Your search found 107 Results

  1. 1

    State of inequality: Childhood immunization.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 96 p.

    The report addresses two overarching questions: What inequalities in childhood immunization coverage exist in low- and middle-income countries? And how have childhood immunization inequalities changed over the last 10 years? In answering these questions, this report draws on data about five childhood immunization indicators, disaggregated by four dimensions of inequality, and covering 69 countries. The findings of this report indicate that there is less inequality now than 10 years ago. Global improvements have been realized with variable patterns of change across countries and by indicator and dimension of inequality. The current situation in many countries shows that further improvement is needed to lessen inequalities; in particular, inequalities related to household economic status and mother’s education were the most prominent. (Excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The little data book on gender.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016. [234] p.

    This pocket guide is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. The book presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 economies in an easy country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation and the Millennium Development Goals. The book’s summary pages cover regional and income group aggregates.
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  3. 3

    Adolescent fertility since the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2013. [65] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/337)

    This report presents new estimates of the levels and trends in adolescent fertility worldwide from 1990-1995 to 2005-2010. It highlights key social and demographic factors underlying adolescent fertility, including early marriage, first sex, contraceptive use and education. This period coincides with assessments of progress in implementing the Programme of Action of the ICPD and the Millennium Development Goals, which include a focus on reducing early childbearing, expanding access to reproductive health and investing in the human capital of youth, especially girls.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases: the views of educated people living in Togo.

    Kpanake L; Patassi A; Mullet E

    Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2013 Jun; 89(4):290-4.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the views of educated people in Togo on the acceptability of criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases (STIDs) to his female partner. METHODS: 199 adults living in Kara, Togo judged acceptability of criminal prosecution for STID in 45 scenarios composed of combinations of five factors: (a) severity of disease; (b) awareness and communication of one's serological status; (c) partners' marital status; (d) number of sexual partners the female partner has and (e) male partner's subsequent attitude (supportive or not). RESULTS: Acceptability was lower (a) when the male partner decided to take care of his female partner he had infected than when he decided to leave, (b) when both partners were informed but decided not to take precautions than when none of them was informed or when only the male partner was informed and (c) when the female partner has had several male sexual partners than when she has had only one. Two qualitatively different views were identified. For 66% of participants, when the male partner accepts to take care of his partner, he should not be sued, except when he did not disclose his serological status. For 34%, when both partners were informed, the male partner should not be sued, irrespective of other circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding criminal prosecution for STID, most people in the sample endorsed the position of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS that urges governments not to apply criminal law to cases where sexual partners disclosed their status or were not informed of it.
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Perpetuating power: a response.

    Ortiz Ortega A

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):35-41.

    This paper explores the actors who replaced the agreements about the global development agenda made in the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo 1994 and the 4th UN World Women's Conference in Beijing in 1995 with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It also surveys the processes which shape and affect the exercise of power, which can lead to radical changes.
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  6. 6

    Effect of WHO Newborn Care Training on neonatal mortality by education.

    Chomba E; McClure EM; Wright LL; Carlo WA; Chakraborty H

    Ambulatory Pediatrics. 2008 Sep-Oct; 8(5):300-304.

    Background.-Ninety-nine percent of the 4 million neonatal deaths per year occur in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) course sets the minimum accepted standard for training midwives on aspects of infant care (neonatal resuscitation, breastfeeding, kangaroo care, small baby care, and thermoregulation), many of which are provided by the mother. Objective.-The aim of this study was to determine the association of ENC with all-cause 7-day (early) neonatal mortality among infants of less educated mothers compared with those of mothers with more education. Methods.-Protocol- and ENC-certified research nurses trained all 123 college-educated midwives from 18 low-risk, first-level urban community health centers (Zambia) in data collection (1 week) and ENC (1 week) as part of a controlled study to test the clinical impact of ENC implementation. The mothers were categorized into 2 groups, those who had completed 7 years of school education (primary education) and those with 8 or more years of education. Results.-ENC training is associated with decreases in early neonatal mortality; rates decreased from 11.2 per 1000 live births pre- ENC to 6.2 per 1000 following ENC implementation (P <.001). Prenatal care, birth weight, race, and gender did not differ between the groups. Mortality for infants of mothers with 7 years of education decreased from 12.4 to 6.0 per 1000 (P < .0001) but did not change significantly for those with 8 or more years of education (8.7 to 6.3 per 1000, P ¼.14). Conclusions.-ENC training decreases early neonatal mortality, and the impact is larger in infants of mothers without secondary education. The impact of ENC may be optimized by training health care workers who treat women with less formal education.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Audit of paediatric prescriptions for the common paediatric problems.

