structures as civic and religious groups, family membership, informal community networks, and in norms of v voluntarism, altruism and trust. Even in areas with limited economic capital, social capital has been shown to generate the energy and resources needed to effect changes in the community. Contextually, social mobilization is an integrative process where stakeholders are stimulated to become active participants in social change, using diverse strategies to meet shared goals. Simply put, social mobilization is about people taking action towards a common good. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Untangling Gordian knots: improving tuberculosis control through the development of “programme theories.”

    Coker R; Atun R; McKee M

    International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2004; 19:217-226.

    We argue that if the lessons from tuberculosis control programmes are to be drawn effectively then a more nuanced understanding is needed that takes account of the complex health system environment within which they sit. We suggest that a conceptual framework that draws upon the World Health Organization’s DOTS strategy can be harnessed to assist the systematic analysis of programmes in a way that links this vertical, disease specific strategy to horizontal health system factors so that comparisons can be made. This multi-disciplinary, multimethod approach to the evaluation builds upon the work of others including Pawson and Tilley and their ‘programmes theories’. This work has informed the application of an evaluation toolkit which has been successfully applied in a number of settings and assisted in the sustainable implementation of a DOTS strategy in Russia. (author's)
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  16. 16

    Population, environment and development. The concise report.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2001. vi, 60 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/202)

    The present report has been prepared in response to Economic and Social Council resolution 1995/55 of 28 July 1995, in which the Council endorsed the terms of reference and the topic-oriented and prioritized multi-year work programme proposed by the Commission on Population and Development at its twenty-eighth session. According to the multi-year work programme, which was to serve as a framework for the assessment of the progress achieved in the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, a new series of reports on a special set of the themes would be prepared annually. The Commission, in its decisions 1999/1 and 2000/1, decided that the special theme for the year 2001 should be population, environment and development, which is the topic of the present report. The general trends of rapid population growth, sustained but uneven economic improvement and environmental degradation are generally well accepted. However, how population size and growth, environmental change and development interact on each other is not well established. This report reviews what is known about these interrelationships. The report analyses recent information and policy perspectives on population, environment and development. The topics investigated in this report include: the evolution of population and the environment at major United Nations conferences; temporal trends in population, environment and development; government views and policies concerning population, environment and development; population size and growth, environment and development; migration, population change and the rural environment; health, mortality, fertility and the environment; and population, environment and development in urban settings. The presentation of these topics is followed by conclusions. Annex I deals with the availability and quality of data; and annex II deals with theories and frameworks for modelling the impact of population growth on the physical environment. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Gender and development in action.

    Rathgeber EM

    In: Feminism / postmodernism / development, edited by Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart. London, England, Routledge, 1995. 204-220.

    This chapter has suggested several possible reasons for the difficulty in operationalizing GAD projects but it may be worthwhile to focus further on what constitutes agreed-upon approaches in the field of development studies and practice and on the language used to justify and popularize different perspectives. As we have seen, development discourse is largely based on assumptions that have not changed substantially during the past thirty years and that never have been questioned very closely. Development practice has generally involved a heavy infusion of resources from outside with a predilection towards the "technological fix." Development theorists and practitioners have learned little from past mistakes, nor have they fundamentally changed their way of thinking or their mode of operation. As a result, isolated knowledge in the form of case studies or academic papers generated in either the North or South has had relatively little impact on most development practice. At the same time, we tend to minimize the recognition that the major actors in the development arena are both politically and economically motivated. In development planning and theorizing we seldom take into account the fact that donors seldom act exclusively from a sense of shared concern for the improvement of living conditions for people of the Third World but out of a desire to improve their own position. New power affiliations emerging out of development assistance have destroyed or eroded many traditional human relationships and values in the South. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Sport for development and peace: towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Report from the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace.

    United Nations. Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. vi, 36 p.

    This report analyses in detail the potential contribution that sport can make towards achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It provides an overview of the growing role that sports activities are playing in many United Nations programmes and crystallizes the lessons learned. It also includes recommendations aimed at maximizing and mainstreaming the use of sport. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    [Health and environment: a global challenge] Sante et environnement: un defi mondial.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Commission on Health and Environment


