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Winners of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health-Global Health: Science and Practice Annual Student Manuscript Contest [editorial]
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Mar 24; 5(1):4-5.The 2 inaugural winners of the CUGH–GHSP Annual Student Manuscript Contest describe (1) the American Mock World Health Organization model for engaging students in global health policy and diplomacy, and (2) a successful Indo-U.S. twinning model of global health academic partnership led by students.
American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy.
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Mar 24; 5(1):164-174.The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class."
[Baltimore, Maryland], Catholic Relief Services, 2006 Jul. 53 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADJ-423)In Zambia, HIV&AIDS is still approached primarily as a health issue, and therefore, interventions focus mainly on prevention and treatment. The provision of affordable, accessible and reliable public services is essential in supporting health maintenance and reducing stress for people infected and affected with HIV&AIDS. Reliable delivery of good quality water and sound basic sanitation are critical in reducing exposure to pathogens to which HIV-positive people are particularly vulnerable. Where water services are inadequate or inaccessible, time and monetary costs of access to good quality water in sufficient quantities are high, particularly for HIV-infected people and their caregivers. CRS responded to an announcement by WHO to conduct an assessment on the adequacy of water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to home-based care strategies for people living with HIV&AIDS in Zambia. The assessment was commissioned by the WHO with the goal of producing evidence-based guidance on water and sanitation needs in home-based care strategies, particularly in resource-poor situations. In addition, WHO desired the assessments to lead to both practical and strategic recommendations to be made at the programme and policy levels, while also identifying the most critical measures to be taken by the health sector and the water and sanitation sector to provide short- and medium-term solutions in the area of water, sanitation and hygiene support to home-based care. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Nov. 100 p.On 1 January 2006, the world will wake up to a deadline missed. The Millennium Development Goal - gender parity in primary and secondary education by 2005 - will remain unmet. What is particularly disheartening is that this was a realistic deadline and a reachable goal. The tragedy of this failure is that an unthinkable number of children, the majority of whom are girls, have been abandoned to a bleak future. The road to gender equality in education has had its successes, but the journey with its twists and turns is far from over. The fact that the total number of school-age children who are missing from school is projected to fall below 100 million for the first time since data have been recorded is a small victory. In 81 developing countries, participation in education will rise to 86 per cent in 2005, up from 82 per cent in 2001.2 But these accomplishments are baby steps compared to what could have - and should have - been achieved. (excerpt)
Global HealthLink. 2003 Jan-Feb; (119):8.Important changes have occurred over the past decade in the policy and program environment for the population and reproductive health fields. These changes embody renewed commitments to human rights and gender equity in international affairs as well as recognition of changing economic, demographic and epidemiological conditions in countries. The commitments were agreed upon during the series of international conferences and summits that took place during the I990s, including the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) and the Social Summit. A key accomplishment of these conferences was to establish measurable goals toward which governments and development agencies could focus their efforts to improve the health and welfare of poor people around the world. The "plus-five" follow- up to these conferences further sharpened global attention on outcomes and on actions that need to be undertaken to achieve International Development Goals (IDGs), later expressed as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). They also identified key challenges that governments and agencies face in their efforts to implement commitments made at the conferences. Chief among these challenges are shortfalls in financial support for needed action, lack of implementation capacity in countries, and the rapidly changing policy and program environments in which the work must be done. (excerpt)
Final report of the UNESCO Regional Seminar on HIV / AIDS and Education within the School System for English-Speaking Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, 20 to 24 February 1995, Harare.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1995. , 83 p.In February 1995, decision and policy makers in the Ministries of Education and of Health and representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe attended the UNESCO regional seminar on HIV/AIDS and education in schools in Harare, Zimbabwe. The purpose of the seminar was to educate ministry officials of the need for preventive education on HIV/AIDS, about effective preventive education strategies, and of the nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its impact on socioeconomic development. Session 1 was a briefing on the nature and epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Africa. The topics of session 2 were the psychosocial and economic impact of HIV/AIDS and the link between HIV/AIDS and socioeconomic status. In sessions 3 and 4, representatives from 12 countries related their country experiences on HIV/AIDS issues. Session 5 was a synthesis of country and NGO reports. General preventive strategies on HIV/AIDS were covered in session 6. Session 7 consisted of the Asian and European perspective on AIDS and education in the school system as well as the report on the regional consultation/workshop on curriculum planning for AIDS/STD (sexually transmitted disease) education in schools for 10-19 year olds. Sessions 8, 9, and 10 involved discussion on the impact of HIV/AIDS on education systems, their responses to HIV/AIDS, and the need for schools to implement preventive education. Sessions 11, 12, and 13 discussed putting specific experiences into large-scale action, key elements of school-based education programs, and developing a Ministry of Education AIDS program and follow-up action. Sessions 14 and 15 included recommendations to governments, UN agencies, and NGOs; and a consensus statement.