    Javed M

    Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007 Oct-Dec; 23(6):932-935.

    The objectives were to compare the prevailing prescribing practices of paediatricians with minor and major diploma for common paediatric problems. It was a Cross sectional study in which 10 % of children visiting the outpatient department of paediatrics, Hamdard university hospital with gastroenteritis and Acute respiratory infections, diagnosed according to UNICEF/ WHO protocol were enrolled, their prescriptions checked and results were entered in specially designed Performa. Five hundred prescriptions were reviewed of which 308 were due to Gastro enteritis, 192 were due to respiratory tract infections1). Average numbers of drugs/ prescription were 3.33 +or- 1.2. Paediatricians with minor diploma prescribed 3.5 +or- 1.2 drugs/ prescription. Paediatricians with major diploma prescribed 2.8 +or-1.2 drugs/ prescription (p-valve 0.32) Antibiotic in diarrhoea and respiratory tract infections (upper and lower respiratory tract infections were written in 81.7% cases by paediatricians with lower diploma and 77.7 % cases by paediatricians with major diploma (p-valve 0.27). In respiratory tract infections antihistamines were prescribed in 79.7% of cases by paediatricians with minor diploma and 69.5 % cases by paediatricians with major diploma (p-valve0.11). Anti emetic in Gastroenteritis were written in 69.1% cases by paediatricians with minor diploma and 56.2% cases by Paediatricians with major diploma (p-valve 0.021). More drugs and more antibiotic were given by doctors, with major diploma. Antibiotics were totally different than recommended by the National ARI programme, which the Paediatricians teach in Medical Colleges. The antibiotics prescribed for common Paediatric Problems were totally different than recommended by the National ARI programme which the Paediatricians teach in Medical College. Active intervention is needed to improve the quality of medical education of physicians who treat children, while in depth measures are required for the training of paediatricians. (author's)
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  8. 8

    Challenges to MDG achievement in low income countries: lessons from Ghana and Honduras.

    Bussolo M; Medvedev D

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Development Economics Prospects Group, 2007 Nov. 20 p. (Policy Research Working Paper No. 4383)

    This paper summarizes the policy lessons from applications of the Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS) model to two low income countries: Ghana and Honduras. Results show that costs of MDGs achievement could reach 10-13 percent of GDP by 2015, although, given the observed low productivity in the provision of social services, significant savings may be realized by improving efficiency. Sources of financing also matter: foreign aid inflows can reduce international competitiveness through real exchange appreciation, while domestic financing can crowd out the private sector and slow poverty reduction. Spending a large share of a fixed budget on growth-enhancing infrastructure may mean sacrificing some human development, even if higher growth is usually associated with lower costs of social services. The pursuit of MDGs increases demand for skills: while this encourages higher educational attainments, in the short term this could lead to increased income inequality and a lower poverty elasticity of growth. (author's)
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  9. 9

    Forms and patterns of social discrimination in Nepal: a report.

