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Linking EDUCAIDS with other on-going initiatives. An overview of opportunities. An assessment of challenges.
Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2006 Oct. 43 p. (ED-2006/WS/65; CLD-29608)This paper was commissioned by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to review the linkages and synergies between EDUCAIDS, the UNAIDS Global Initiative on Education and HIV & AIDS, and other initiatives in the field of HIV and AIDS. EDUCAIDS is one of UNESCO's three core Education for All (EFA) initiatives and focuses specifically on supporting national governments and their partners in developing comprehensive and scaled-up education sector responses to HIV and AIDS, with the dual objective of preventing the spread of HIV through education and of protecting education systems against the worst effects of the epidemic. This paper documents the similarities and differences between EDUCAIDS and selected initiatives, identifies current and potential links, and provides recommendations on how synergies and linkages can be strengthened. The analysis in this review was done on the basis of a document review and interviews with partners from the majority of the initiatives selected by UNESCO for this study. Five kinds of initiatives were reviewed. The first concerns programmes that have been put in place with a specific focus on HIV and AIDS. The second includes examples of initiatives with a broader focus (such as promoting sustainable development and enhancing school health) and which, through their activities, address a number of priority areas, including HIV & AIDS and education. The third is constituted by 'thematic initiatives' which address HIV and AIDS from a particular defined priority, for example by focusing on children. These initiatives include education as one of their strategies. The fourth kind of initiative concerns frameworks for operation at country level such as the 'Three Ones', the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) and the UN country teams on HIV and AIDS. Finally, the analysis also considers the synergies and differences between EDUCAIDS and the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2006 Sep. 27 p.Steady progress has been made in recent years in efforts to achieve Education for All (EFA), but about 100 million children are still not enrolled in primary school, 55 percent of them girls. HIV and AIDS are among the key factors exerting pressure on education systems and students in the regions with the greatest EFA challenges. Halting the spread of HIV is not only a Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in itself (Goal 6), but is a prerequisite for reaching the others including Goal 2 (achieving universal primary education) and Goal 3 (promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women). The AIDS epidemic is increasingly recognised to be one of the most serious threats to global stability and progress. Adult HIV prevalence has reached 40 percent in parts of Southern Africa, and the virus is spreading rapidly in a number of regions, from West and Central Africa to Eastern Europe, from Asia (notably China and India) to Latin America and the Caribbean. The impact of AIDS is also magnified because the disease primarily strikes adults, particularly young adults, who drive economic growth and raise the next generation. Close to 39 million people are estimated to be living with HIV, and the global AIDS epidemic is responsible for the deaths of 25 million, 2.8 million in the last year alone. HIV is unravelling hard-won development gains and is having a crippling effect on future prospects. Unless strong action is taken, particularly in massively expanded and intensified prevention efforts, the epidemic will continue to spread and threaten sustainable development, including progress towards achieving EFA. (excerpt)
New York, New York, IPPF, WHR, 2005 Jan.  p. (IPPF / WHR Spotlight on Youth)Extreme poverty, discrimination, and lack of familial support often force young people to spend their lives on the streets of urban centers in developing countries, working in the informal sector--begging, selling trinkets, shining shoes, or resorting to petty theft and prostitution--and struggling to survive. These vulnerable youth face high rates of police beatings, sexual assault, alcoholism, substance abuse (especially glue sniffing), and gang involvement, often resulting in a high number of unintended pregnancies, clandestine abortions, sexually transmitted infections, especially gonorrhea, herpes and HIV/AIDS. Traditionally, mainstream public health organizations and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service providers have not been successful in reaching the very poor and marginalized. Few materials have been developed that target street kids and little is known about their service needs, or even their numbers. Local organizations do not have the infrastructure to provide services and determine their costs, and most SRH service providers have not been sensitized to the needs of street youth. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Dec;  p..Adult literacy rates continue to be a major obstacle to achieving the six Education for All (EFA) goals and overall poverty reduction, according to the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2006--Literacy for life. The report, launched by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in London on 9 November 2005, focuses on the world's 771 million adults living without minimal literacy skills. This global challenge predominantly affects developing regions, although highly developed countries were also found to have significant numbers of young people and adults with weak literacy skills. Findings are based on data from the 2002/2003 school year, reporting on change since 1998. Across the board, progress over the five years was found to be steady but insufficient to reach, or come close to reaching, the EFA goals. In the area of early childhood care and education, enrolment ratios are rising rapidly and the gender gap is slowly closing across sub-Saharan Africa, South and West Asia, and the Arab States; however, this sector continues to be a low public policy priority. Progress towards universal primary education has been slow overall, with the world's net enrolment ratio increasing by only one percentage point, from 83.6 per cent in 1998 to 84.6 in 2002. While significant advances have been made in least developed countries, access to primary schools, the quality of teaching and charging of fees for primary education pose major barriers to further progress. (excerpt)
USAID project profiles: children affected by HIV / AIDS. Fourth edition. [Perfiles del proyecto USAID: niños afectados por VIH/SIDA. Cuarta edición.]