Education for the prevention of AIDS. No. 1. Selection of extracts from teachers' guides. Revised ed. Education pour la prevention du SIDA. Selection d'extraits de guides pedagogiques a l'usage des enseignants. Educacion para la prevencion del SIDA. Seleccion de paginas de guias pedagogicas para el uso de personal docente.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 1992 Oct. , 146 p.UNESCO's AIDS School Education Resource Center (ASERC), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), has compiled eight teachers' guides from Australia, Canada, Cameroon, Spain, the Pacific islands, Uganda, and the US (Hispanic curriculum). The teachers' ability to consider the myths, taboos, attitudes, habits, and knowledge of their students determines the effectiveness of AIDS preventive education. There are different approaches to effectively teach secondary school students. Essentially all the guides have a section on knowledge and information about HIV/AIDS (e.g., ways to prevent HIV transmission and clinical symptoms) and a section on appropriate attitudes and behavior towards HIV/AIDS (e.g., adopting preventive behavior). This last section contains participatory activities on decision making and on how students should behave towards and deal with persons with AIDS. Various teaching aids proposed by the guides include transparencies, fact sheets for teachers, pupils' guides, videocassettes, films, ideas for making puppets, and a glossary. Annex 1 has a pre-test that teachers can use to assess student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards AIDS. Annex 2 lists bibliographical references to other guides available at ASERC.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1987; (746):1-89.A World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Community-based Education of Health Personnel met during November 1985 to clarify the meaning of the term community-based education, to determine its implications, to suggest how to put it into practice, and to recommend ways of fostering it. This report of the meeting defines terms and covers the following: the rationale of community-based education (a historical account, underlying principles, 6 reasons in support of community-based education, the organization of community-based educational programs, major problems and constraints, and quantitative and qualitative considerations); and the principles and issues (educational principles and issues, coordination between the health and educational systems, the intersectoral approach, community involvement, the health team, the competency-based learning approach, problem-based learning, performance assessment, and recapitulation of the action to be taken in implementing a community-based educational program). Recommendations to the WHO are included along with recommendations on how to start a community-based educational program and on how to foster an understanding of the concept of community-based education. An educational program, or curriculum, can be termed community-based if, for its entire duration, it consists of an appropriate number of learning activities in a balanced variety of educational settings, i.e., in both the community and a diversity of health care services at all levels. Participation in community-based educational activities gives the students a sense of social responsibility, enables the students to relate theoretical knowledge to practical training and makes them better prepared for life and their future integration into the working environment, helps to break down barriers between trained professionals and the lay public and to establish closer communication between educational institutions and the communities they serve, helps to keep the educational process current, helps students to acquire competency in areas relevant to community health needs, and is a powerful means of improving the quality of the community health services. A clear organizational design is needed to create a community-based educational program.
