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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015. 32 p.The adolescent girl’s initiative (AGI) was motivated by the idea that vocational training and youth employment programs tailored to the needs of girls and young women can improve the economic empowerment and agency. By putting that idea into practice in a number of ways, the AGI pilots are making it possible to learn about the demand for such programs and whether in their current form they are a feasible and (in some cases) cost-effective means of meeting their objectives. Adolescent females in lower-income countries face a difficult environment in their path toward economic empowerment, a critical dimension of adulthood. Females, especially from low-income countries, want to participate in programs to support their economic empowerment. Effective programs shared certain features that made it possible for them to reach adolescent girls and young women and successfully assess and impart the skills that they needed.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016.  p.This pocket guide is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. The book presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 economies in an easy country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation and the Millennium Development Goals. The book’s summary pages cover regional and income group aggregates.
Gender equality and women's empowerment: a critical analysis of the third Millennium Development Goal.
Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):13-24.Gender equality and women?s empowerment is the third of eight MDGs. It is an intrinsic rather than an instrumental goal, explicitly valued as an end in itself rather than as an instrument for achieving other goals. Important as education is, the translation of this goal into the target of eliminating gender disparities at all levels of education within a given time period is disappointingly narrow. However, the indicators to monitor progress in achieving the goal are somewhat more wide-ranging: closing the gender gap in education at all levels; increasing women?s share of wage employment in the non-agricultural sector; and increasing the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments. In this article, I interpret this as meaning that each of the three ?resources? implied by these indicators - education, employment, and political participation - is considered essential to the achievement of gender equality and women?s empowerment. Each of these resources certainly has the potential to bring about positive changes in women?s lives, but, in each case, it is the social relationships that govern access to the resource in question that will determine the extent to which this potential is realised. Thus, in each case, there is both positive and negative evidence about the impact of women?s access to these resources on their lives. There are lessons to be learned from both. The article also considers some of the other ?resources? that have been overlooked by the MDGs, but could be considered equally important for the goal in question. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Economic Forum, Global Health Initiative, 2004 Jul 9.  p.Who is the world economic forum? An independent international non- profit organisation committed to improving the state of the world; Corporate members from the world's leading 1000 companies; Collaborative framework for the world's leaders to address global issues. Business and HIV/AIDS Why look at a business response? What models for business engagement? What do we know? What don't we know? (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., PAHO, 2003.  p.Around the world, efforts to reduce poverty and enhance development have had greater success where women and men have relatively equal opportunities. In much of Latin America, however, women’s low social status, poor health, and subordination to men persist. Governments in the region increasingly acknowledge the need to promote gender equity in health and other aspects of development, but the data to monitor disparities between men and women—and progress in closing the gaps—have not been readily available. This data sheet profiles gender differences in health and development in 48 countries in the Americas, focusing on women’s reproductive health, access to key health services, and major causes of death. Its objective is to raise awareness of gender inequities in the region and to promote the use of sex-disaggregated health statistics for policies and programs. This effort is consistent with the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals, adopted by 189 member countries at the UN Millennium Summit (2000), which focus on achieving measurable improvements in people’s lives, including greater gender equality. The data sheet also provides basic population and development indicators and information on other factors that influence health, including education, employment, political participation, and risk factors. Staff of the Pan American Health Organization and the Population Reference Bureau compiled this information using data from official national sources as well as data collected by specialized international agencies. (author's)
[The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.
[Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 1-60. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)The primary objective of the meeting of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development was to identify mechanisms through which poulation characteristics conditioned and were conditioned by resource use, environmental effects, and the development structure. This called for a systems approach in which all factors were treated simultaneously and in which the closing of loops through feedback effects was of foremost importance. The 1st item of the agenda called for a general discussion of past and future trends in population, resources, environment, and development. The Expert Group emphasized the need for better knowledge of how the trends of the various variables interacted and modified each other and particularly about the role of population within the interrelationships. The discussion of food and nutrition focused on the demographic, economic, social, political, and institutional aspects of meeting the needs for food and nutrition, while the physical aspects were given greater attention in the discussions of resources and environments. At the center of the deliberations were such concerns as poverty, the food versus feed controversy, food self sufficiency, and the role of population growth. The discussion on resources and the environment covered the resource base, environmental degradation, and nonrenewable resources. Attention was directed to the various mechanisms that could expand resource availability as well as those activities that had caused a degradation of the environment. The discussions of social and economic aspects of development involved 4 interrelated topics: income distribution, employment, health and education, and social security. The last items on the agenda addressed the issue of integrated planning and policy formation. Some members of the Expert Group were concerned with immediate problems. Viewing demographic trends as largely exogenous, they gave highest priority to finding the best way to accommodate the needs of growing populations. Others emphasized longrun problems and considered demographic trends as policy instruments for dealing with problems of resources, the environment, and development.