Washington, D.C., Jorge Scientific Corporation, Population, Health and Nutrition Information (PHNI) Project, 2005 Jan. 264 p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00004-00)No generation is spared the catastrophic consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. From newborn babies of HIV-positive mothers to elderly caregivers, the disease does not discriminate. One of the most tragic consequences is the toll on children. In 2003, more than 15 million children under age 18 had lost one or both parents to AIDS. Along with grief and abandonment, children in affected families face the added burdens of responsibilities far beyond their capabilities - nursing a sick or dying parent, raising younger siblings, running the household or family farm, replacing a breadwinner, or struggling for survival on city streets. An estimated 5 percent of children affected by HIV/AIDS worldwide have no support and are living on the streets or in residential institutions. Globally, approximately 2.1 million children under age 15 have HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the Information Meeting with Permanent Delegates on HIV / AIDS, UNESCO, 10 May 2005.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2005.  p. (DG/2005/074)It is a pleasure to welcome you to this information session on UNESCO's role, aims and programme in the fight against HIV and AIDS. We are very lucky to have with us Dr Peter Piot, whose excellent work and results as the Executive Director of UNAIDS have recently been underscored by his re-appointment for a new five-year mandate from this year. I am also delighted to welcome Mrs Cristina Owen-Jones, UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador with a special brief for the fight against HIV/AIDS, who will also address you this afternoon. In my introductory remarks to you today, I would like to briefly outline the process through which UNESCO has engaged with the HIV/AIDS challenge during the past few years. That engagement has taken place within an overall context marked by three main features: first, the continuing spread of the epidemic; second, its devastating impact on whole societies and their key institutions (such as education systems) as well as upon communities and families; and, third, the emphasis upon treatment as the major response to HIV and AIDS. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2004. 55 p. (ED-2004/WS/16)The World Education Forum held in Dakar (April, 2000) reemphasized and reiterated the importance of inter-agency partnerships, collaboration and coordination in pursuance of the EFA goals. This facilitated the launching of a number of multi-partner initiatives that focused on specific EFA-related areas and problems requiring special attention as well as the reinforcing of existing ones. EFA flagship initiatives were considered to constitute, among others, one of the mechanisms that would contribute in enhancing and strengthening multi-agency partnership and coherence on EFA related goals. Three years after Dakar, the EFA flagships continue to expand in terms of number of initiatives launched as well as their scope and membership. At present, nine initiatives have been established, involving United Nations organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies and NGOs. (excerpt)
Effective teaching: a guide for educating healthcare providers. Guide for learners. Field-test version.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005.  p.Welcome to the learning package on effective teaching! This package, which has been developed specifically for the educators of healthcare providers, offers a different kind of learning experience--one in which you can work on your own to complete readings and exercises. You can then work with your colleagues or a facilitator to discuss and apply more effective teaching. This is a flexible package that combines individual study and exercises with application of learning and feedback from a facilitator. The readings for the course are taken from the Effective Teaching: A Guide for Educating Healthcare Providers reference manual. (excerpt)
Effective teaching: a guide for educating healthcare providers. Guide for facilitators. Field-test version.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005.  p.Welcome to the learning package on effective teaching! This package, which has been developed specifically for the educators of healthcare providers, offers a different kind of learning experience--one in which you, the facilitator, can work with educators or teachers in your institution to strengthen their teaching skills. This is a flexible package that combines individual study and exercises to be completed by the teachers with application of learning and feedback from you. The readings for the course are taken from the Effective Teaching: A Guide for Educating Healthcare Providers reference manual. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005.  p.Healthcare professionals play a key role in the implementation of any public health program or strategy. Experience has shown that the distribution of information, such as evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, is not sufficient in and of itself to bring about change in healthcare providers' behavior. Rather, those who provide health services must first become aware of and support the need to change or update their practices. Then they must have an opportunity to upgrade their knowledge, skills, and attitudes through targeted inservice training, in the case of those already practicing, or strengthened preservice education, in the case of future healthcare professionals. In addition, health services must promote structures and processes that support healthcare professionals in applying the new or upgraded practices. (excerpt)