Cabanatuan City, Philippines, Philippine Wesleyan College, Wesleyan Population Center, 1975. 39 p.These revised curriculum materials integrating population education with high school world history have as general objectives to chart the population growth of the world from 600,000 B.C. to 1970, to project future growth through 2000, to outline the causes of population growth and zero growth in the various stages of world history, to distinguish between the degree of environmental and population control attainable by ancient and modern man, and to describe national and international organizations and activities which may help reduce world population growth. The early lessons present the concepts that population growth has been slow in most of human history, with high death rates balancing high birthrates, and that the life of prehistoric man was uncomfortable and short, with his numbers kept in check by natural events; that the development of man's 1st major achievement in environmental control, agriculture, allowed greater population growth and density than hunting and gathering; and that despite increased food production, life was still uncomfortable and short, with famine and disease continuing to exert high tolls and food production continuing to be threatened by consumption due to increasing numbers. The 4th lesson, covering the effects of industrialization from 1650-1900 on world population, presents the concepts that industrial inventions permit greater food production and further population increases, and that population growth during these years was greatly speeded. The next lesson concerns the effects of medicine on world population between 1900-70, emphasizing that improved mortality control made possible by medical discoveries greatly decreased the death rate from disease, and that disease control operates independently of food supply. The 6th lesson, on population projection to 2000, teaches that population growth has accelerated in recent years in the developing countries while slowing voluntarily in developed areas, and that the developing world may pursue population control or growth may again be controlled by famine, disease, and war. The 7th lesson suggests that man can control his population, that overpopulation is a worldwide threat, and that international agencies exist to help slow growth. Each lesson contains a description of the subject matter, a list of teaching aids and references, lists of concepts and specific objectives to be covered, and outlines of procedures regarding perceptions and development of the lesson.
People's Republic of China. Population education in the secondary schools and the teacher training of the People's Republic of China. Education project summary.
[Unpublished] . 3 p. (UNFPA Project No CPR-80-P14)This paper outlines the short and long term objectives of a population education project in China, entitled, "Population Education in the Secondary Schools and the Teacher Training of the People's Republic of China." The project is planned for 1980-82 under the administration of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and Unesco. Costs are projected at $500,000 plus 1,349,500 Yuan. Short term objectives include: 1) revising the curriculum of middle schools with the aim of integrating population education, 2) revising existing materials in population education, 3) developing competencies in teaching population education among 8000 middle school teachers through 10 in-service training pedagogical institutes, 4) equipping 10 institutes and 10 middle schools with audiovisual facilities, books, and reference materials, 5) equipping the Compilation Department of the Educational Publishing House with books and audiovisual aids, and 6) assessing the performance of the project and the impact of population education on teachers and students. The long term objective is to contribute to the overall government government population policy objectives of reducing the rate of population growth from 12/1000 to 5/1000 by 1985, and to achieve zero population growth by year 2000.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 111 p. (Population Education Programme Service)This report presents the results of a workshop on Innovative Structures and Approaches to Population Education which enabled 12 Asian countries with population education programs to share their experiences. The workshop also enabled countries with emerging population education programs to formulate alternative and innovative structures for more effective implementation of programs. Participants came from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The report contains individual country reports on the current population situation, population education programs, in-school programs, out-of-school programs, and innovative approaches to population education. In most cases, population education is viewed as part of national development plans. In many countries, it is relatively new and often equated with the family planning programs. There is a need for awareness and orientation programs, such as study tours by government officials, seminars, and the use of Unesco Mobile teams. Various strategies for curriculum development that have been used are infusion of population examples, integration of issues into syllabi and textbooks, and adding separate units on population in selected subjects. Training of teachers has included self-learning modules, face-to-face training, and seminars. Research and evaluation on population education has been carried out in 4 countries (e.g. content analysis of textbooks and survey of parent and students). Out-of-school programs, radio and television, national theater, and home visits have increased awareness of population education. Alternative structures and approaches to population education are discussed in terms of program development and implementation, awareness and orientation of key persons and training of teachers, curriculum and material development, and coordination with different agencies/departments and administrative organization.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Oct 22. 3 p. (UNAIDS Presse Release)A review commissioned by the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) found that sexual health education for children and youth promotes safer sexual behavior and does not increase their sexual activity. Examined were 68 reports on sexual health and HIV/AIDS prevention education from France, Mexico, Switzerland, several Nordic countries, the UK, and the US. In most cases, studies compared indicators such as adolescent pregnancy rates, sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection rates, and self-reported sexual activity in youth who were exposed to educational interventions and those who were not. Only three studies (all of which had serious methodological problems) found an association between sexual health education and increased sexual interaction. 22 studies reported that HIV and/or sexual health education either delayed the age at onset of sexual activity, reduced the number of sexual partners, or reduced unplanned pregnancy and STD rates. Characteristics of programs that succeeded in not only increasing knowledge but also producing behavioral change included the following: a focused curriculum with clear statements about behavioral aims, clear delineation of the risks of unprotected sex and methods to avoid them, attention to social and media influences on sexual behavior, practice in sexual communication and negotiation skills, encouragement of openness about sex, and a grounding in theories emphasizing the social nature of learning.
