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Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017. 131 p.The Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017 uses maps, charts and analysis to illustrate, trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas primarily draws on World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank's compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people's lives Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank's Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN's seventeen Sustainable Development Goals: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships. Between 1990 and 2013, nearly one billion people were raised out of extreme poverty. Its elimination is now a realistic prospect, although this will require both sustained growth and reduced inequality. Even then, gender inequalities continue to hold back human potential. Undernourishment and stunting have nearly halved since 1990, despite increasing food loss, while the burden of infectious disease has also declined. Access to water has expanded, but progress on sanitation has been slower. For too many people, access to healthcare and education still depends on personal financial means. To date the environmental cost of growth has been high. Accumulated damage to oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems is considerable. But hopeful signs exist: while greenhouse gas emissions are at record levels, so too is renewable energy investment. While physical infrastructure continues to expand, so too does population, so that urban housing and rural access to roads remain a challenge, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Meanwhile the institutional infrastructure of development strengthens, with more reliable government budgeting and foreign direct investment recovering from a post-financial crisis decline. Official development assistance, however, continues to fall short of target levels.
Entebbe, Uganda, NBI, 2015 May.  p. (Briefing Note 9)Women and girls often risk being left behind in development, not being fully informed or involved in decision making about issues that can have a real impact on their lives. Sometimes, they are already disadvantaged by cultural and legal norms that affect their rights to resources. Working together to develop the Nile resource, the 10 countries involved in the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) are making it ‘business as usual’ to ensure gender equality in the economic benefits emerging from their shared efforts.
Republic of India - Health, nutrition and population technical assistance to North East States (India).
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 Jun 16. 9 p.The eight states in India’s North-East region are connected to the rest of the country by a narrow corridor and (until recently) were classified by the Indian government as special category states. This non-lending technical assistance (NLTA) was requested by the governments of Nagaland and Meghalaya, stemming from previous engagements with the World Bank Group - the state human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) program (supported by International Development Association (IDA) financing) in the case of Nagaland, and International Finance Corporation (IFC) advisory services for private sector involvement in government health insurance program and investment in medical education in the case of Meghalaya. Both state governments show commitment to improving health and nutrition services and outcomes and look to the World Bank to provide support. The state governments requested the Bank for technical assistance in specific areas for which other sources of support, particularly the national health mission, were not available, and improvements in which held the potential to leverage the effectiveness of existing government financing. The development objective of this activity is to support development of health system strategies, policies, and management systems in North East states.
21 issues for the 21st century: Result of the UNEP Foresight Process on Emerging Environmental Issues.
Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 2012.  p.The purpose of the UNEP Foresight Process is to produce, every two years, a careful and authoritative ranking of the most important emerging issues related to the global environment. UNEP aims to inform the UN and wider international community about these issues on a timely basis, as well as provide input to its own work programme and that of other UN agencies, thereby fulfilling the stipulation of its mandate: “keeping the global environment under review and bringing emerging issues to the attention of governments and the international community for action”. This report is the outcome of that process and presents the identified issues titled: 21 Issues for the 21st Century. These issues cut across all major global environmental themes including food production and food security; cities and land use; biodiversity, fresh water and marine; climate change and energy, technology and waste issues. (Excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2009. 