In: Global appeal, 2003. Strategies and programmes, [compiled by] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]. Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2003. 36-51.Ensuring equal rights and access by refugee women to all aspects of protection and assistance provided by UNHCR, is central to the Office’s refugee protection mandate. This policy commitment is grounded in international agreements and standards, such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). UNHCR employs various strategies to make good this commitment, including: elaborating policy guidelines and training materials; providing technical advice and support to operational units; pursuing consultations and partnerships with refugees, particularly women; piloting innovative approaches to empower refugee women; and monitoring and evaluating field-related activities. During the global consultations with refugee women in 2001, the High Commissioner made five commitments: the promotion of women’s equal participation in leadership and decision-making; equal participation in the distribution of food and non-food items; individual registration and documentation of refugee women; support for integrated sexual and gender-based violence programmes at national levels; and the inclusion of sanitary materials within standard assistance packages provided to refugees. These commitments continue to be implemented in practical and measurable ways. (excerpt)
Prevention of HIV / AIDS and Drug Abuse. Final report of the regional workshop, Beijing, 25-29 August 1997.
[Unpublished] 1997.  p.This is a report of the Workshop on "Prevention of HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse through Quality Improvement of Curriculum and Teaching/Learning Materials in Asia and the Pacific" held from 25 to 29 August 1997, in Beijing, China. The Regional Strategy, which is considered the most important outcome of the Workshop, is published in a separate document. The Regional Strategy aims to inform policy on "Preventive Education against HIV/AIDS" in the school setting. Participants to the Workshop were from several Asian countries-China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand and representatives of several organizations, e.g. the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization Regional Tropical Medicine and Public Health Network (SEAMEO-TROPMED); UNDCP and UNESCO Bangkok and Jakarta. In total twenty-two (22) participants and one (1) resource person were present at the workshop. The involvement of UNDCP represents a deliberate strategy to coordinate and streamline activities of common interest across HIV/AIDS and drug use prevention issues. The workshop outcomes are: the Situation Analysis on Preventive Education Against HIV/AIDS in seven countries; the identification of 'best practice' from the region; the formulation of a regional strategy framework and the regional and country plans for follow-up actions. According to the participants, this project is a 'milestone' on preventive education, because in addition to the professional outcomes it has a value-added component which has encouraged the desire to mobilize resources and expertise among partners. The participatory process of the workshop created strong teamwork and encouraged motivation for further work. (excerpt)
Population dynamics and educational planning; a discussion of educational incentive programmes for reduced fertility.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1974 May. 41 p.As a result the author was asked to enumerate in more detail his suggestions for educational incentives which were spelled out in background paper. BK/73/D/254-120 entitled "Educational Incentive Approaches in Population Planning". This paper is an imperfect attempt to add more clarity to an admittedly sketchy and unclear proposition. It is hoped that others will react to this paper and offer their points of view. It is also hoped that as a result of this effort and the efforts of others, one or more field experiments with educational incentive programmes for reduced fertility will be initiated. It is only after some hard data have been collected that conclusions can be drawn regarding the acceptability and applicability of such a programme on a large scale. (excerpt)
Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1995 Jan; 1(1):2.The Alliance is concerned with control and prevention of HIV and AIDS and military personnel, their families and their communities. Issues of special concern also fall into three broad sectors: those concerning military to military relations, those concerning civil-military relations, and those concerning peacekeeping issues. (excerpt)