School health education to prevent AIDS and STD. A resource package for curriculum planners. Students' activities.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, WHO, 1994. , 79 p. (WHO/GPA/TCO/PRV/94.6b)This manual--part of a three-volume resource package designed by WHO and UNESCO to guide the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for students aged 12-16 years--presents 53 student activities for use in such a program. The goal of AIDS education is to promote behavior that prevents the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The proposed program is comprised of four units: basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS/STDs, responsible behavior: delaying sexual intercourse, responsible behavior: protected sex, and care and support for those with AIDS. At completion, students should be able to differentiate between HIV, AIDS, and STDs; identify modes of HIV transmission; rank methods of HIV/STD prevention for effectiveness; identify sources of help in the community; discuss reasons for delaying sexual intercourse or, if already sexually active, using condoms; respond assertively to pressures to have sexual intercourse or unprotected sex; identify ways of showing compassion for those with HIV/AIDS; and care for people with AIDS in the family and community. The activity sheets include comic-style graphics that illustrate hypothetical situations and examples of pro-active AIDS-related behaviors; the emphasis is on participatory education, known to be most effective for the teaching of behavioral skills to young people. Two companion volumes focus on guidelines for curriculum planners and teachers.
Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1991. xix, 429 p.The Education and Employment Division of the World Bank's Population and Human Resources Department conducted a four-year study on the effectiveness and efficiency of primary education in developing countries. The resulting book includes extensive reviews of the research and evaluation literature; consultations with policymakers in developing countries, representatives of donor agencies, and primary education specialists; and results of commissioned studies and of original research conducted in the division. Learning is the central theme of the book; it reminds people that learning occurs in schools and classrooms among teachers and children, not in government ministries of education or finance. It also tells readers that learning is foremost and that teacher training and instructional materials are important only if the children learn. Policymakers must consider the impact of the cost and financing of education on learning when making decisions. The goals of primary education include teaching children basic cognitive skills, developing attitudes and skills in children so they can function effectively in society, and promotion of nation-building. This publication examines five areas for improvement of primary education: inputs necessary for children to learn; methods for improving teachers and teaching; management requirements for promoting learning; ways to extend effective education to traditionally disadvantaged groups; and the means to afford enhanced education. The study reveals that there is limited research on children's learning and no research at all on change in learning. The chapters cover the following: primary education and development; a brief history of primary education in developing countries; improving learning achievement; improving the preparation and motivation of teachers; strengthening institutional capabilities; improving equitable access; strengthening the resource base for education; international aid to education; and educational reform: policies and priorities for educational development in the 1990s.
PLANNED PARENTHOOD CHALLENGES. 1995; (1):46-8.The World Health Organization (WHO) Adolescent Health Program has developed the Narrative Research Method, a way to identify the most common contemporary patterns of sexual relationships among young people as seen by themselves. Using the method, a study begins with a workshop in which about 20 knowledgeable people of both sexes aged 18-25, usually youth leaders, create a story through role play which they believe to be representative of the sexual lives of young people in their communities. The story is then converted into a questionnaire and taken into the field by the participants for verification among representative samples of other young people in their communities. Following this data collection, the original workshop participants attend a second workshop to analyze the data. The most typical aggregated story is identified, followed by any differences between the way sampled individuals may have responded on the basis of sex, age, or urban/rural residence, with findings subsequently disseminated following in-depth statistical analysis as the basis for relevant action. The method was first used among more than 12,000 people in English- and French-speaking Africa aged 10-24 years. Preliminary findings from the aggregate African data indicate that adolescent sexual behavior is not promiscuous. Instead, relationships begin slowly and progress over time with boys gently pressuring girls into having sexual intercourse. After a period of courting, couples eventually have sex. Contraception is not used, the girl becomes pregnant, and parents eventually become involved with unwelcome fallout and consequences for both partners. Help from adults throughout the process is rarely sought. A lack of knowledge, information, trust, and communication lay at the heart of this process. A more open approach is needed to adolescent sexuality, with adolescents provided the knowledge, skills, and material means to prevent unprotected sexual intercourse and the attendant potential consequences.
INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW. 1992 May-Jun; 39(3):77-82.WHO projects the number of AIDS cases worldwide to increase from 1.5 million in 1992 to 12-18 million by 2000 with the number of HIV-infected persons to escalate from 9-11 million to 30-40 million. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) and WHO started cooperating in combating the HIV/AIDS pandemic from early on, and developed the WHO/ICN Guidelines for Nursing Management of People with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. ICN's 106 member associations worldwide regularly receive information on HIV prevention and care. A 1989 questionnaire to members showed that only 1/2 were active in HIV/AIDS programs and in African countries nurses lacked basic knowledge about contracting the disease, and about clinical and epidemiological features. They also lacked protective equipment. Therefore, ICN and the WHO Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) set up continuation education activities for nurses in the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Malawi, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, and Zambia. The national AIDS programs and national nurses' associations (NNAs) were enrolled in a 2-year program with a train-the-trainer approach by selecting 8-10 nurse, leaders to be responsible for the HIV/AIDS education project and given them a 2-week course. First in Ghana, Zambia and Togo 73 facilitators (trainers) from the 8 countries were trained who were also given the task to conduct 4 satellite workshops with 25 participants each at home. A total of 800 nurses were trained in the course of 1 year. Nurses knowledge of HIV infection, transmission, patient and family needs, and antibody testing improved significantly after the workshops and they became more involved in the national AIDS program with nongovernmental organizations as in Zambia and Uganda. Congested AIDS wards and staff and equipment shortage necessitated counseling for overworked and underpaid nurses and also for patients to change their behavior.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1991. , 45 p. (Population Education Programme Service)Adolescence Education is developed in 4 modules for secondary school teachers and other family life education persons by UNESCO. Materials are based on the Population Education Clearing House collection and are revised for use in Asian and Pacific areas, with the understanding that attitudes vary. The package consists of the following modules or volumes: Module 1, Physical Aspect; Module 2, Social Aspect; Module 3, Sex Roles; and Module 4, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. This Module 4 volume begins with a general introduction to the project and a description of the conceptual framework. The module itself is based on 3 lessons which require 30-45 minutes/lessons. Each lesson has a set of objectives, the time required, and materials, and usually the procedure, information sheets, and suggested activities. Lesson 4.1 deals with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in order to increase knowledge on the symptoms and prevention of STDs, to increase understanding of the seriousness of STD's as a medical problem, and to convince students to seek treatment for STDs immediately. Lesson 4.2 is on venereal disease (VD) information as a review and an outline of basic information. Lesson 4.3 is concerned with the VD Myth Game in order to correct misinformation and open up discussion. An example of a suggested activity is the VD Myth Game. 18 statements about VD are written on 18 note cards and distributed among groups of 4-6 people. Each group discusses the statement and decides whether it's a myth or truth. 1 minute is given per card. Team answers are written down and passed on to the next group. The teachers reads the correct answers. Groups that have incorrect answers must continue discussion of that statement. Some of the statements are that birth control pills prevent VD; people can get VD from doorknobs, toilet seats, drinking fountains; if symptoms go away, you don't need to see a doctor; homosexuals don't get VD, and so on.
USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1990; 11(4):412-5.In this article, the author explains that the use of humor and analogies can be instrumental in teaching about health at the grassroots level. When the author, who is president of the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), began trying to educate rural communities in the Philippines, he found that a format relying on lectures and technical information often proved ineffective. So to make it easier to transmit the information, he began using analogies between health processes and the villagers' everyday experiences. For example, the author used a string bean to illustrate the ovulation process, and explained the idea of immunization by comparing it to a preliminary skirmish that alerts an army to the coming of an invasion. These teaching methods proved highly effective and amusing. They even got the villagers involved in the teaching process, as they started coming up with their own comparisons or tried to improve previous ones. Encouraged by the results, IIRR developed more than 600 analogies to illustrate family planning and health concepts throughout the 3rd World. Most of the analogies involve agricultural comparisons. In Thailand, for example, farmers are taught about the importance of birth spacing by alluding to the fact that when papaya trees are planted too closely, the quality of the fruit is poor. And in Bangladesh, people are told that the children of couples who marry too young are like the fruit of immature coconut trees. IIRR has also used humorous anecdotes and parables as educational devices. And the information and skills gained from these methods will help 3rd World villagers improve their condition.
Commercial discharge packs and breast-feeding counseling: effects on infant-feeding practices in a randomized trial.