94 p.Women bear the disproportionate burden of climate change, but have so far been largely overlooked in the debate about how to address problems of rising seas, droughts, melting glaciers and extreme weather, concludes The State of World Population 2009, released by UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund. The poor are especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, and the majority of the 1.5 billion people living on $1 a day or less are women. The poor are more likely to depend on agriculture for a living and therefore risk going hungry or losing their livelihoods when droughts strike, rains become unpredictable and hurricanes move with unprecedented force. The poor tend to live in marginal areas, vulnerable to floods, rising seas and storms. The report draws attention to populations in low-lying coastal areas that are vulnerable to climate change and calls on governments to plan ahead to strengthen risk reduction, preparedness and management of disasters and address the potential displacement of people. Research cited in the report shows that women are more likely than men to die in natural disasters-including those related to extreme weather -- with this gap most pronounced where incomes are low and status differences between men and women are high. The State of World Population 2009 argues that the international community's fight against climate change is more likely to be successful if policies, programmes and treaties take into account the needs, rights and potential of women. The report shows that investments that empower women and girls -- particularly education and health -- bolster economic development and reduce poverty and have a beneficial impact on climate. Girls with more education, for example, tend to have smaller and healthier families as adults. Women with access to reproductive health services, including family planning, have lower fertility rates that contribute to slower growth in greenhouse-gas emissions in the long run.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/274)The wall chart on Urban Population, Development and the Environment 2007 displays information on various aspects of population, environment and development, including changes in urban populations and their relationship with development and the environment. The wall chart include information for 228 countries or areas as well as data at the regional and sub-regional levels. (excerpt)
Nutrition Research. 2003; 23(9):1165-1176.This study investigated the nutritional status and eating habits of Mongolian children in relation to dental health. Growth and oral health of 151 Ulaanbaatarian children under age five were examined, and their parents were interviewed on child’s health and eating habits. Every tenth child had a low weight for age and the mean energy intake of the weaned children was 89%-96% of the recommendation by WHO. Frequent eating exposed the teeth of children to many acid attacks. Every third child over age three had serious developmental defects in their teeth, which might be associated with deficient intakes of energy and calcium, highly variable vitamin D supplementation and gastrointestinal infections. All of the examined 4 to 5-year old children had caries and the average number of decayed teeth was 6.5. Severe caries was related to the abundant use of sugar, whereas proper dental health was related to use of hard cheese. (author's)
Population and development issues in Botswana: a national report for the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo - September 1994.
[Gaborone], Botswana, Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, 1993 Sep. , 43 p.This review of Botswana's experience with population issues and programs served both as input for the 1994 International Conference on Population and development and as an opportunity to highlight current concerns and their implications for future development. After 2 decades in which the economy grew more rapidly than the population, Botswana is experiencing a slow-down in economic growth which lends a certain urgency to creating a plan of action in regard to population growth and development. After an introductory chapter, the demographic context is reviewed in terms of trends, components of change, mortality, fertility, migration, and urbanization. Factors which have contributed to these changes, such as education, improvements in health, and growing employment are analyzed, and the role of the government is outlined. Important findings included in the report are improvements from 1981 to 1991 such as an increase in life expectancy at birth (56.3 to 62.7 years), a decrease in the infant mortality rate (71 to 45.1/1000), a decline in the total fertility rate (from an adjusted figure of 7.1 to 5.3), and an increase in those working for cash (from 48 to 80.1% of total employment). The report also identifies persistent problems such as unemployment, poverty, unwanted pregnancies, AIDS, unsafe abortions, and environmental degradation. The third chapter provides an important exploration of the links among population variables, economic development, and the environment and focuses on the impact of and on the labor force, basic needs, education, health, the infrastructure and communication, sanitary conditions, energy sources, food and clothing, and natural resources. In the next chapter, the implicit population policies and development planning issues are examined. At present, Botswana has only an implicit population policy contained in its national development plan, although efforts are underway to devise a distinct national population policy. Chapter 5 describes various types of service delivery offered by the maternal-child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) programs. Progress in the MCH/FP programs is shown by targets achieved in various indicators such as the percentage of women attending prenatal care clinics and knowledge of at least one FP method. The serious problems of maternal mortality and morbidity and of teenage pregnancy will be obvious priorities for a national safe motherhood program. In conclusion, the main findings of the report are summarized, and the future strategy for sustainable population and development is discussed in terms of new economic and social development opportunities, policy planning, data collection and analysis, training, and information, education, and communication needs.
Report of the National Seminar on Environment and Sustainable Development, Aden, 25-27 February 1989.
