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World Bank Group gender strategy (FY16-23) : gender equality, poverty reduction and inclusive growth.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 98 p.By many measures, 2015 marks a watershed year in the international community's efforts to advance gender equality. In September, with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), UN Member States committed to a renewed and more ambitious framework for development. This agenda, with a deadline of 2030, emphasizes inclusion not just as an end in and of itself but as critical to development effectiveness. At the center of this agenda is the achievement of gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls (SDG 5). In addition to governments, the private sector is increasingly committed to reducing gaps between men and women not just because it is the right thing to do, but because it makes business sense. Gender equality is also central to the World Bank Group’s own goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. No society can develop sustainably without transforming the distribution of opportunities, resources and choices for males and females so that they have equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families, communities, and countries. Promoting gender equality is smart development policy.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2012 Apr.  p.Adolescents experience intense physical, psychological, emotional and economic changes as they make the transition from childhood to adulthood. This edition of Progress for Children sets out who adolescents are, where they live, what they do, what their problems are and how their needs are -- or are not -- being met. Understanding adolescents in all their diversity is fundamental to improving their lives.
Monitoring of population programmes, focusing on adolescents and youth. Report of the Secretary-General.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2012 Feb 8.  p. (E/CN.9/2012/5)In accordance with decision 2010/101, by which the Commission on Population and Development adopted “Adolescents and youth” as the theme for its forty-fifth session, the present report provides an overview of development issues related to young people’s sexual and reproductive health, with particular emphasis on the needs of girls and young women. The report reviews actions by Governments, non-governmental organizations and the United Nations Population Fund and its partners that create a supportive environment for young people as they make the transition to adulthood; invest in young people; promote their rights and gender equality; provide access to sexual and reproductive health information and services; encourage their education and social integration; ensure protective measures and safe spaces for the most vulnerable among them, including those in humanitarian situations; and support an enabling policy and legal framework for their participation in policymaking. The report concludes by drawing attention to further actions required to promote and secure young people’s sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as a development priority to meet internationally agreed development goals and contribute to countries’ broad development aims.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO]. 2011.  p.This recently published book highlights actions to improve health equity based on findings from the nine global Knowledge Networks that were established during the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Their task was to synthesize existing evidence and identify effective and appropriate actions to improve health equity in nine thematic areas: globalization; gender; social exclusion; early child development; urban settings; employment conditions; health systems; public health programs; and measurement and evidence. The evidence reinforces the fundamental impact of social determinants on health outcomes and in creating health inequities.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2011.  p.The lives of girls and women have changed dramatically over the past quarter century. The pace of change has been astonishing in some areas, but in others, progress toward gender equality has been limited -- even in developed countries. This year's World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development argues that gender equality is a core development objective in its own right. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. The Report also focuses on four priority areas for policy going forward: (i) reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain, (ii) improving access to economic opportunities for women, (iii) increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society, and (iv) limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.
London, United Kingdom, Earthscan, 2010.  p.This report is based on data from UN-HABITAT’s Global Urban Indicator Database, as well as surveys of, and focus group discussions with, selected representative groups of young people in five major cities located in four developing regions: Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Mumbai (India), Kingston (Jamaica), Nairobi (Kenya) and Lagos (Nigeria).
New York, New York, United Nations, 2010.  p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/19)The World’s Women 2010: Trends and Statistics is the fifth issue of The World’s Women and is being produced to coincide with the first-ever World’s Statistics Day, 20.10.2010. The current issue highlights the differences in the status of women and men in eight areas -- population and families, health, education, work, power and decision-making, violence against women, environment and poverty. Analyses are based mainly on statistics from international and national statistical sources. The World’s Women 2010 shows that progress towards gender equality has been made in some areas, such as school enrolment, health and economic participation. At the same time the report shows that much more needs to be done to close the gender gap in critical areas such as power and decision-making and violence against women.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Urban Sector Board, 2008.  p.This paper provides an overview on what has been learned about urban poverty over the past decade with a focus on what is new and what the implications are for the World Bank going forward in an increasingly urbanized world. Coverage includes current information on the scope of urban poverty, identification of the key issues for the urban poor, a summary of regional characteristics of urban poverty, what has been learned from programs and policies aimed at the urban poor, and finally, the paper identifies priorities for urban poverty reduction within the context of an overall urban strategy.