LINKS. 1997 Jun; 1-2.Under the Taliban, which took control of Kabul in Afghanistan in October 1996, Shari's law has been interpreted strictly; women cannot work outside the home, cannot be educated, and must wear the burkha. Professional and educated women have moved to Pakistan. According to United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 1995 figures, the literacy rate among women is 15%; among men it is 45%. This will only worsen if the education of girls is banned. International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) report that interpretation of the law varies with district; girls under 10 years of age can attend school in some areas, and some Taliban commanders are more liberal than others. The 30,000 households headed by women will fall into poverty if the women cannot work and have no other means of support. Women's relationships outside the home will be determined entirely by men. Gender roles will change because men will now have to take over jobs women formerly performed outside the home: taking children to clinics, shopping, and collecting water. Women's support groups will collapse because visiting will be difficult and hospitality will be too expensive. International agencies have distributed food and provided work to women in their homes; men are used to communicate with the women. This has been done at risk. Oxfam UK/I, which cannot deliver quality humanitarian aid without working with both women and men, will attempt, through a witnessing and influencing strategy, to persuade the Taliban to become more moderate.
[Resolution No.] 47/95. Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [16 December 1992].
RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-SEVENTH SESSION. 1993; 1:176-8.This document contains the text of a 1992 resolution of the UN General Assembly on implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. The resolution calls for an improved pace in the implementation of the Strategies because the cost of failing to implement the Strategies would include slowed economic and social development, inadequate use of human resources, and reduced progress. Thus, governments, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations are urged to implement the recommendations, and member states are asked to give priority to programs which improve women's employment, health, and education (especially literacy). The central role of the Commission on the Status of Women is reaffirmed, and the Commission is asked to pay particular attention to women in the least developed countries. Other issues which require urgent attention include promoting the total integration of women in the development process and redressing socioeconomic inequities at the national and international levels. The Secretary-General is asked to perform specific tasks including the continued updating of the "World Survey on the Role of Women in Development."
RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-SEVENTH SESSION. 1993; 1:174-5.This document contains the text of a 1992 resolution of the UN General Assembly on improving the status of women in the Secretariat. The resolution expresses concern about failure to reach the goal of a 30% participation rate of women in posts subject to geographical distribution by the end of 1990 and cites deep concern that no women currently serve on the under-secretary-general level and only one serves at the assistant secretary-general level in the Secretariat. Thus, the resolution urges the Secretary-General to implement his action program to overcome the obstacles to the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat. The Secretary-General is also urged to give greater priority to the recruitment and promotion of women in posts (especially senior policy-level and decision-making posts) subject to geographical distribution. The opportunity posed by the reorganization of the UN and establishment of the Commission on Sustainable Development should be used to promote women to senior-level positions. In addition, the number of women employed from developing countries and other countries with an under-representation of women should be increased. Member States are also encouraged to increase the percentage of women in professional posts.