[Unpublished] 1989. iv, 131 p.The 1989 final report on the environment and sustainable development includes a summary of events an a summary of types of participants in attendance. The purpose of the seminar was to provide senior national experts, policy makers, planners, and executives (in conjunction with UN representatives) with a forum for examination of issues and to propose recommendations and solutions. The level of awareness must be raised among officials and the public. Policy instruments and action must be identified in order to contribute to sustainable growth and the alleviation of poverty. The principle components of a national environmental strategy were to be outlined. The National Council for Environmental Protection needed to be reactivated. After the opening statements, the topics included in this presentation were the organization and agenda for 5 working groups, development projects and environmental considerations, environmental legislation and institutions, marine and coastal areas environment and resources, environmental awareness and education and human resources, policies and future trends, the seminar declaration and recommendations, and closing statements. The full text is provided for the opening statements, the closing statements, and the background papers. Lists of additional background papers and the seminar steering committee members are also given. The seminar declaration referred to the interlocking crises of development, environment, and energy. Population growth threatens world survival, particularly in the poorest countries. Expected economic growth will further deplete environmental resources and contribute to pollution. The world is bound together by these concerns. International debt forces poor countries to overexploit resources and destroy their production base. Developing countries are still in economic disarray. Economic reform hasn't worked for poor countries, and the resource gap is widening between countries. The answer is sustainable development, which is based on an equitable and rational exploitation of natural resources. International cooperation and peace must be strengthened dialogue and understanding and support for the UN.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Dept. of Population Planning and International Health, . xxxiii, 134 p.In August 1989, scientists and leaders of international and national groups met at the international symposium for the Survival of Mankind in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss ideas about the interrelationship between population, environment, and development and obstacles to attaining sustainable development. The President of the Worldwatch Institute opened the symposium with a talk about energy, food, and population. Of fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar energy, only the clean and efficient solar energy can provide sustainable development. Humanity has extended arable lands and irrigation causing soil erosion, reduced water tables, produced water shortages, and increased salivation. Thus agricultural advances since the 1950s cannot continue to raise crop yields. He also emphasized the need to halt population growth. He suggested Japan provide more international assistance for sustainable development. This talk stimulated a lively debate. The 2nd session addressed the question whether the planet can support 5. 2 billion people (1989 population). The Executive Director of UNFPA informed the audience that research shows that various factors are needed for a successful population program: political will, a national plan, a prudent assessment of the sociocultural context, support from government agencies, community participation, and improvement of women's status. Other topics discussed during this session were urbanization, deforestation, and international environmental regulation. The 3rd session covered various ways leading to North-South cooperation. A Chinese participant suggested the establishment of an international environmental protection fund which would assist developing countries with their transition to sustainable development and to develop clean energy technologies and environmental restoration. Another participant proposed formation of a North-South Center in Japan. The 4th session centered around means to balance population needs, environmental protection, and socioeconomic development.
Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1991. lxii, 272 p.In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization and the UN Environment Program established the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC) to consider scientific data on various factors of the climate change issue, e.g., emissions of major greenhouse gases, and to draw up realistic response strategies to manage this issue. Its members have agreed that emissions from human activities are indeed increasing sizably the levels of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. The major conclusions are that effective responses need a global effort and both developed and developing countries must take responsibility to implement these responses. Industrialized countries must modify their economies to limit emissions because most emissions into the atmosphere come from these countries. They should cooperate with and also provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to raise their living standards while preventing and managing environmental problems. Concurrently, developing countries must adopt measures to also limit emissions as their economies expand. Environmental protection must be the base for continuing economic development. There must be an education campaign to inform the public about the issue and the needed changes. Strategies and measures to confront rapid population growth must be included in a flexible and progressive approach to sustainable development. Specific short-term actions include improved energy efficiency, cleaner energy sources and technologies, phasing out CFCs, improved forest management and expansion of forests, improved livestock waste management, modified use and formulation of fertilizers, and changes in agricultural land use. Longer term efforts are accelerated and coordinated research programs, development of new technologies, behavioral and structural changes (e.g., transportation), and expansion of global ocean observing and monitoring systems.
Global biodiversity strategy. Guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably.