    WHO's Commission on Health and Environment states that a healthy environment is not only a necessity: the right to live and to work in an environment favorable to physical and mental health is recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is for everyone to see to it that this right be respected. It is the duty of individuals and businesses to act and of public powers to supply a strategic and institutional framework necessary for action. Three major objectives can be defined at the global level: establish a sustainable base for health for all, assure a favorable environment for health (i.e., reduce physical, chemical, and biological risks and furnish all the means to acquire the necessary resources for health), and make all individuals and organizations aware of their responsibilities in regard to health and environmental conditions which are necessary to all. To achieve a sustainable base for all, it will be necessary to slow down and finally stop population growth as fast as possible and to promote ways of life and plans of consumption conforming to requirements of ecological sustainability in developed countries. Two principles are at the center of all actions aiming to guarantee a healthier and more stable environment: more equitable access to resources between individuals on the national level and between countries, and full participation of citizens in planning. Participation contributes to the promotion of health and the quality of the environment because it serves as a means to organize action and to motivate individuals and communities while allowing them to work out policies and projects based on their own priorities. It also allows individuals to influence the choices of the means to reap the best part of limited resources. Participation policy structures offer the means to fight against environmental degradation.
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  20. 20

    The "Earth Summit" on population.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED], (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1992 Sep; 18(3):571-82.

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development, commonly known as the Earth Summit, took place June 3-14, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of the 172 countries were represented by heads of state, making this the largest-ever gathering of world leaders. The conference offered the following legally binding conventions for signature: a treaty aimed at preventing global climate change through controlling man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, and a treaty aimed at preventing the eradication of biologically diverse species and protecting flora and fauna. Each was signed by 153 countries at the conference. The US, however, failed to sign the treaty on biodiversity out of concern that provisions in the treaty would unduly restrict the biotechnology industry in that country. The treaty on climate change specifies a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000 as an objective to be met voluntarily. The convention on biological diversity requires that countries adopt a variety of regulatory measures aimed at conserving biological resources. The summit also adopted several nonbinding documents. For example, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development outlines 27 principles which express a commitment to improving the environment, while Agenda 21 is a lengthy and detailed blueprint discussing how individual countries and the world as a whole can achieve in the next century environmentally sound development. Population issues were not central in any of the Rio documents, but were given significant attention in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21. The full text of the Rio Declaration as well as the preamble and chapter five of Agenda 21 on demographic dynamics and sustainability are reproduced.
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  21. 21

    International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo, Egypt, 5-13th September 1994. National position paper.

    Zambia. National Commission for Development Planning

    Lusaka, Zambia, National Commission for Development Planning, 1993 Dec. viii, 39 p.

    Zambia's country report for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a review of the country's unfavorable economic and demographic situation. Population growth has been increasing (by 2.6% for 1963-69 and 3.2% for 1980-90) because of a high birth rate and a death rate which is declining despite an increase in infant and child mortality. The population is extremely mobile and youthful (49.6% under age 15 years in 1990). Formulation of a population policy began in 1984, and an implementation program was announced in 1989. International guidance has played a major role in the development of the policy and implementation plans but an inadequacy of resources has hindered implementation. New concerns (the status of women; HIV/AIDS; the environment; homeless children and families; increasing poverty; and the increase in infant, child, and maternal mortality) have been added to the formerly recognized urgent problems caused by the high cost of living, youth, urbanization, and rural underdevelopment. To date, population activities have been donor-driven; therefore, more government and individual support will be sought and efforts will be made to ensure that donor support focuses on the local institutionalization of programs. The country report presents the demographic context in terms of population size and growth, fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization, spatial distribution, population structure, and the implications of this demographic situation. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the role of population in development planning, the evolution and current status of the population policy, and a profile of the national population program (research methodology; integrated planning; information, education, and communication; health, fertility, and mortality regulatory initiatives; HIV/AIDS; migration; the environment; adolescents; women; and demography training). A description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation covers political and national support, the national implementation strategy, program coordination, service delivery and quality of care, HIV/AIDS, personnel recruitment and training, evaluation, and financial resources. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, and resource mobilization.
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  22. 22

    National report on population and development of Malaysia. International Conference on Population and Development, September, 1994, Cairo.

    Malaysia. National Population and Family Development Board. Technical Working Group for ICPD

    [Kuala Lumpur], Malaysia, National Population and Family Development Board, Technical Working Group for ICPD, 1993. [4], 64 p.