WORLD OF WORK. 1996 Sep-Oct; (17):4-7.Despite expanded global female employment (45% of women aged 15-64 years are economically active), women still comprise 70% of the world's 1 billion people living in poverty. Moreover, women's economic activities remain largely confined to low-wage, low-productivity forms of employment. A report by the International Labor Organization (ILO), prepared as a follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and the World Summit for Social Development, identified discrimination in education as a central cause of female poverty and underemployment. Each additional year of schooling is estimated to increase a woman's earnings by 15%, compared to 11% for a man. At the workplace, women face inequalities in terms of hiring and promotion standards, access to training and retraining, access to credit, equal pay for equal work, and participation in economic decision making. In addition, even women in higher-level jobs in developing countries spend 31-42 hours per week in unpaid domestic activities. The ILO has concluded that increasing employment opportunities for women is not a sufficient goal. Required are actions to improve the terms and conditions of such employment, including equal pay for work of equal value, improved occupational safety and health, enhanced security in informal or atypical forms of work, guarantees of freedom of association and the right to organize and bargain collectively, and appropriate maternity protection and child care provisions. Finally, taxation and social welfare policies must be rewritten to accommodate the reality that women are no longer the dependent or secondary earner in families.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. , 96 p.A worldwide educational campaign has been launched in response to the discouraging results of the 1990 appraisal of implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000. As part of that campaign, this book uses statistical data compiled by the UN to describe the obstacles faced by women attempting to achieve equality in political participation and decision making; advancement in education, employment, and health; and participation in the peace process. The objective of this book is to raise the awareness of these issues among governments, nongovernmental organizations, educational institutions, the private sector, and individuals. Each of the first six chapters discusses one area of women's lives and ends by delivering a series of challenges to be met by the year 2000. Chapter 1 discusses discrimination against women (its roots; the lag between theoretical and practical advances; sex stereotypes; and discrimination in marriage, the family, and society) as well as its legal remedies. Chapter 2 defines women's health as a vital prerequisite to equality and covers such topics as the global health boom; women as primary health care providers; clean water, sanitation, and nutrition; the effects of economic crisis; maternal mortality; fertility and family planning; increasing malnutrition; AIDS; genital mutilation; and son preference. Chapter 3 looks at women's education as a key to empowerment and focuses on illiteracy, the effects of the economic crisis on education, and the special problems of rural women. Chapter 4 considers aspects related to acknowledgment of women's work such as the multiple roles of women, accounting for women's economic activity, households headed by women, women in agriculture, women in the informal sector, women suffering from exploitation in the formal sector, and the effects on women of economic adjustment programs. Chapter 5 examines women in political life, and Chapter 6 defines the role women play as victims of domestic and other violence and as advocates of peace. The concluding chapter provides a practical guide to obtaining further information from the UN.
RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-EIGHTH SESSION. 1994; 1:220-1.On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly issued a statement regarding improving the status of women in the Secretariat. The statement opens with references to relevant UN and international documents which call for improvements in the status of women as well as to the UN's own goals for increasing the proportion of women in upper-level posts. The commitment of the Secretary-General to improve women's participation in policy-making positions is commended as essential to the achievement of the goals of the General Assembly. The General Assembly then urges the Secretary-General to take specific actions including the following: 1) increasing work flexibility to remove discrimination against staff members with family responsibilities, 2) placing greater priority on recruiting and promoting women to decision-making posts in areas where women are poorly represented, 3) taking advantage of the UN's reorganization to move more women into senior positions, 4) increasing the number of women from developing countries employed in the Secretariat, 5) developing a comprehensive policy to prevent sexual harassment in the Secretariat, and 6) presenting a status report on this policy to the Commission on the Status of Women and the General Assembly. Member states are urged to support these efforts by developing rosters of women who would be appropriate candidates for employment by the Secretariat.
GENERAL ASSEMBLY OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; (Suppl 49):170-1.On December 16, 1991, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution to improve the status of women in the Secretariat. The resolution notes that the UN failed to achieve a goal of 30% participation by women in posts subject to geographical distribution by 1990 and recalls the goals for 1995 of a 35% overall participation by women in posts subject to geographic distribution and of 25% participation of women in posts at the D-1 level and above. The resolution then urges the Secretary-General to afford greater priority to the recruitment and promotion of women and to increase the number of women employed in the Secretariat from developing countries and other countries from which women are poorly represented. Member States are encouraged to engage in activities (such as nominations, recruitment, and creating rosters) which support these efforts. The Secretary-General is requested to assign a senior-level official to implement the action program for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat and to submit the results of a comprehensive study of the barriers to the advancement of women as well as details of the action program to the General Assembly. A progress report for 1991-95 is to be made to the Commission on the Status of Women.