Washington, D.C., WRI, 1992. vi, 244 p.Humanity depends on all other forms of life on Earth and its nonliving components including the atmosphere, ocean, bodies of freshwater, rocks, and soils. If humanity is to persist and to develop so that everyone enjoys the most basic of human rights, it must protect the structure, functions, and diversity of the world's natural systems. The World Resources Institute, the World Conservation Union, and the UN Environment Programme have joined together to prepare this strategy for global biodiversity. The first 2 chapters cover the nature and value of biodiversity and losses of biodiversity and their causes. The 3rd chapter presents the strategy for biodiversity conservation which includes the goal of such conservation and its contents and catalysts and 5 actions needed to establish biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation is the topic of the 4th chapter. It discusses 3 objectives with various actions to accomplish each objective. Integration of biodiversity conservation into international economic policy is 1 of the 3 objectives of the 5th chapter--creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources is a clear objective in creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation--the topic of the 6th chapter. The next 3 chapters are devoted to managing biodiversity throughout the human environment; strengthening protected areas; and conserving species, populations, and genetic diversity. The last chapter provides specific actions to improve human capacity to conserve biodiversity including promotion of basic and applied research and assist institutions to disseminate biodiversity information.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. xxxii, 282 p.The WHO Commission on Health and Environment has put together a comprehensive report on the interaction between the state of the environment and human health. There is a need to understand and manage this interaction to bring about a sustainable development which meets people's needs while preserving natural systems. Yet, humankind faces various obstacles to sustainable development, including population growth, migration, urbanization, poverty, resource degradation, and macroeconomic policies. Humans can sustain output of agriculture, forestry, and fishing, if they do not exploit ecological systems. Humans need to at least consider food production, diet, health, land tenure, food contamination, agricultural chemicals, and occupational hazards. They must also effectively and efficiently manage freshwater supplies using means which do not adversely upset natural systems. Humans should move away from using fossil fuels as an energy supply since they are the single largest source of air pollution. They should identify and develop energy supplies which reduce the adverse environment and health effects, e.g., solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Industrial practices in both developed and developing countries spew air and water pollutants into the environment, generate hazardous wastes, and expose workers to harmful agents. Urbanization poses a special challenge to environmental health, especially where there is little or no infrastructure and services which worsens pollution and environmental health problems. Many environmental and health problems cross boundaries. These include long range transport of air pollution, acid rain, damage of the ozone layer, build up of greenhouse gases, hazardous wastes exported from developed to developing countries, ocean pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Two axioms to a healthier and sustainable world are more equitable access to resources and citizen participation.
In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 491-519. (World Resources Institute Book)Participants at the Global Possible Conference in 1984 concluded that, despite the dismal predictions about the earth, we can still fashion a more secure, prosperous, and sustainable world environmentally and economically. The tools to bring about such a world already exist. The international community and nations must implement new policies, however. Government, science, business, and concerned groups must reach new levels of cooperation. Developed and developing countries must form new partnerships to implement sustained improvements in living standards of the world's poor. Peaceful cooperation is needed to eliminate the threat of nuclear war--the greatest threat to life and the environment. Conference working groups prepared an agenda for action which, even though it is organized along sectoral disciplines, illustrates the complex linkages that unite issues in 1 area with those in several others. For example, problems existing in forests tie in with biological diversity, energy and fuelwood, and management of agricultural lands and watersheds. The agenda emphasizes policies and initiatives that synergistically influence serious problems in several sectors. It also tries to not present solutions that generate as many problems as it tries to solve. The 1st section of the agenda covers population, poverty, and development issues. it provides recommendations for developing and developed countries. It discusses urbanization and issues facing cities. The 3rd section embodies freshwater issues and has 1 list of recommendations for all sectors. The agenda addresses biological diversity, tropical forests, agricultural land, living marine resources, energy, and nonfuel minerals in their own separate sections. It discusses international assistance and the environment in 1 section. Another section highlights the need to assess conditions, trends, and capabilities. The last section comprises business, science, an citizens.