PEDIATRICS. 1987 Dec; 80(6):845-54.A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate 2 interventions for prolonging the duration of breastfeeding in a multiethnic sample of 343 low-income urban women. 1 intervention compared "research breastfeeding inside counseling" by a trained counselor who also made 8 telephone calls during the 1st 3 months of the infants life with the routine breastfeeding counseling provided in the hospital by nurses. The other intervention compared commercial discharge packs provided by formula companies with research discharge packs designed to be consistent with the WHO Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. When infants were 4 months old, a telephone interviewer unaware of treatment status contacted 95% (324/343) of the women to determine the infants' feeding and health histories. Compared with routing counseling, research counseling delayed the 1st introduction of solid foods to the infant's diet (p=.03, 1-tailed) but did not exert a statistically significant effect on breastfeeding by 4 months postpartum. Women who received the research discharge pack, as compared with those who received the commercial pack, were more likely to prolong exclusive breastfeeding (p=.004, 1-tailed) to be partially breastfeeding at 4 months postpartum (9=.04, 1-tailed), and to delay the daily use of solid foods in the infant's diet (p=.017, 1-tailed). Among the women who received research counseling, the research discharge pack was associated with lower rates of rehospitalization of infants than was the commercial pack *1% vs 14%; p=.014, 2-tailed). The authors conclude that in high-risk maternity populations, commercial discharge materials for breastfeeding women should be replaced by materials consistent with the WHO Code. (author's)
PEOPLE. 1986; 13(2):23-4.The International Office and Regional Bureaux of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) have produced or financed a wide variety of publications, films, videos, slide/tape productions, and wallcharts on the management of contraceptive methods, and a new family life education resource publication. A list of publications, kits, and films is available from the IPPF Distribution Department. Additionally, many of IPPF's affiliated family planning associations produce communication materials. The Population Communication Services Project at the Johns Hopkins University offers sample family planning information and communication materials over 80 countries. It also offers a series of packets of samples on different themes, including print materials for non-readers, male responsibility, packaging for contraceptives, and reaching young people. "Population Reports" are published regularly on a variety of subjects, including communication. The Population Reference Bureau produces a range of educational materials relating to population, including an annual World Population Data Sheet and "Population Today." The World Health Organization publishes an illustrated bimonthly magazine, "World Health," a periodic newsletter, and a 1-page fact-sheet identifying the health benefits of family planning. The UN Educational Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has produced a variety of films, posters, booklets, slide-sets, and records. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization has produced a range of audiovisual aids dealing with family planning and population. The UN Fund for Population Activities produces a wide range of population-related publications and visual aids. The Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology (PIACT) and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health specialized in the development of print materials for specific audiences. Clearinghouse on Development Communication is a center for materials on applications of communication technology to development problems. The Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development has produced around 100 prototype radio and television programs dealing with population. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning has produced a series of films/videos on community health, parasite control, and family planning in many countries.
IPPF/UNESCO Experts Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audio-Visual Aids and Teaching Materials, 20th - 23rd October, 1971, IPPF, London, S.W.1. Background paper.
[Unpublished] 1971.  p.Significantly for this International Planned Parenthood Federation/UNESCO Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audiovisual Aids and Teaching Materials, the proportion of work and of funding devoted to education, information, and training is steadily increasing. Program activities in need of audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: components designed to motivate people to practice family planning and to persuade opinion leaders to support program objectives (face-to-face communication and mass media outlets); training courses; and the education of government officials, opinion leaders, the community, young people both in and out of school, and family planning acceptors. Discussion of the present state of clearing house facilities for audiovisual aids and teaching materials covers the following: UN agencies, government activities, nongovernment organizations. UNESCO, WHO, FAO, ILO, AND UNICEF have services in audiovisual materials, including the production and distribution of films, photographs, and printed materials. These services illustrate the broad areas of activity of each agency and until the present time family planning and population problems have not featured very prominently in these materials. Many of them are used extensively in family planning programs because they demonstrate the health and socioeconomic development aspects to which family planning is related. Materials produced by the specialized agencies circulate through regional and national offices and are at the disposal of other agencies for loan usually without charge. Donor governments vary in the emphasis they place on educational materials. The Population Council is a nongovernmental organization which has been particularly active in the past in the production and distribution of audiovisual aids and teaching mterials. Among the universities, the Carolina Population Center has established an educational materials unit which produces audiovisual aids for use at home and overseas. The IPPF houses a rapidly growing collection of films, slides, and filmstrips, printed materials, nonprojected aids, and models relating to family planning motivation, training, population, and sex education. Some factors to be taken into account in considering the feasibility of establishing an international clearing house for audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: means of assessing levels of expressed demand; possibility of stimulating demand for audiovisual aids and teaching materials in family planning information and education programs; possiblity of promoting knowledge and understanding of the proposed clearing house at all levels of operation; extent of personnel equipped and trained to utilize audiovisual aids and teaching materials; adaptability of materials to local situations; desirability of a central, regional, or combination structure; and funding. Factors to be considered in formulating a blueprint for an international clearing house include: scope of materials to be handled by clearing house; problems inherent in identification and collection of materials; need for services to support circulation of materials; international transportation of materials; storage; need for a reporting system and evaluation; and policy with regard to meeting clients' equipment requirements and to payment by client.
