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  1. 1

    The political economy of reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report of the Workshops on the Political Economy of Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform. Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, November 20-22,1986. World Bank, Washington, D.C., December 3-5,1986.

    Gulhati R

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. 49 p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 8)

    Toward the end of 1986, EDI organized two workshops on The Political Economy of Reform in Africa. Given the Bank's traditional stance, which emphasizes technical and economic factors in development, EDI's interest in this topic may surprise some readers. However, the Bank's recent experience of policy-based lending has underscored the need to broaden our understanding of political and public administration issues. Furthermore, recent EDI senior policy seminars in Africa have reinforced the view that political economy issues are amongst the main obstacles to the initiation and implementation of policy reform. For these reasons, EDI decided to design a series of three Senior Policy Seminars on Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 1986-87. To prepare for these seminars with ministers and senior civil servants from all over sub-Saharan Africa, we decided to convene consultations with scholars in the field of political economy. These discussions would equip us to organize a forum for the exploration of policy processes, including political economy issues, with African practitioners. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The inequality challenge: perspectives on growth, poverty and inequality.

    Talwar N

    UN Chronicle. 2004 Jun-Aug; 41(2):[2] p..

    Poverty to a great extent has been a thorn in the side of the road to progress and development for many nations across the globe, and economists would agree. Its scourge has been driving many researchers over the past few decades to study poverty-related topics and increase attention to poverty alleviation by Governments. Tackling the global effort head-on is one of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which calls for reducing by the year 2015 the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day to half of the 1990 level. Such initiatives are encouraging, but many researchers say that a shift in focus and policy stance has yet to take shape while addressing income inequality. "Inequality matters", said Anthony Shorrocks, Director of the World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University (UNU/WIDER), in introducing three new studies on growth, inequality and poverty at UN Headquarters in New York. "Inequality is important and should be given more attention when you are designing economic development policies for poverty alleviation." (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Financing health services in developing countries: an agenda for reform. [Summary].

    Akin J; Birdsall N; de Feranti D

    PAHO Bulletin. 1988; 22(4):416-29.

    This article, which is a summary of a World Bank policy study, states that the characteristics and performance of health sectors vary tremendously in developing countries. In most cases, the sector faces three main problems: insufficient spending on cost-effective health activities; internal inefficiency of public programs; and inequity in the distribution of benefits from health services. It is argued that each of these problems is due in part to the efforts of governments to cover the full costs of health care for everyone from general public revenues. Proposed policy reforms include: charge users of government health facilities; provide insurance or other risk coverage; use nongovernmental resources effectively; and decentralize government health services. However, it was pointed out that further analysis is needed on these proposed reforms.
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