    Malaysia considers its population policy an integral part of its overall social and economic policy planning. In order to achieve its goal of becoming an industrialized nation by the year 2020, Malaysia considers it imperative to create a quality population based around a strong family unit and a caring society. This report on population and development in Malaysia begins with a description of the demographic context in terms of past and current trends in population size, growth, and structure; fertility, mortality, and migration as well as the outlook for the future. The implementation of the population policy, planning, and program is described in the context of the following issues: longterm population growth, fertility interventions, women's labor force participation, aging, the family, internal and international migration, urbanization, and the environment. The evolution of the population policy is included as is its relationship with such other population-related policies as health, education, human resource development, regional development, and the eradication of poverty. Information is provided on the current status of the population policy and on the role of population issues in development planning. A profile of the national population program includes a discussion of maternal-child health services; family planning services and family development; information, education, and communication; data collection and analysis, the relationship of women to population and development; mortality; migration; the environment; human resources development, poverty alleviation; aging; and HIV/AIDS. The national action plan for the future is presented through a discussion of the emerging and priority concerns of population and family development and an outline of the policy framework. The summary reiterates Malaysia's efforts to integrate population factors into development planning and its commitment to promoting environmentally-sound and sustainable development. Appendices present data in tabular form on population and development indicators, population policies, incentives, and programs; program results; and the phase and area of implementation of the national population and family development programs.
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  23. 23

    Population and development issues in Botswana: a national report for the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo - September 1994.

    Botswana. Ministry of Finance and Development Planning

    [Gaborone], Botswana, Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, 1993 Sep. [4], 43 p.

    This review of Botswana's experience with population issues and programs served both as input for the 1994 International Conference on Population and development and as an opportunity to highlight current concerns and their implications for future development. After 2 decades in which the economy grew more rapidly than the population, Botswana is experiencing a slow-down in economic growth which lends a certain urgency to creating a plan of action in regard to population growth and development. After an introductory chapter, the demographic context is reviewed in terms of trends, components of change, mortality, fertility, migration, and urbanization. Factors which have contributed to these changes, such as education, improvements in health, and growing employment are analyzed, and the role of the government is outlined. Important findings included in the report are improvements from 1981 to 1991 such as an increase in life expectancy at birth (56.3 to 62.7 years), a decrease in the infant mortality rate (71 to 45.1/1000), a decline in the total fertility rate (from an adjusted figure of 7.1 to 5.3), and an increase in those working for cash (from 48 to 80.1% of total employment). The report also identifies persistent problems such as unemployment, poverty, unwanted pregnancies, AIDS, unsafe abortions, and environmental degradation. The third chapter provides an important exploration of the links among population variables, economic development, and the environment and focuses on the impact of and on the labor force, basic needs, education, health, the infrastructure and communication, sanitary conditions, energy sources, food and clothing, and natural resources. In the next chapter, the implicit population policies and development planning issues are examined. At present, Botswana has only an implicit population policy contained in its national development plan, although efforts are underway to devise a distinct national population policy. Chapter 5 describes various types of service delivery offered by the maternal-child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) programs. Progress in the MCH/FP programs is shown by targets achieved in various indicators such as the percentage of women attending prenatal care clinics and knowledge of at least one FP method. The serious problems of maternal mortality and morbidity and of teenage pregnancy will be obvious priorities for a national safe motherhood program. In conclusion, the main findings of the report are summarized, and the future strategy for sustainable population and development is discussed in terms of new economic and social development opportunities, policy planning, data collection and analysis, training, and information, education, and communication needs.
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  24. 24

    The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.

    Nepal. National Planning Commission

    Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.

    Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
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  25. 25

    Government of Sierra Leone. National report on population and development. International Conference on Population and Development 1994.

    Sierra Leone. National Population Commission

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, National Population Commission, 1994. [4], 15, [4] p.

    The government of Sierra Leone is very concerned about the poor health status of the country as expressed by the indicators of a high maternal mortality rate (700/100,000), a total fertility rate of 6.2 (in 1985), a crude birth rate of 47/1000 (in 1985), an infant mortality rate of 143/1000 (in 1990), and a life expectancy at birth of only 45.7 years. A civil war has exacerbated the already massive rural-urban migration in the country. Despite severe financial constraints, the government has contributed to the UN Population Fund and continues to appeal to the donor community for technical and financial help to support the economy in general and population programs in particular. Sierra Leone has participated in preparations for and fully supports the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. This document describes Sierra Leone's past, present, and future population and development linkages. The demographic context is presented in terms of size and growth rate; age and sex composition; fertility; mortality; and population distribution, migration, and urbanization. The population policy planning and program framework is set out through discussions of the national perception of population issues, the national population policy, population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program [including maternal-child health and family planning (FP) services; information, education, and communication; data collection, analysis, and research; primary health care, population and the environment; youth and adolescents and development; women and development; and population distribution and migration]. The operational aspects of the program are described with emphasis on political and national support, FP service delivery and coverage, monitoring and evaluation, and funding. The action plan for the future includes priority concerns; an outline of the policy framework; the design of population program activities; program coordination, monitoring, and evaluation; and resource mobilization. The government's commitment is reiterated in a summary and in 13 recommendations of action to strengthen the population program, address environmental issues, improve the status of women, improve rural living conditions, and improve data collection.
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