    Pandey TR; Mishra S; Chemjong D; Pokhrel S; Rawal N

    Kathmandu, Nepal, UNESCO, 2006. [126] p. (UNESCO Kathmandu Series of Monographs and Working Papers No. 8; KAT-SHS-2006/01)

    Socio-cultural diversity is one of the important features of Nepalese society. Its people are categorized into a number of caste groups as well as ethnic communities. They possess different types of cultural traditions and assume different levels of economic standing. In view of these diversities, public debates in Nepal have raised the issue that these different types of social categories share the opportunities and privileges available in this society differentially. Given this, this report aims to: highlight the existing forms and patterns of social discrimination experienced by people of Nepal, as they occur, on the grounds of their caste, ethnicity, gender, and religion-based identities, draw attention to the difference types of social discrimination experienced by people of the aforementioned social categories, and discover the variations of social discrimination among people, as they occur, in terms of their class-based position within these social categories. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Action to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe: a preliminary assessment.

    Dottridge M

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, Child Protection Unit, 2006. 89 p.

    This Report outlines some key findings and recommendations from an assessment of the efforts to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe. Its main purpose is to increase understanding of the work prevention of child trafficking, by looking at the effectiveness of different approaches and their impacts. The assessment covered Albania, Republic of Moldova, Romania and the UN Administered Province of Kosovo. The Report is based on a review of relevant research and agency reports as well as interviews with organizations implementing prevention initiatives and with trafficked children from the region. The first part of the Report reviews key terms and definition related to child trafficking, as common understanding about what constitutes trafficking and who might be categorised as a victim is crucial to devising prevention initiatives and guaranteeing adequate protection for trafficked children. Furthermore, to intervene in any of the phases of the trafficking process it is essential to understand specific factors contributing to the situation and the key actors involved. Different approaches to understanding the causes of child trafficking and methods for developing prevention initiatives are also explored. The Report notes that all prevention efforts should incorporate the principles that have proved essential in designing and implementing other initiatives in the ares of child rights and protection. That is, good prevention initiatives should be rooted in child rights principles and provisions, use quality data and analysis, applying programme logic, forge essential partnerships, monitor and evaluate practice and measure the progress towards expected results. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Vaccination and child mortality. [Vaccination et mortalité infantile]

    Hall AJ

    Lancet. 2004 Dec 18-25; 364:2156-2157.

    A report in 2000 from Guinea Bissau suggested a worrisome association between diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) vaccination and mortality. In this issue of The Lancet, Robert Breiman and colleagues respond to concerns about DPT with a highly detailed and reassuring study of vaccination and mortality in Bangladesh. At an epidemiology conference in Helsinki in 1989, Peter Aaby and I spent a few days discussing a problem: vaccines are usually introduced into developing countries with no assessment of their potential effect on overall mortality. The key issue is that if trials of vaccines are to show a beneficial effect, or at least that they cause no harm, the trials need to be so large that they are difficult to fund. Another problem is that once a vaccine has been shown to reduce the frequency of the target disease, it becomes ethically questionable to have an unvaccinated group. Aaby tried to address this issue by using observational data from demographic surveillance in Guinea Bissau. He has published papers suggesting unexpected associations between vaccine use and later patterns of mortality. His findings on DPT vaccine prompted WHO to look closely at his data (including a site visit by independent experts), to commission studies around the world where the association could be studied, and then to hold a meeting of experts to review and report all data in WHO’s Weekly Epidemiological Record. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Promises to keep: achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women. Background paper of the Task Force on Education and Gender Equality.

    Grown C; Gupta GR; Khan Z

    [New York, New York], United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Millennium Project, 2003 Apr 18. [55] p.

    The purpose of the paper is to review progress countries have made in reaching this goal and to suggest recommendations to hasten progress. The paper has four key messages: First, the current MDG gender equality target and indicators do not capture all the major components of gender equality. The paper proposes three domains of gender equality: capability (basic human abilities as measured by education, health and nutrition), opportunity (access to assets, income, and employment), and agency (the ability to make choices that can alter outcomes) and suggests new targets and indicators to augment the ones proposed by U.N. member states. Second, each of these domains is amenable to policy intervention: “capabilities” can be addressed in large part through existing initiatives in health, education, and other sectors; “opportunities” requires some fundamental changes in the economic order; and “agency” is possible through electoral quotas, legislation on violence against women, and other measures. Third, internationally-funded initiatives (such as Education for All), conventions (such as the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women), and other mechanisms (the ILO Decent Work Agenda) that currently exist provide reasonable frameworks for achieving gender equality. These should be complemented by a new international campaign for zero tolerance for violence against women. Finally, the paper urges the international community to translate rhetoric to action by improving the availability and quality of sex-disaggregated data, increasing financial and technical resources for agencies dedicated to promoting the status of women, and enhancing political commitment at the highest levels to end gender inequality and empower women. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: definitions, rationale, concepts and sources.