[Unpublished] 1998.  p.The assembled national youth ministers commit themselves to national youth policies and formulate guidelines in association with youth on the following topics: Participation, Development, Peace, Education, Employment, Health, and Drug & Substance Abuse.
World Health and Population. 2008; 10(2):25-39.Our study examines factors influencing demand for contraception for spacing as well as for limiting births in India. Data on socio-economic, demographic and program factors affecting demand for contraception in India are from the National Family Health Survey, 1998--99. The recent document from the National Rural Health Mission has completely ignored the use of contraception in controlling fertility in India. Empirical results of our study suggest giving priority to and focusing attention on supply-side factors such as a regular and sustained supply of quality contraceptive methods to improve accessibility and affordability. Further, strengthening the information, education and communication (IEC) component of the reproductive and child health (RCH) package would allay misapprehensions about the side effects and health risks of contraception. Focusing attention on demand-side factors such as women's empowerment through education, gainful employment and exposure to mass-media would help reduce the unmet demand for family planning. The resulting reduction in fertility would hasten the process of demographic transition and population stabilization in India.
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2008. 101 p.This publication shows how various parts of the United Nations system support youth development with a diverse range of programs covering all 15 priority areas of the World Programme of Action for Youth. Several of these priority areas relate to reproductive health and HIV, and numerous UN agencies include activities on these topics in their programming. This document includes illustrative activities for each agency, key publications, and contact information.
International Studies. 2007; 44(1):23-37.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) exemplify the enduring commitment and potential of the United Nations to serve as a catalyst for collective action in the cause of equitable and all round development of all nations and peoples. Indeed, the restructuring of the development apparatus as an important element of the larger challenge of the UN reform has acquired greater urgency in view of the manifest need to push for timely implementation of MDGs. Strengthening the role of the Economic and Social Council is a tricky issue that apparently puts the industrially advanced countries and the developing countries in opposite camps. Among the issues on which both the European developed and the Asian developing countries have showed interest, the idea of air ticket levy for raising resources for development is worthy of being pursued vigorously as part of the UN reform negotiations. Likewise, there is more than sufficient potential for old European Union countries like Germany and fast developing countries like China to bridge gaps in their policy objectives and work as partners in strengthening the multilateral mechanism dedicated to development purposes. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Oct; 85(10):734.posited that the process of development entails changes in incomes over time. Larger income levels achieved via positive economic growth, appropriately discounted for population growth, would constitute higher levels of development. As many have noted, however, the income measure fails to adequately reflect development in that per-capita income, in terms of its levels or changes to it, does not sufficiently correlate with measures of (human) development, such as life expectancy, child/infant mortality and literacy. The United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) human development index (HDI) constitutes an improved measure for development. HDI has been modified to be gender-sensitive with variants that reflect gender inequality. Various measures reflecting Sen's "capability" concept, such as civil and political rights, have also been incorporated. Countries where the level of poverty is relatively large tend also to exhibit low values of human development, thus lowering the mean values of the development measures. Where inequalities of development indicators are very large, however, the average values may not sufficiently reflect the conditions of the poor, requiring the need to concentrate on poverty per se. (excerpt)
Right to education during displacement: a resource for organizations working with refugees and internally displaced persons.
New York, New York, Women' s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006.  p.This resource is the first in a series of tools that identifies everyone's right to education, with a focus on refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons (IDP). This version is designed for use by local, regional and international organizations, United Nations (UN) agencies, government agencies and education personnel working with displaced communities. Is it mean to serve as: an awareness raising tool to encourage humanitarian assistance agencies to implement education programs - and donors to found them; training and capacity-building resource for practitioners and others working with displaced populations on international rights around education; and a call to action for organizations and individuals to promote access and completion of quality education for all persons affected by emergencies. (excerpt)
SHS Views. 2006; (14):8-12.Poverty is not an inevitability. In its effort to fight poverty, UNESCO has mobilized all programme Sectors to work towards the first of the Millennium Development Goals as defined by the United Nations: the eradication of extreme poverty. While the Organization's Member States have yet to decide how this cross-cutting programme should continue, SHS Views takes stock of the programme's first five years. (excerpt)
Adding a gender dimension to economic decision-making - includes related article on economic aspects of women's unpaid work - Fourth World Conference on Women - Cover Story.