Development. 1992; (1):82-6.According to the statement from Greenpeace delivered to the 3rd UNCED Preparatory Committee, the obstacles to an efficient future powered by renewable energy are political, not technical. Energy problems touch a variety of development issues, such as: the need for improved efficiency, the threat of war, ecological damage, wide spread illness, population displacement, and inadequate government frameworks. The conclusion of the statement is that this issue needs far more attention and guidance from intergovernmental agencies to promote energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, improved energy decision making, and coordination of international resources. The conclusion has 3 specific policy recommendations: (1) the world energy sector needs to be comprehensively reviewed with the full participation of nongovernmental organizations. From this, new international institutional responsibilities need to be assigned to: promote energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, develop policies to integrate resource planning an internalize external costs, facilitate more delegation of energy decision making, foster increasing technology development and transfer, coordinate the allocation of international resources. (2) Immediately after the UNCED, a major conference should be held to consider these findings and make binding decisions; (3) the end of all this should be to streamline mandates from existing UN Agencies and establish a new UN body responsible for implementing the above outlined policies.
National Seminar on Population and Development in Malawi, 5 - 9th June, 1989, Chancellor College, Zomba. Report.
Zomba, Malawi, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, 1989. ix, 223 p. (UNFPA Project MLW/87/PO1)The role of population in planning for socioeconomic development in Malawi was the topic of a National Seminar held by the Demographic Unit of the University of Malawi in June 1989. 64 participants from the University, Government departments, parastatal, non-governmental and international agencies presented 41 papers. Each of these background and seminar papers are summarized, and 64 recommendations are outlines. The seminar was considered further evidence that the government is becoming aware that fertility, 7.6 children per woman, and related infant mortality, 150/1000, are excessive, according to the UNFPA representative in his keynote address, and the hope that future planning will take population into account. The range of topics covered in the papers included demography, spatial distribution, macroeconomic factors in development, refugees, industry, small enterprises, health services, water supply, education, rehabilitation, status of women, food supply, land ownership, sustainable resources and manpower development. Recommendations specified actions on rural development, roads, legalizing tobacco growing, fuelwood, equalizing food security, taxes, savings, finance, antitrust regulations, incentives for health service in rural areas, housing, female education, handicapped persons, refugees, data and research and many other issues.
Washington, D.C., ZPG, 1988 Aug.  p. (ZPG Fact Sheet)Industrialized nations have emitted gases, which are transforming the Earth into a greenhouse, into the atmosphere for many years. Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by burning fossil fuels and wood; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) released by refrigerants and other sources; nitrous oxides, generated by fossil fuels; and methane, produced from decomposition of organic matter, trap infrared rays thereby causing an unprecedented rate of global warming. In the period from 1900-1988, the concentration of CO2 has climbed 20% and the average global temperature has risen >1 degree Fahrenheit. Further, since 1963, the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 essentially equals population growth. Population growth also directly contributes to the increase in atmospheric methane. Forests naturally remove CO2 from the air, yet humans are destroying about 27 million acres of tropical forests/year. If the present fossil fuel rates persist, CO2 concentration will increase 2 fold by 2050 causing a mean global temperature increase of 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Other computer simulations predict changes in global precipitation, droughts, a rise in sea level by 1-4 feet, and the extinction of many species of plants and animals. Scientists major concern is the suddenness of this climatic change because it leaves little time for humans and plant and animal species to adapt. The World Meterological Organization of the United Nations advises that all nations ratify the recommendations of the 1987 Montreal meeting on ozone. 1 recommendation states that the industrialized nations must reduce the production and consumption of CFCs by 50% by the end of the century. Since the US consumes 28% of the world's annual energy consumption, the US should led the world in energy conservation. Any approach that does not advocate resource consumption and population stabilization will fail, however.
Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1987. xv, 400 p.In this report, the World Commission on Environment and Development does not predict ever increasing environmental decay, poverty, and hardship in a world becoming more polluted and experiencing decreasing resources but sees instead the possibility for a new era of economic growth. This era of economic growth must be based on policies that sustain and expand the environmental resource base. Such growth is absolutely essential to relieving the great poverty that is intensifying in much of the developing world. The report suggests a pathway by which the peoples of the world can enlarge their spheres of cooperation. The Commission has focused its attention in the areas of population, food security, the loss of species and genetic resources, and human settlements, recognizing that all are connected and cannot be treated in isolation from each other. 2 conditions must be satisfied before international economic exchanges can become beneficial for all involved: the sustainability of ecosystems on which the global economy depends must be guaranteed; and the economic partners must be satisfied that the basis of exchange is equitable. Neither condition is met for many developing nations. Efforts to maintain social and ecological stability through old approaches to development and environmental protection will increase stability. The Commission has identified several actions that must be undertaken to reduce risks to survival and to put future development on sustainable paths. Such a reorientation on a continuing basis is beyond the reach of present decision making structures and institutional arrangements, both national and international. The Commission has taken care to base its recommendations on the realities of present institutions, on what can and must be accomplished now; yet to keep options open for future generations, the present generation must begin to act now and to act together. The Commission's proposals for institutional and legal change at the national, regional, and international levels are embodied in 6 priority areas: getting at the sources; dealing with the effects; assessing global risks; making informed choices; providing the legal means; and investing in the future.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1997. iv, 76 p. (ST/ESA/255)This report identifies critical long-term trends in environmental and socioeconomic matters and policy implications. This report will be used for preliminary meetings for the next Earth Summit + 5. Seven chapters focus on development and the environment, trends in world population, energy and materials consumption, the food supply, water resources, human development, and conclusions. Developing countries are rapidly following patterns of developed countries. There is a global pattern of consumerism and capitalism. Wealth differences are separating the rich from the poor. Poor countries continue to be marginalized in a very visible way. Environmental air and water quality is improving in developed countries, but is deteriorating in developing countries. Concern about nonrenewable resources has lessened. Concern focuses on the threat of continuing degradation of renewable resources. The issues that constrain sustainable development are growing poverty, population growth and urbanization, fossil fuel consumption, and rapid natural resource degradation. Positive signs include positive economic forecasts, accelerated technological innovations, and the spread of democratic institutions. Population programs, agricultural management techniques, and high standards of public health and education have positive effects. Policy has failed to eradicate poverty, improve access to sanitation and energy supplies, and reduce natural resource degradation. Constraints include lack of financial resources, lack of institutional capacity, and political unwillingness. Promising policy approaches include increased investment in people, encouragement of clean and efficient technologies, and pricing reforms.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. xii, 308 p.The reciprocal relationships between the environment and development are examined. The report identifies development policies which provide for efficient income growth and complement environmental protection; the tradeoffs are indicated. A focus on poverty reduction will benefit both the environment and development. The assurance of environmental quality will be facilitated by strong public institutions and environmental protection policies, because the private marketplace will not. This report focuses on developing countries, but discussion includes an emphasis on developed countries' responsibilities as rich consumer nations. Only the most serious environmental challenges that affect directly the welfare of people are recognized; these include sanitation, clean water, air pollution, deforestation, and soil degradation. Some problems are associated with the lack of economic development and poverty; such is the case with sanitation, clean water, air pollution from biomass burning, and land degradation. The problems of industrial pollution, deforestation, and overuse of water are associated with growth of the economy. Population growth will play a role in environmental degradation over the next century. 