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:161, 551-2.This document contains the text of the 1988 UN Resolution on Improvement of the Status of Women in the Secretariat. This resolution urges the Secretary-General to deploy a full-time, senior-level employee (this employee should be a woman) in the Office of the Assistant Secretary-General for Human Resources Management in order to implement the action program for improving the status of women in the Secretariat by the 1990. The recommendation also requests that the Secretary-General report to the General Assembly and the Commission on the Status of Women on progress in the implementation of the action program.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. vii, 60 p.This booklet describes how the World Bank is transforming its analysis of the implications of persistent gender inequality into action toward gender equality. The first part of the report describes the World Bank's gender policy framework and general ways in which the Bank helps its clients advance gender equality through research and analysis to identify the problems posed by inequality and demonstrate the benefits of equality, removing barriers and improving access, expanding women's skills and opportunities, promoting women's participation, making institutions stronger, and collaborating with partners. Part 2 gives specific examples of innovative and unexpected strategies that have proved successful in assisting analysis and implementation. Analysis has led to the integration of gender into the Special Program of Assistance in Africa, to a reorientation of human capital investments towards girls and women in Pakistan, and to a consideration of gender issues in poverty assessments in Africa. Barriers have been removed and access improved by gender integration in the social and productive sectors in China, by drawing women into the mainstream of economic growth in Indonesia, by increasing employment opportunities for women in Bolivia's integrated child development project, and by adopting an integrated approach to women's health in Bangladesh. Examples of programs which expand women's skills and opportunities are found in the social investment funds in Egypt and Honduras, in new labor market opportunities for women in Kazakhstan, and among agricultural workers in India. Women's participation has been promoted in the planning of projects in Morocco and in Baku. In Tunisia, the institutional capacity for integrating gender in development efforts has been strengthened, and in Sri Lanka, the World Bank has collaborated with local organizations to integrate gender issues. It is hoped that these successful strategies will stimulate further ideas for creative solutions and that their success emphasizes that efforts to improve gender equality can only succeed with the participation of women.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. xi, 75 p. (Development in Practice)This report, prepared by the World Bank for the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, provides a reference to strategies for promoting gender equality and, thus, enhancing economic efficiency. Using case studies and other evidence, the report demonstrates how public policy decisions can and should support services and infrastructure that improve the economic status of women. The report also highlights unconventional strategies that have proved successful in this regard. The first chapter of the report deals with the fact that gender inequalities persist, despite gains, in education, health, and employment. Chapter 2 reveals how gender inequalities hamper economic growth in terms of household and intrahousehold resource allocation, human capital, and access to assets and services. The third chapter describes the importance of public policies in equalizing opportunities by modifying the legal framework, in promoting gender equality, and in narrowing the gender gap. This chapter also discusses involving beneficiaries in public policy, generating and analyzing gender-disaggregated data, collaboration, and strengthening international policies. The summary for the report points out that its main messages are 1) that the causes of gender inequality are complex and are linked to intrahousehold allocation of resources which is influenced by market signals and institutional norms; 2) that because such influences fail to capture the full benefits to society of investing in women, public policies must compensate for this failure and must view female education as a most important investment; and 3) that women are agents for change themselves and must be incorporated into the process of policy formation. The summary relates progress to date, considers why gender inequalities persist, and presents strategies for the future. It concludes that the promotion of gender equality is essential because it slows population growth and achieves greater labor productivity, a higher rate of human capital formation, and stronger economic growth.
[Unpublished] . iv, 112 p.This US government report opens with a general description of the changes which have taken place in the composition and life circumstances of US women between the 1980 and 1990 census. The status of US women is then described under the main headings of equality, development, and peace. Equality is determined in terms of the number of women in elective office, in appointive office, and employed in federal agencies; the relationship of women to the judicial system; women decision-makers in the private sector; and governmental and nongovernmental actions and mechanisms to advance the status of women. Development is explored through a consideration of poverty, aging, teenage pregnancy, welfare reform, housing, health, education, employment status, wages and benefits, deterring sexual harassment, access to vocational resources, and the environment. The discussion of peace centers on violence against women, women in the military, refugee resettlement, and advocacy for peace.