    United Nations Development Group

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2003 Oct. [111] p.

    This handbook contains basic metadata on the agreed list of quantitative indicators for monitoring progress towards the 8 goals and 18 targets derived from the Millennium Declaration. The list of indicators, developed using several criteria, is not intended to be prescriptive but to take into account the country setting and the views of various stakeholders in preparing country-level reports. Five main criteria guided the selection of indicators. They should: Provide relevant and robust measures of progress towards the targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Be clear and straightforward to interpret and provide a basis for international comparison. Be broadly consistent with other global lists and avoid imposing an unnecessary burden on country teams, governments and other partners. Be based to the greatest extent possible on international standards, recommendations and best practices. Be constructed from well-established data sources, be quantifiable and be consistent to enable measurement over time. The handbook is designed to provide the United Nations country teams and national and international stakeholders with guidance on the definitions, rationale, concepts and sources of the data for the indicators that are being used to monitor the Millennium Development Goals. Just as the indicator list is dynamic and will necessarily evolve in response to changing national situations, so will the metadata change over time as concepts, definitions and methodologies change. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    The impact of education on fertility patterns: an analytical survey of research findings.

    Allman J

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 1973 Jul 9. [123] p. (SHC/WS/297)

    The paper entitled "The Impact of Education on Fertility Patterns: An Analytical Survey of Research Findings" reviews findings on the relationship between education and fertility in developed and developing countries. It presents age-education-specific fertility data for selected countries and discusses problems in data collection and analysis. The use of models an statistical techniques in the analysis of the relationship between education and fertility is considered in the final section. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Educational attainment and fertility rates.

    Vavra Z

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 1972 Dec 4. [41] p. (SHC/WS/276)

    This present study attempts to review the state of knowledge today on the relationship between educational attainment and fertility, and to list some of the major institutions conducting research in the area of human fertility, which takes into account the effect of education on fertility. Finally, a bibliography of recent literature (in English) dealing with education and fertility, is given here. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Accelerating progress in girls' education.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, [2003]. 24 p.

    UNICEF is consolidating nearly six decades of experience and the expertise of our partners – other United Nations agencies, the academic community and hundreds of non-governmental organizations – to identify out-of- school girls and get them into the classroom. This means taking interventions that we know work and applying them to individual communities. Many of the measures are practical, such as creating double shifts in existing schools, making small rural schools viable through multigrade teaching, operating ‘mobile schools’ for nomadic communities or ‘tent schools’ in emergency situations, and using incentives for enrollment and attendance. The goal is to target interventions more effectively and help countries take them to scale. The lessons learned from the 25 pilot countries will be applied to other countries until all the world's children, girls as well as boys, enjoy their right to a quality education. UNICEF is providing a customized package of resources to support countries so that they can identify, implement and scale up interventions to get results. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Making development organizations accountable: the organizational, political and cognitive contexts.

    Kardam N

    In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 44-60.