90% of population increase will occur in developing countries that may not be able to keep pace with infrastructure development or resource management systems. Densities in Bangladesh, the Netherlands, Korea, and Java in Indonesia with 400 persons per sq. km will affect 33% of world population in 2050, mostly in South Asia and Africa. The poor will both suffer from and contribute to environmental damage. Output in developing countries is expected to increase by 4-5% annually until 2030, while industrial nations' growth would grow more slowly. If environmental damage accompanies this growth, the effect may be disastrous to the health of tens of millions. There must continue to be a shift in human behavior and policies that overcomes market and policy failures. Policies must take advantage of positive links between development and the environment by correcting policy failures, improve access to resources and technology, and promote equitable income growth. Policies must build on positive links, break negative links, and clarify and manage uncertain links.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1994. xii, 400 p.This sixth annual issue reviewing world resources gives the most current information on natural resources and the global environment. Special attention is given to the interaction between population and the environment. Chapter topics include the following: natural resource consumption trends and environmental consequences, the interactions between population and the environment, women in development, pesticide use, forests and rangelands, biodiversity, energy, water, atmosphere and climate, industry, international institutions, national and local policies and institutions. It is concluded that the environmental impact of increased consumption is a function of life styles and the extent of industrial activity and geographic patterns of production, terms of trade, level of technology, and extremes of wealth and poverty. Renewable resources are the only resources in danger of depletion due to high consumption levels in industrialized countries. Resource consumption in industrialized countries has the greatest impact on the Earth's atmosphere. Poverty and the inability to meet basic needs requires the use of natural resources to the point of degradation. Case studies of the two most populous countries in the world (China and India) reveal the most challenging problem of development in India is food and energy production. The rapid economic growth and the massive size of the population are threatening the environment and resources in China. Unfortunately, China's environmental policy leans toward the notion that one should not give up eating for fear of choking. Government policies on resource management, wealth or poverty, land tenure, land use planning, and general economic circumstances in India and China determine whether undesirable environmental impact occurs and the extent and nature of the impact. In China, the growing environmental problems may slow development or impoverish the population. In India, population growth is straining resources and increasing the risk of serious degradation. Sustainable development is dependent on the role of women. The Netherlands was the first to establish policies to regulate consumption and production. Chile is a rapidly developing country committed to sustainable development. Madagascar may have the most advanced environmental action plan in a country beset with poverty and population growth. Ample statistical tables, which are available on computer disc, document conditions.
In: Population, environment and development: proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Development, United Nations Headquarters, 20-24 January 1992. Convened as part of the substantive preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development, 1994. New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. 271-4. (ST/ESA/SER.R/129)The relationship between health and the environment is simultaneously determined by economic development and demographic forces. Human healthiness can be attained with unpolluted air, safe and wholesome food, and adequate shelter, even in an unhealthy environment, but not when the environment exposes humans to adverse climatic conditions or pathogens or toxins or food shortages or poor socioeconomic conditions. Development can improve through increased wealth and better education, but without environmental controls, quality of life is at risk. Sound economic development is based on sufficient population numbers which do not exploit renewable and nonrenewable resources and on adequate waste elimination. Carrying capacity and sustainable development can be threatened in a variety of ways: loss of biodiversity, population growth, industrialization, urbanization, energy use, and agriculture. In 1988 it was assumed that human health would be protected as part of the goals of sustainable development. But the WHO Commission on Health and the Environment in 1990 found that health deserves top priority in discussions about development and the environment. Environmental health has declined through population growth, overconsumption of resources, poverty, and macroeconomic forces. There are several kinds of demographic traps: 1) an increasing gap between actual and ecologically sustainable population sizes, deteriorating health, and increasing mortality, a trap which is demographically powered; 2) a consumption-powered trap, where birth and death rates have declined and population has stabilized, but resource use and waste production are exceeding environmental carrying capacity. The first trap leads to increased morbidity and starvation among the weakest in the population, while the second is slower and "environmental burdens" are transferred to developing countries where chronic diseases and mortality among the poor and uneducated increase. Corrective policies involve migration or birth control, or changes in consumption patterns. Health impacts are determined by political will, level of education, and enforcement legislation. Seven policy implications were identified, in addition to the 5 major development forces: industry, urbanization, energy, water management, and food and agriculture.