INSTRAW NEWS. 1995; (22):12-4.Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues must be addressed or their resolution to women's disadvantage will gain the mantle of tradition.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:161.The Government of Cameroon ratified the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention on 13 May 1988. (full text)
[Unpublished] 1995. Presented at the World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark, March 6, 1995. 3 p.In his address to the 1995 World Summit for Social Development, the Administrator of the UN Development Program (UNDP) focused on the concept of equity. He noted that with 68,000 babies born into poverty each day, there is little equity in the world. Despite economic development, millions of people are unemployed because of the "jobless growth" which is taking place in rich countries as well as developing nations. Equity demands jobs for all, an end to poverty, and an end to social exclusion. The struggle for equity will be the defining concern of international affairs in the decades ahead. The first requirement in achieving equity will be political will which will oversee the creation of an enabling environment to promote equity among and within nations. The tools to eradicate poverty are available, and poverty eradication is linked with the creation of millions of new jobs. One of the greatest obstacles to achieving equity is mobilizing the funds to accomplish the task. Many countries are debt-ridden, and aid programs are threatened in many donor nations. Indebted nations need to address external debt relief and need help in finding new sources of development funding within their existing budgets through the new debt-and-development partnerships. The UNDP can help with these initiatives and will address anti-poverty strategies as priorities. The ultimate success of the Summit will require full partnership with the private sector, with civil society, and with nongovernmental organizations.
Synthesis of the expert group meetings convened as part of the substantive preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):3-18.As part of the preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development to be sponsored by the UN in Cairo, 6 expert groups were convened to consider 1) population growth; 2) population policies and programs; 3) population, development, and the environment; 4) migration; 5) the status of women; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. Each group included 15 experts representing a full range of relevant scientific disciplines and geographic regions. Each meeting lasted 5 days and included a substantive background paper prepared by the Population Division as well as technical papers. Each meeting concluded with the drafting of between 18 and 37 recommendations (a total of 162). The meeting on population, the environment, and development focused on the implications of current trends in population and the environment for sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The meeting on population policies and programs observed that, since 1984, there has been a growing convergence of views about population growth among the nations of the world and that the stabilization of world population as soon as possible is now an internationally recognized goal. The group on population and women identified practical steps that agencies could take to empower women in order to achieve beneficial effects on health, population trends, and development. The meeting on FP, health, and family well-being reviewed policy-oriented issues emerging from the experience of FP programs. The meeting on population growth and development reviewed trends and prospects of population growth and age structure and their consequences for global sustainability. The population distribution and migration experts appraised current trends and their interrelationship with development. In nearly all of the group meetings, common issues emerged. Concern was universally voiced for sustainable development and sustained economic growth, relevance of past experience, human rights, the status of women, the family, accessibility and quality of services, the special needs of subpopulations, AIDS, the roles of governments and nongovernmental organizations, community participation, research and data collection, and international cooperation.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):1.On July 26, 1991, the Economic and Social Council resolved to convene an International Conference on Population and Development under the auspices of the UN. To prepare for the conference, 6 expert group meetings were held to address the following issues: 1) population growth, demographic changes, and the interaction between demographic variables and socioeconomic development; 2) population policies and programs, emphasizing the mobilization of resources for developing countries; 3) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment; 4) changes in the distribution of population; 5) the relationship between enhancing the status of women and population dynamics; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. A synthesis of these meetings is presented in the 34/35 issue of "Population Bulletin" (1993).
In: International Population Conference / Congres International de la Population, Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 1, [compiled by] International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1993. 499-519.Under the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) system there are 3 kinds of disease consequences: impairment, disability, and handicap. The objectives was to demonstrate that: 1) well-being can be defined beyond traditional mortality measures; 2) positive definitions of function can be developed; and 3) quality of life definitions can be applied to populations. The ICIDH assesses health status beyond the level of disease. Well-being means full functioning of bodily organs encompassing 9 broad categories: 1) intellectual; 2) other psychological; 3) language; 4) aural; 5) ocular; 6) visceral; 7) skeletal; 8) disfiguring; and 9) generalized, sensory, and other. At the disability level, functional actions at the person level are of concern and well-being can be viewed as full functioning for personal actions, activities, or behaviors. This assessment of person functioning or the lack of disability encompasses 9 broad categories: 1) behavior, 2) communications, 3) personal care, 4) locomotor, 5) body disposition, 6) dexterity, 7) situational, 8) personal skill, and 9) other activity. Data in the 1979-81 period indicated a disability prevalence rate of 5.5% of the disabled population. Well-being must include measures of quality of life, and its definition should include 3 components: 1) at the organ level, full psychological, physiological, or anatomical function without aid; 2) at the person level, normal ability to perform activities possibly with the aid of an assistive device; and 3) at the interaction with environment or societal/population level in the fulfillment of life roles. Data are presented for Ethiopia, Mali, the Netherlands Antilles, the Philippines, and Saint Helena to show that many of these concepts have become operational in the developing world.