    Most of the development literature considers accountability either as a political or an organizational issue and few consider it as a cognitive issue. All three must be examined in order to acquire a broader understanding of accountability. Accountability has to do with the organizational characteristics (goals, procedures, staffing, incentive systems) of all agencies involved, as well as with the political context, that is, the political commitment of the stakeholders to a project, whether the options of 'exit' and 'voice' are available and whether democratic accountability exists. Finally, accountability cannot be discussed without understanding the 'discourse' underlying a particular policy area, in our case gender policy. How do different stakeholders define 'gender issues'? On what basis should resources be allocated to women? The perceived cause of gender constraints will also determine what solutions are proposed. To what extent is there agreement between different stakeholders on the nature of the issue and the proposed solutions? These are some of the questions we might ask as we explore gendered institutions. Therefore, I will begin by analysing the conditions that limit and promote accountability within these three major categories: the organizational context, the political context and the cognitive context. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    Promoting girls' schooling in Orissa.

    Kar J; Kar J

    Indian Journal of Gender Studies. 2002 Jan-Jun; 9(1):61-79.

    The international community has largely felt the need for near-universal primary schooling as an essential aspect of basic human development (UN 1994; UNICEF 1990; USAID 1995). The Programme of Action chalked out at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 has underlined two major aspects of children's schooling. The first is universal primary education for both boys and girls, while the second is education for girls beyond the primary level. Principle 10 of the Programme states, 'Everyone has the right to education, which shall be directed to the full development of human resources and human dignity and potential, with particular attention to women and the girl child.' Highlighting the elimination of gender inequality in schooling along with higher educational attainment for the girl child, the Programme mentions: 'Beyond the achievement of the goal of universal primary education in all countries before the year 2015, all countries are urged to ensure the widest and earliest possible access by girls and women to secondary and higher levels of education' (para 4.8). That the main emphasis with respect to education beyond the primary level is to promote girls" schooling is evident in the summary of goals of the ICPD presented in the State of the World Population Report 1995 (UNFPA 1995: 10). The UN's analysis of the ICPD programme has also underlined the importance of women's education as an imperative issue in population development (UN 1994: 25). (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Primary schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: recent trends and current challenges.

    Lloyd CB; Hewett PC

    New York, New York, Population Council, 2003. 39 p. (Policy Research Division Working Paper No. 176)

    At the dawn of the twenty-first century we estimate that more than 37 million young adolescents aged 10–14 in sub-Saharan Africa will not complete primary school. Our estimates are based on data from nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys from 26 countries, collectively representing 83 percent of the sub-Saharan youth population. This number is nearly twice the entire population of children aged 10–14 in the United States, virtually all of whom will complete primary school. Reducing the number of uneducated African youth is a primary objective of the United Nations as laid out in the Millennium Development Goal for education, which sets 2015 as the target year for all children to have completed primary school and for boys and girls to have equal access to education at all levels. Achieving this goal will require a level of international resources and commitment not yet seen; it will also require better tools for monitoring educational progress at the country level. UNESCO draws on enrollment data derived from national management information systems to create two complementary indicators for assessing progress toward universal education: the net primary enrollment ratio and the grade four completion rate. Evaluation of these indicators suggests that they provide, at best, an incomplete and, at worst, a biased picture of levels, trends, and gender differences in school participation and grade attainment. Data from the DHS present a different and, arguably, more realistic picture of trends in schooling and current attendance among sub-Saharan African youth. Whereas steady growth has occurred in attendance and attainment for girls in the last 20 years, educational progress for boys has been stagnant. With the decline in educational disparities between boys and girls, the gap in schooling that remains is between the poorest and the richest households. The gap in schooling delineated by household wealth cannot be monitored even with the best management information systems. It can, however, be captured using household survey data that allow the linking of educational attainment to household economic circumstances. We conclude that current monitoring requirements cannot be fulfilled without substantial new investments in data collection and evaluation. (author's)
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  20. 20

    1993 demographic yearbook. 45th. 1993 annuaire demographique.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division

    New York, New York, United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division, 1995. x, 1,032 p. (No. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/24)