Health Promotion International. 2003 Jun; 18(2):171-172.The International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) is currently involved as a partner in a number of European projects. These networks and projects also involve many IUHPE individual and institutional members. Although all three of the following projects are European-focused, their added value is not limited by borders. All of the collaborations noted below are of great interest to health promotion professionals across the globe. (excerpt)
Real Lives. 2002 Jul; (8):50-51.Afghan refugees first came to Pakistan following the Soviet invasion of the 1980s. Some went to Yaka Ghund camp in the tribal area of Mohmand Agency, 45 kms from Pakistan's border with Afghanistan. But for over 20 years, they lived without schooling or proper health facilities, until the Family Planning Association of Pakistan stepped in January 2002. (excerpt)
Education for the prevention of AIDS. No. 1. Selection of extracts from teachers' guides. Revised ed. Education pour la prevention du SIDA. Selection d'extraits de guides pedagogiques a l'usage des enseignants. Educacion para la prevencion del SIDA. Seleccion de paginas de guias pedagogicas para el uso de personal docente.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 1992 Oct. , 146 p.UNESCO's AIDS School Education Resource Center (ASERC), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), has compiled eight teachers' guides from Australia, Canada, Cameroon, Spain, the Pacific islands, Uganda, and the US (Hispanic curriculum). The teachers' ability to consider the myths, taboos, attitudes, habits, and knowledge of their students determines the effectiveness of AIDS preventive education. There are different approaches to effectively teach secondary school students. Essentially all the guides have a section on knowledge and information about HIV/AIDS (e.g., ways to prevent HIV transmission and clinical symptoms) and a section on appropriate attitudes and behavior towards HIV/AIDS (e.g., adopting preventive behavior). This last section contains participatory activities on decision making and on how students should behave towards and deal with persons with AIDS. Various teaching aids proposed by the guides include transparencies, fact sheets for teachers, pupils' guides, videocassettes, films, ideas for making puppets, and a glossary. Annex 1 has a pre-test that teachers can use to assess student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards AIDS. Annex 2 lists bibliographical references to other guides available at ASERC.
Colombo, Sri Lanka, Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, 1991. , 54,  p.This report describes the accomplishment of the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka (FPASL) during the 1990-91 year. The report opens with a section describing 1990 highlights, a year that witnessed great strides in clinical, contraceptive retail marketing, rural motivational, and AIDS education activities. In June, FPASL hosted the Regional Council Meeting of the South Asia Region, a meeting attended by IPPF Secretary Dr. Halfdan Mahler, who praised the efforts of the association. Designed to coincide with the regional meeting, FPASL organized a national seminar on "Family Planning Research and the Emerging Issues for the Nineties." IPPF invited FPASL to be one of the 6 countries do develop a new strategic plan for the 1990s. Other FPASL highlights included: increased AIDS education, Norplant promotion campaigns, and the establishment of a counselling center for young people. Following the highlight section, the report provides an overall program commentary. The report then examines the following components of FPASL: 1) the Community Managed Integrated Family Health Project (CMIRFH), which is the associations' major family planning information, education, and communication (IEC) program; 2) the Nucleus Training Unit, established in 1989, whose primary emphasis is to organize and conduct AIDS education programs; 3) the Youth Committee, whose activities include populations and AIDS education; 4) the Clinical Program, whose attendance increased by 15% (this section describes the types of services provided); and 5) the Contraceptive Retail Sales Program. While condom sales increased by 5%, the sales of oral contraceptives and foam tablets decreased -- a declined explained by the turbulent situation of the country.
[Paris, France], Unesco, Division of Educational Sciences, Contents and Methods, Population Education Unit, 1985. vi, 200,  p. (Comparative Study of Programme Development Strategies in Population Education (COSDEPE)/Project GLO/81/P.22; ED/85/WS/56)Identifying the issues in the management of national population education is the aim of this book prepared for the UNESCO Population Education Unit. The introduction explains the role of the book and details the elements of population education. Part 2 identifies various aspects of population education programs including curriculum and materials development, teacher training, program management, monitoring and evaluation, and the transition to integration of population education with a school program. Additional readings are suggested in an annex, as well as the address of UNESCO population education units and projects. The final annex outlines trends in teacher education.