UN Chronicle. 1995 Jun; 32(2): p..Women hold a meagre 1 per cent of executive positions in the 1,000 largest corporations based outside the United States. The proportion is higher, at 8 per cent, in the 1,000 largest corporations in the United States, but only a handful of women hold the top-most positions, according to a recent study by the UN Secretariat Division for the Advancement of Women. The same is true for the web of powerful global and regional multi-lateral institutions, where "women have been virtually excluded from key decision-making positions and from negotiating roles", as well as national trade policy, where the proportion of women is "insignificant", asserts Secretary-General Boutros Boutros- Ghali in a 1994 report. The result: the proportion of women in economic decision-making is not only "very low", states the report, but also "a gender dimension has been absent from macroeconomic policies and decisions regarding resource distribution, wealth creation and exchange". (excerpt)
Exploitation of women workers in family enterprises decried - United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.
UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..Women who work in family enterprises without payment are being exploited, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) declared, calling for guaranteed payment, social security and social benefits for them. As it concluded its tenth annual session (21 January-1 February, New York), the Committee also recommended that the value of women's domestic work be added to countries' gross national products. Nations should provide information on disabled women and on measures taken to ensure equal access for them to education, employment, health services and social security. The 23-member watchdog body monitors how countries implement the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2002 Sep-Nov; 39(3): p..Any discussion of children and youth now must inevitably relate to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which provide the road map for human development. The recent United Nations Special Session on Children exposed failures of Governments in creating an enabling environment for youth within the Millennium Goals. Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the crucial importance of recognizing the rights of youth for any development agenda to work. As they conceded, children's greatest needs and aspirations point to a world that facilitates a rich human development based on "principles and democracy, equality, nondiscrimination, peace, social justice and the universality, indivisibility, interdependence and interrelatedness of all human rights, including the right to development. Children and adolescents are resourceful citizens capable of building a better future for all" [A World Fit for Children]. The Special Session sounded a wake-up call to address the continuing neglect of children and youth in an uncaring world. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2000 Spring; 37(1): p..Demography is not destiny, but this is a formidable challenge -- not so much because of the sheer number of people as because of the context of poverty and deprivation in which they will have to live unless we take decisive action now. If I had one wish for the new millennium, it would be that we treat this challenge as an opportunity for all, not a lottery in which most of us will lose. Young people are a source of creativity, energy and initiative, of dynamism and social renewal. They learn quickly and adapt readily. Given the chance to go to school and find work, they will contribute hugely to economic development and social progress. (excerpt)
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], .  pThe purpose of this paper was originally to assist the deliberation of the High-Level Intergovernmental Meeting, Beijing +10, (Bangkok 7-10 September, 2004) by presenting a summary of the current situation of women in relation to men in a number of key areas in the Asia-Pacific region. This revised version forms the first volume in a series of two papers, all aimed at addressing major developments in the situation of women in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia- Pacific region as defined by ESCAP’s membership includes some 50 countries in the region and some 9 territories covering East and North-East Asia, North and Central Asia, South and South-West Asia, South-East Asia and the Pacific. It has repeatedly been demonstrated that data are key to catalyzing and monitoring progress, as well as supporting country-level planning and local accountability. Gender statistics has therefore been a priority area in ESCAP’s statistical capacity building work for many years. As a result, considerable statistical progress has been achieved in the region since the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in 1995 adopted the strategic objective “to generate and disseminate sex-disaggregated data and information for planning and evaluation”. (excerpt)
Santiago, Chile, United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2004 May. 348 p.The 2002–2003 edition of the Social panorama of Latin America explores issues related to many of the Millennium Development Goals. Three of the five chapters (on poverty, hunger and gender inequality) assess how likely it is that the countries of the region will succeed in meeting the targets in these areas agreed upon by the States Members of the United Nations for 2015. One of the chapters that refers to the Millennium Development Goals deals with hunger and food insecurity. This chapter, which was produced in collaboration with the World Food Programme, provides information on the scale, trends and main causes of child malnutrition and undernourishment in 24 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The chapter on poverty includes figures for Latin American countries in 2001 and 2002, together with estimates for the region as a whole for 2003. This chapter points out that the poverty reduction process has been at a standstill since 1997, but it also notes that many countries