    This is a comprehensive collection of international demographic statistics published annually by the United Nations. "The tables in this issue of the Yearbook are presented in two parts, the basic tables followed by the tables devoted to population censuses, the special topic in this issue. The first part contains tables giving a world summary of basic demographic statistics, followed by tables presenting statistics on the size, distribution and trends in population, natality, foetal mortality, infant and maternal mortality, general mortality, nuptiality and divorce. In the second part, this issue of the Yearbook serves to update the census information featured in the 1988 issue. Census data on demographic and social characteristics include population by single years of age and sex, national and/or ethnic composition, language and religion. Tables showing data on geographical characteristics include information on major civil divisions and localities by size-class. Educational characteristics include population data on literacy, educational attainment and school attendance. In many of the tables, data are shown by urban/rural residence."
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  21. 21

    The situation of women 1990, selected indicators. Equality, development, peace.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office; United Nations. Office at Vienna; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]; International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women [INSTRAW]

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1990. [1] p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8/Add.1/Rev.1)

    Selected indicators of equality, development, and peace are charted for 178 countries and regions of the world for the most recent year available. The data were obtained from the UN Women's Indicators and Statistics Data Base for microcomputers (Wistat) maintained by he Statistical Office of the UN Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. The chart updates the prior 1986 publication and supplements the UN publications, Women and Social Trends (1970-90). Population composition and distribution measures include total population in 1990 by sex, percentage of the population >60 years of age by sex, and percentage of rural population by sex (1980/85). Educational measures are provided for the percentage of illiterate population aged 15 years and older (1980-85) by sex, primary and secondary enrollment by sex (1985/87), and post-secondary enrollment by sex. Economic activity is measured by the percentage of women in the labor force. Other measures include the population aged 45-59 not currently married (1980-85) by sex, the total fertility rate (1985-90), maternal death rate (1980/86), and percentage of female contraceptive use 1980/88). The percentage of female legislators is given for 1985/87 where data is available. Definition of terms is briefly and generally given.
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  22. 22

    The impact of changes on Latin American and Caribbean women: education, knowledge and demographic trends. Discussion note.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Women and Development Unit

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], 1994, Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women, Gaborone, Botswana, June 22-26, 1992. 9 p. (ESD/P/ICPD.1994/EG.III/DN.10)

    Current theoretical and conceptual frameworks have included broader notions of social welfare and the quality of life within development discussions. Gender issues have been more easily integrated into development models. Modernization, as advances in economic conditions and the growth of technology, has rapidly changed societies. Although democracy has been included as a given for human development, a wider gap has appeared between the rich and poor. In Latin America expectations were set up for the social mobility of women and young people, when the debt crisis hit. Future models of women in development must eliminate the gender dichotomies and offer perspectives that explain the contradictions. A proposal was offered for achieving international competitiveness by changing production patterns, using innovation to achieve efficiency and equity, and creating possibilities for international cooperation. Gender equity means redistribution within socioeconomic groups and involvement of women in development. In Latin America, importance was placed on how women were integrated into development. Flexibility and innovation will be the goals of education, which should be compatible with the past traditional role women have carried. Specific measures will need to be introduced for maternal and child care, prenatal care, and flexible working hours. Child care must be part of a coordinated effort among public, private, business, and community sectors. The domestic burden of women will need to be lightened. Reproduction rights in Latin America and the Caribbean must be secured not only for women but also for men. Advances in medicine have reduced risk in childbirth, raised life expectancies, and provided options for women to control unwanted fertility. Excess female mortality due to preventable causes was highest among poor women. Access to education has increased but without a companion increase in labor market opportunity or income levels. In 1977, ECLAC adopted a Regional Plan of Action for the Integration of Women into Latin American and Caribbean Development which recognized women's vulnerability and the need for comprehensive, periodic assessments.
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  23. 23

    The impact of mother's education on infant and child mortality in selected countries in the ESCWA region. Discussion note.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [ESCWA]. Social Development and Population Division.