[Berne], Switzerland, Aide Suisse contre le SIDA, 1988 Apr.  p. (Documentation 1)This document contains 12 brief and nontechnical articles by experts on different aspects of AIDS diagnosis and control. The 1st 3 articles, on AIDS information and communications, include a discussion of the international exchange of information on AIDS, an outline of worldwide activities of the World Health Organization Special Program Against AIDS, and a discussion of information policy on AIDS. The next several articles, on AIDS transmission, include articles explaining why mosquitoes do not transmit AIDS and why AIDS is not spread by kissing. An article calls for fighting AIDS instead of using it as a vehicle for social control or discrimination against marginal groups. 3 others call for greater understanding and compassion rather than fear in dealing with AIDS patients. A more detailed article on means of contamination and the unlikelihood of infection through casual contact is followed by a work suggesting that screening for HIV be limited primarily to blood donors and individuals with symptoms suggesting HIV infection. The final article analyzes why Switzerland has the highest per capita prevalence of AIDS in Europe and explores the epidemiology of AIDS in Switzerland.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1987; (746):1-89.A World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Community-based Education of Health Personnel met during November 1985 to clarify the meaning of the term community-based education, to determine its implications, to suggest how to put it into practice, and to recommend ways of fostering it. This report of the meeting defines terms and covers the following: the rationale of community-based education (a historical account, underlying principles, 6 reasons in support of community-based education, the organization of community-based educational programs, major problems and constraints, and quantitative and qualitative considerations); and the principles and issues (educational principles and issues, coordination between the health and educational systems, the intersectoral approach, community involvement, the health team, the competency-based learning approach, problem-based learning, performance assessment, and recapitulation of the action to be taken in implementing a community-based educational program). Recommendations to the WHO are included along with recommendations on how to start a community-based educational program and on how to foster an understanding of the concept of community-based education. An educational program, or curriculum, can be termed community-based if, for its entire duration, it consists of an appropriate number of learning activities in a balanced variety of educational settings, i.e., in both the community and a diversity of health care services at all levels. Participation in community-based educational activities gives the students a sense of social responsibility, enables the students to relate theoretical knowledge to practical training and makes them better prepared for life and their future integration into the working environment, helps to break down barriers between trained professionals and the lay public and to establish closer communication between educational institutions and the communities they serve, helps to keep the educational process current, helps students to acquire competency in areas relevant to community health needs, and is a powerful means of improving the quality of the community health services. A clear organizational design is needed to create a community-based educational program.
[Unpublished] 1986. 6 p. (WHO/CDD/CMT/86.1)This article presents an overview of current therapeutic practice as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) Diarrheal Disease Control Program. The recommendations apply solely to acute diarrheal disease in infants and children. Therapy for such cases is primarily concerned with the prevention or correction of dehydration, the maintenance of nutrition, and the treatment of dysentery. The various approaches to treatment considered are: 1) oral rehydration, which is highly effective for combating dehydration and its serious consequences, but does not diminish the amount or duration of diarrhea; 2) antimotility drugs, none of which are recommended for use in infants and children because the benefits are modest and they may cause serious side effects, such as nausea and vomiting; 3) antisecretory drugs, only a few of which have been properly studied in clinical trials, virtually all of which have important side effects, a low therapeutic index, and/or only modest efficacy. Consequently, none can at present be recommended for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea in infants and children. 4) aciduric bacteria, on which conclusive evidence is still lacking; 5) adsorbents: kaolin and charcoal have been proposed as antidiarrheal agents in view of their ability to bind and inactivate bacterial toxins, but the results of clinical studies have been disappointing. 6) improved Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS): this may turn out to be the most effective and safest antidiarrheal drug. 7) antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs for a few infectious diarrheas (e.g., cholera). Antibiotics can significantly diminish the severity and duration of diarrhea and shorten the duration of excretion of the pathogen. No antibiotic or chemotherapeutic agent has proven value fort the routine treatment of acute diarrhea; their use is inappropriate and possibly dangerous. It is concluded that oral that oral rehydration is the only cost-effective method of treating diarrhea among infants and children.The Inter-African Committee's (IAC) work against harmful traditional practices is mainly directed against female circumcision. Progress towards this aim is achieved mostly through the efforts of th non governmental organizations (NGO) Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children and the IAC. In 1984 the NGO Working Group organized a seminar in Dakar on such harmful traditional practices in Africa. The IAC was created to follow up the implementation of the recommendations of the Dakar seminar. The IAC has endeavored to strengthen local activities by creating national committees in Benin, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan and Togo. IAC activities in each country are briefly described In addition, the IAC has created an anatomical model, flannelgraphs, and slides to provide adequate educational material for the training of medical staff in teaching hospitals and to make village women aware of the harmful effects of female circumcision. The IAC held 2 African workshops at the Nairobi UN Decade for Women Conference. The African participants recognized the need for international solidarity to fight female circumcision and showed a far more definite and positive difference in their attitude towards the harmful practice than was demonstrated at the Copenhagen Conference/ Forum of 1980. At the United Nations level, female circumcision is receiving serious consideration. A special Working Group has been set up to examine the phenomenon. Finally, this article includes a statement by a sheikh from the Al Azhar University in Cairo about Islam's attitude to female circumcision.
