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Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Oct; 85(10):734.posited that the process of development entails changes in incomes over time. Larger income levels achieved via positive economic growth, appropriately discounted for population growth, would constitute higher levels of development. As many have noted, however, the income measure fails to adequately reflect development in that per-capita income, in terms of its levels or changes to it, does not sufficiently correlate with measures of (human) development, such as life expectancy, child/infant mortality and literacy. The United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) human development index (HDI) constitutes an improved measure for development. HDI has been modified to be gender-sensitive with variants that reflect gender inequality. Various measures reflecting Sen's "capability" concept, such as civil and political rights, have also been incorporated. Countries where the level of poverty is relatively large tend also to exhibit low values of human development, thus lowering the mean values of the development measures. Where inequalities of development indicators are very large, however, the average values may not sufficiently reflect the conditions of the poor, requiring the need to concentrate on poverty per se. (excerpt)
Is trade liberalization of services the best strategy to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals in Latin America? A call for caution.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Nov; 20(5):341-346.In September 2000, at the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit, 147 heads of state adopted the Millennium Declaration, with the aim of reflecting their commitment to global development and poverty alleviation. This commitment was summarized in 8 goals, 14 targets, and 48 measurable indicators, which together comprise the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be attained by 2015. All of the MDGs contribute to public health, and three are directly health-related: MDGs 4 (reduce child mortality), 5 (improve maternal health), and 6 (combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases). Progress towards these goals has proved difficult. In an attempt to identify practical steps to achieve the MDGs, the UN Development Programme initiated the UN Millennium Project in 2002. This three-year "independent" advisory effort established 13 task forces to identify strategies and means of implementation to achieve each MDG target, and each task force produced a detailed report. A Task Force on Trade was created for MDG 8 to develop a global partnership for development. The mandate of the Task Force on Trade was to explore how the global trading system could be improved to support developing countries, with special attention to the needs of the poorest nations. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. 21 p. (Social Dimensions of Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa Working Paper No. 9)This paper starts with a look at the pattern of public expenditure in Africa during the adjustment decade, paying particular attention to the social sectors. It concludes that the poverty focus and the poverty reduction impact of public spending in Africa is very low. The reasons for this include a lack of funds for nonwage recurrent expenditures in core economic and social services, inadequate intrasectoral resource allocation from a poverty reduction point of view, and public expenditure management inefficiencies. Absolute levels of expenditure on essential services are low in Sub-Saharan Africa compared with richer countries. It is therefore concluded that increases in financial resources to support anti-poverty programs are needed in Africa. But raising the poverty focus of governmental expenditures also requires changes in the within sector and the functional composition of public spending, as well as improvements in the factors which hamper the effectiveness of program delivery. (author's)
Promoting the Millennium Development Goals in Asia and the Pacific. Meeting the challenges of poverty reduction.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2003.  p. (ST/ESCAP/2253)In September 2000 at the Millennium Summit the Member States of the United Nations issued the Millennium Declaration, committing themselves to a series of targets, most of which are to be achieved by 2015. Known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), they represent a framework for achieving human development and broadening its benefits. This overview provides a summary of the ESCAP-UNDP report, Promoting the Millennium Development Goals in Asia and the Pacific: Meeting the Challenges of Poverty Reduction. It analyses the prospects, challenges and opportunities for attaining the MDGs in the countries of Asia and the Pacific. Individual countries are preparing their own national MDG reports. A report such as this can also offer a valuable regional perspective and a basis for further action. It can, for example, help the countries in the region increasingly to cooperate and to learn from each other. And it should also be of value to people outside the region who want to learn more about Asia and the Pacific and how the region has succeeded in swiftly reducing mass poverty and sustaining rapid economic growth and social change. The report emphasizes that the prime responsibility for achieving the MDGs lies with individual countries. Countries in the region should, however, also be able to count on regional and international partnerships, and they would certainly benefit from changes in the global system and the global economy. Nevertheless, their success will depend ultimately on national commitment and on the quality and thoughtfulness of national decisions. (excerpt)