may still manage to halve their extreme poverty rates by 2015. The chapter on gender indicates that poverty in Latin America is more widespread among women than men and that most indigent households are headed by women. Moreover, if it were not for the financial contribution made by women, poverty would increase by at least 10 percentage points in most of the countries. The discussion also deals with other disadvantages suffered by women, such as those linked to the lack of social recognition, unpaid domestic work, the slow pace of progress in their involvement in politics (particularly in decision–making positions), higher rates of unemployment and wage discrimination. The chapter on social expenditure furnishes information on 18 Latin American countries and analyses trends in social spending over the last decade. The impact on social expenditure of the economic slowdown that began in 1998 is discussed, and the point is made that the higher priority assigned to public social expenditure (measured as a percentage of GDP) avoided what could have been a greater reduction of per capita GDP. The final chapter examines labour policy and singles out some interesting initiatives aimed at combating unemployment, poor job quality and underemployment. Information supplied by the countries’ ministries of labour serves as a basis for an analysis of cross–country differences in terms of legal working age, minimum wage levels, types of contracts and the right to form labour unions and to strike. It is further noted that, despite some progress in labour legislation, there are still serious problems with the enforcement of existing laws and regulations. The section on the international social agenda summarizes the main points agreed upon at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, known informally as Rio+10. (author's)
Africa Recovery. 1999 Sep; 13(2): p..The fact that half of the world's population lives in poverty today, up from one-quarter 25 years ago, is an "inescapable blot" on the record of human progress, remarked UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in his opening address before the 1999 session of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Poverty eradication was the overarching theme of the entire ECOSOC session, held in Geneva from 5- 30 July. The Secretary-General's report on "The role of employment and work in poverty eradication: the empowerment and advancement of women," provided the sub-theme for discussions during the ECOSOC session's opening (high-level) segment, held from 5-8 July. People living in sub-Saharan Africa are the most deeply mired in poverty, with incomes the furthest below the poverty line worldwide, observes Mr. Annan's report. Moreover, the number of absolute poor continues to rise while the "face of poverty" is changing: in the next century, a poor person will more likely be an unskilled female earning low wages and living in urban Africa or Latin America than a male small-holder living in rural Asia. Therefore, strategies designed to combat the discrimination and disadvantage faced by women "must be central to successful poverty reduction," the report says. (excerpt)
Situation analysis of discrimination and stigmatization against People Living with HIV / AIDS in West and Central Africa. Ethical and legal considerations.
Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, UNAIDS, Inter-Country Team for West and Central Africa, 2002 Jun.  p.The situation analysis of discrimination, stigmatization and the ethical and legal aspects in the context of HIV/AIDS in West and Central Africa forms part of the documentation of experiences in the different countries, aimed at providing adequate responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The objectives of the study, conducted by the UNAIDS Inter-Country Team and the network of people living with HIV/AIDS for West and Central Africa were as follows: to identify the factors that promote or impede the welfare of people living with HIV/AIDS in the community; to understand the difficulties of involving PLWHA in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment actions; to propose solutions for ensuring respect of the rights of PLWHA. (excerpt)
A demographic perspective on women in development in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1998. xvi, 135 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 148)The selection of Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam for inclusion in the study was based on a number of considerations. The ESCAP secretariat has undertaken the publication of country profiles of women in 16 other countries, namely Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The four countries included in this study, while exhibiting significant social and cultural differences, are all located in South-East Asia; they are the four least developed countries in South-East Asia on most indicators; and their economies are in transition to more open, market-oriented economies, In each of the four countries, women have traditionally played an important social role marked by considerable gender equity. Equal inheritance among children is possible, and often the norm. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic, for example, husbands traditionally move to the household of their wife and the youngest daughter inherits the family home. The proportion of households headed by women is substantial in all four countries, and quite high in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Female labour force participation rates exceed those of men in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and the female labour force is larger than the male labour force in Viet Nam. (excerpt)
World of Work. 2003 Dec; (49):22-24.In two-and-a-half years, an innovative ILO project has helped create well over 2,000 jobs, and pull more than 200 indebted families out of debt trap. This year ILO INDISCO project aims at creating decent employment for tribal peoples in the remote forests of Maryurbhanj in Orissa, India, and is well on its way to becoming a replicable model. (excerpt)