Meeting information needs for population education: using materials for population education, Booklet 1. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 95 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials service, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it deals with some basic techniques of using and processing population education materials. The focus of the booklet is on activities that usually lie within the domain of librarians, documentalists and information officers, which nevertheless are useful to others involved in this field; for example staff of population education programs are frequently required to respond to requests for information. The 3 learning modules contained here are: 1) Assessing the quality of population education materials; 2) Literature searches, bibliographies and request for materials; and 3) Writing abstracts for population education materials. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. This booklet has a sequel, Booklet 2, which deals with other areas of population education information.
Meeting information needs for population education: information services for population education, Booklet 2. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 96 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials services, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education programme Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it focuses on the wide range of supplementary information activities that are provided to promote the success of the program. The supplementary activities include preparation of a newsletter and the distribution of background information to key leaders. The booklet contains 5 learning modules. The 1st module deals with the processing or transformation of materials, the 2nd examines more sophisticated materials services such as the selective dissemination of information and production of packages as well as basic survey technics, the 3rd examines methods of popularizing population education programs, the 4th analyses the nature and potential of networks as distribution and communication channels, and the 5th touches upon the evaluation of an information program and development of training workshops or materials for these programs. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. The preceding booklet, Booklet 1, covers other areas of population education.
China-Vietnam: notes on population and the development of school programmes for population education.
Comparative Education. 1984; 20(2):253-63.Recently introduced population education programs in the school cirriculum in China, a country with a vigorous population policy and in Viet Nam, a country with a less vigorous population policy, were described and compared. Although the 2 countries have vast demographic differences they both face the prospect of supporting large populations by the year 2000. Estimated annual growth rates are 1.4% for China and 2.2% for Vietnam. Both countries have considerable regional differences in growth patterns and both have large minority populations. Population policy in China emphasizes a 1-child family while current Viet Nam policy stresses a 2-child family. In China the male to female ratio was 106:100 in 1982 and Viet Nam the ratio was 94.2:100 in 1979. In 1979 both countries were about equal in the degree to which population issues were dealt with in the school curriculum. Since that time, China has developed and implemented a new and comprehensive population education curriculum while Viet Nam has only entered the planning stage for the development of a comprehensive program. Both countries are receiving assistance from the UN for Population Activities. Beginning in mid 1970, China instituted an unsystematic curriculum which stressed social hygiene, late marriage, and family planning, but in 1981 a comprehensive population education curriculum was developed for secondary students, and this curriculum is now being implemented on an experimental basis in selected schools in several cities. The course provides information on population theory, population growth, the relationship between population growth and modernization, birth control, and population planning. The Beijing Institute of Education is developing teaching materials for use in the courses. Its first publication was a 57 page textbook providing straight foward information on sexual intercourse and contraception. Viet Nam still lacks a systematically developed program. Despite opposition on the part of provincial authorities and some teachers, some attempts have been made to provide population information in a number of different disciplines in accordance with a thematic approach. Recently the Ministry of Education Commission on Population Education developed a plan for the administrative framework needed to develop a population education curriculum. The proposal includes the establishment of a National Population and Family Planning Commission to guide population activities. Only some of the recommendations of the Ministry of Education Commisson on Population Education have thus far been implemented.