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], 1994, Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women, Gaborone, Botswana, June 22-26, 1992. 21 p. (ESD/P/ICPD.1994/EG.III/DN.13)

    A number of researchers have associated child and infant mortality in developing countries with maternal education. The correlation has remained strong even when proximate variables and other socioeconomic variables were controlled. Setting was considered key to refinement of the associations. The illustrations from Jordan and Egypt showed that a particular level of education was needed before fertility declined and urban-rural differences prevailed. Analysis of 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey data indicated a strong association between child survival and maternal education. Children of women with a secondary education had the lowest infant and child mortality. The impact of maternal education was strongest in Cairo and Alexandria. Findings showed that the child mortality rate for rural women with secondary education was 38% of that for illiterate women; the rate for educated urban women was 61% of that for uneducated women. Analysis of Egyptian Fertility Survey data for 1980 found that child mortality at any age was inversely related to maternal educational level. The infant mortality rate for uneducated mothers was 89% greater than for mothers with 6 or more years of schooling; neonatal mortality was 91% greater, postneonatal mortality was 86% greater, and child mortality was 108% greater. Multivariate analysis indicated that maternal education of at least 6 years decreased postneonatal mortality by 46.2%. Infant mortality was reduced by 26% with at least 6 years of maternal schooling. Child mortality was not affected by maternal education in the multivariate analysis. Data analysis based on data from the Egypt Pregnancy Wastage and Infant Mortality Survey, 1980, revealed that probability of dying in infancy decreased with increased levels of maternal and paternal education. Neonatal mortality was most affected by parental educational status. Multivariate analysis of Jordanian Fertility Survey data for 1976 and 1981 showed that mortality was higher for mothers with less than 6 years of education. Maternal and paternal education had independent effects, but paternal education had the greater impact. Paternal education lasting 9 or more years had an impact on urban child mortality, whereas paternal education must reach at least 12 years in rural areas in order for the effect to be observed. Inconsistent results were found for the impact of spousal differences in education. Rural lack of education had the strongest impact on child survival.
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  24. 24

    Social indicators of development 1993.

    World Bank. International Economics Department. Socio-Economic Data Division

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. xv, 393 p.

    Up to 83 indicators are presented for each of 185 economies where data are available which describe characteristics of poverty and the effectiveness of interacting economic and social factors in achieving sustainable poverty reduction, information on the proportion of the population living below established poverty lines, estimates on income distribution, access to basic services such as health, education, and safe water, and shares of output dedicated to key social and infrastructure expenditures. Observations are made for 1065, 1975, and 1985-91, and include those made on the 15 economies of the former Soviet Union. Some economies do not, however, have country pages because too few data were available. Furthermore, disaggregated socioeconomic data are as yet unavailable for the former Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia; data are reported accordingly. A table on social and economic conditions facilitates a cross-country view of selected indicators and is presented prior to country pages in this annually produced publication Finally, readers are urged to read technical notes sat the end of the text before trying to draw conclusions on the data.
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  25. 25

    Children of the Americas. Child survival, protection and integrated development in the 1990s.

    UNICEF. Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, UNICEF, Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, 1992. [6], 83 p.

    The majority of the world's population is comprised of women of childbearing age and youths under 18 years old. Their well-being and survival are essential not only to the biological survival of the human race, but also to the transfer of sustainable development between generations. It is therefore in our best interest to protect and prepare them to embark upon productive, participatory futures. Many children, however, roil in the inequalities and disparities between the world's societies and economies and suffer inadequate education, poor health, and poverty. Steps must therefore be made to reduce global inequalities and foster a greater degree of balance between social subsectors. Complementary public policies to stimulate equal opportunity and halt environmental decay would be positive steps. Excess maternal and child morbidity and mortality may be prevented; maternal-child malnutrition should be reduced; all children should be guaranteed the opportunity to enroll and complete primary school education; poverty and illiteracy should be eradicated; and drinking water and sanitation services should be provided to all families. Concerted local and international efforts are called for to safeguard the quality of the environment in which women of childbearing age and children exist. UNICEF concentrates upon only Latin America and the Caribbean in this document reviewing the current state of affairs and what needs to be done. A videocassette entitled 500 seconds and 2 series of radio programs supplement the text to comprise a comprehensive multimedia project. Subsequent presentations will consider the entire hemisphere.
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