Washington, D.C., USAID, 1986 Jun 13.  p. (News Release No. 0029)The Agency for International Development today announced plans to provide $2 million in fiscal year 1986 to help combat global Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). "AIDS is becoming a major health problem in some developing countries," said M. Peter McPherson, head of the US agency that administers foreign assistance programs. 1 million dollars of the US contribution will help the World Health Organization (WHO) establish a multidonor assistance package that was approved by the World Health Assembly last month in Geneva, McPherson said. He said the package will establish a global surveillance system, provide epidemioogical and laboratory consultants to member countries and ensure the safety of the world's blood supply. The other $1 million will go directly to WHO's regional office in Brazzaville, Congo, to support WHO surveillance and educational activities in Africa with the assistance of the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia. The WHO will work in 4-6 African countries to develop diagnostic public health prevention and control activities for ADIS. "The problem of AIDS is critical, "McPherson said. "The response to AIDS will require developing countries to divert precious resources that already are stretched to the limit." (full text)
IPPF-WCOTP Joint Follow-up Mission to the 1976 Bolgatanga seminar on teachers and family life education, 2th - 28th October 1978.
[Unpublished] 1978. 57, 15 p.This document presents the results of a mission undertaken in 1978 by the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to follow up on a seminar held in Bolgatanga, Ghana, in 1976 on the theme of Teachers and Family Life Education. The follow-up team spent 1 week in each of the following 4 countries: Gambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Ghana. Among the aims of the mission were to evaluate the value of the Bolgatanga seminar in stimulating the development of family life education in participating countries; to assess how far national plans formulated at the 1976 seminar have been implemented; and to examine the level and nature of cooperation between teachers' unions, family planning associations, and other institutions and government departments. The 4 African countries were found to be at different levels of awareness and program development in the area of family life education. At this point, Ghana serves as a valuable model for other countries interested in developing family life education programs. There is wide awareness in Ghana of the need to provide education to young people that will reduce the incidence of problems related to sex. The 3 major findings that emerged from the 1978 mission relate more to the Gambia, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Although there exists in these countries a general awareness of the need for some kind of organized family life education, the concept is not clearly understood and often confused with sex education and family planning. Also noted was a lack of coordination and communication among the many government departments, voluntary organizations, and institutions involved in family life education. Outside of Ghana, the Bolgatanga seminar appears to have had little direct impact on the development of family life education. The slow progress of national groups in implementing action plans in large measure reflects the unmet need for training, funding, and resource materials.
[Unpublished] 1984. 27 p.The current status of the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD) Program was reviewed, and activities related to the evaluation of country control programs, the assessment of potential diarrheal disease control interventions, and the program's operational research activities were examined. In the health services component, ciontinued efforts to promote the preparation of plans of operation for national CDD programs is recommended, as is continued use of the national CDD program managers training course. Concern was expressed that the level of use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) appeared to be modest. Case management was endorsed as the major program strategy. The series of studies on interventions for reducing diarrhea's mortality and morbidity were welcomed. For evaluation purposes, it is recommended that the program develop additional criteria for monitoring increased access to and usage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and the reduction of diarrheal mortality. Continued accumulaton and publication of information yielded by the program's survey of the impact of ORT in hospitals was recommended. In the research component, the growth of research activities is satisfying. While biomedical aspects have developed well, it might be necessary to relate them gradually to specific control interventions in the future. Further studies of improved ORS formulatons were recommended. High priority should also be given to the promotion of breast feeding, immunization, and water supply and sanitation. The underlying mechanisms that cause the intervention to reduce diarrheal morbidity or mortality should be clarified. Research is recommended on the promotion of personal and domestic hygiene, food hygiene, and improved weaning practices. Emphasis on the development and evaluation of vaccines against the causes of diarrhea is supported. Some changes in the balance of research activities should be made. Epidemiological weak.