In: Involuntary resettlement in Africa. Selected papers from a conference on environment and settlement issues in Africa, edited by Cynthia C. Cook. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1994. 1-9. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 227; Africa Technical Department Series)Limited natural resources, growing population pressure, low levels of technology, and ineffective institutional support were said to account for Africa's development problems. The result was an increasing inability to balance human needs with agricultural production. While population growth is coming under control over the next 20 years, there will be increase need to improve spatial distribution of the population: movement from overused rural areas to urban areas or underused rural areas. Mobility in Africa may be nomadic or regular, temporary, periodic between different locations. There are migrant labor strategies, seasonal movements with herds, and permanent rural-urban migration. Migration may be voluntary or involuntary. This compendium of selected papers provides contributions from primarily African presenters to the October 1991 World Bank sponsored African Conference on Environment an Settlement. The introduction describes some of the challenges in Africa: demographic explosion, imbalances between natural resources and population distribution, and fragile tropical ecosystems. The organization of the compendium is explained: an overview of settlement issues; resettlement process in rural areas; resettlement in urban areas; and long-term impacts of resettlement in case projects financed by the World Bank (Kariba Dam project in Zambia and Zimbabwe, Akosombo Dam Project in Ghana, Kainji Lake resettlement in Nigeria, irrigation development in Kassala Province in Sudan and resettlement; lessons learned about voluntary movements in contrast between government sponsored and spontaneous settlement programs (ranch restructuring in Uganda, three settlement issues related to national park management in Uganda, pest control and elimination of river blindness in West Africa, and a theoretical approach and solution to the problem of population pressure on land); and a summary of conference proceedings and proposals for future action. Participants requested the World Bank to initiate and support efforts to secure assistance from the international donor community.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 88-107.A new global geopolitical structure is taking shape, a multipolar system strengthened by various regional economic powers (e.g., the European Economic Community). These powers will inevitably vie for global status. This system will be based on a succession of bridges and linkages of global interdependence on human rights and freedom, energy and environmental management, international trade and finance, technological and science development, and modern communications. These bridges and linkages should effect a more balanced global structure. The best prospect for a system of cooperation and interdependence among nations is the UN. Proper engineering of these bridges and linkages within a global and regional framework can bring about sustainable development. If competition between various economic power blocs is the guiding principle of these bridges and linkages, the world will experience a new era of regional and global conflict. For example, developed countries and their transnational companies once controlled the oil industry. They exploited huge oil reserves in developing countries and did not provide them appropriate compensation for depletion of their most important natural resource. Host countries reacted to this unfair treatment and took over and nationalized the companies, leading to a sizable increase in oil prices in the 1970s. This then caused global economic instability and general mistrust between exporting and importing countries. Demand for oil fell, and the producing countries could not decide how to distribute the oil sales reduction among themselves, so the buyers took control and still have control of the oil market. The demand for oil is rising and preserves are shrinking which will result in a rapid increase in oil prices. Thus, all nations must invest in development of new sources of energy. Oil should be just a short bridge towards sustainable development. Developed countries should place peaceful resolution of regional conflicts and bilateral disputes at the top of their agenda. Internationalism should replace nationalism and multilateralism should replace bilateralism.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 229-36.A senior associate with the World Resources Institute believes that it is more worthwhile to strengthen the UN Environment Program than to create a new international environmental organization. Another possibility would be to convert the UN Trusteeship Council's purpose from administering UN territories to dealing with environmental issues. The Council has an equal number of developing countries and developed countries and no country has veto power. She also favors ad hoc groups dealing with very specific issues, e.g., International Panel on Climate Change. We need an international debt management authority which purchases outstanding debt at real market prices to finance policies and programs that alleviate poverty and protect the environmental issues should lie with 1 organization. She dismisses suggestions that the Group of Seven industrialized nations serve as a group to propose international initiatives because developing countries would not accept the G-7 process plus the G-7 countries do not even agree on environmental issues. Citizens push US politicians to address environmental issues rather than the politicians leading on environmental issues. Some members of the US Congress have taken the initiative, however, including Senators Gore and Mikulski from Tennessee and Maryland, respectively. The President must have a vision for a transition to sustainable development, which he does not. In the 1973-74 oil crisis, industry took it upon itself to become more energy efficient and still had real growth in the gross national product, illustrating that the costs required to become more sustainable are not as great as many people claim. Sustainable agriculture would reduce the demand for fossil fuels, on which fertilizers and pesticides are based. It would require making institutional changes. USAID should change dramatically the system it uses to distribute foreign aid money and to dedicate considerably more money to the environment and development.